Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6002

Search results for: flow patterns

6002 Comparison on Electrode and Ground Arrangements Effect on Heat Transfer under Electric Force in a Channel and a Cavity Flow

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya, Chainarong Chaktranond, Phadungsak Rattanadecho


This study numerically investigates the effects of Electrohydrodynamic on flow patterns and heat transfer enhancement within a cavity which is on the lower wall of channel. In this simulation, effects of using ground wire and ground plate on the flow patterns are compared. Moreover, the positions of electrode wire respecting with ground are tested in the range of angles θ = 0 - 180°. High electrical voltage exposes to air is 20 kV. Bulk mean velocity and temperature of inlet air are controlled at 0.1 m/s and 60°C, respectively. The result shows when electric field is applied, swirling flow is appeared in the channel. In addition, swirling flow patterns in the main flow of using ground plate are widely spreader than that of using ground wire. Moreover, direction of swirling flow also affects the flow pattern and heat transfer in a cavity. These cause the using ground wire to give the maximum temperature and heat transfer higher than using ground plate. Furthermore, when the angle is at θ = 60°, high shear flow effect is obtained. This results show high strength of swirling flow and effective heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: swirling flow, heat transfer, electrohydrodynamic, numerical analysis

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6001 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat


The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
6000 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh


Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: scour, bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5999 Liquid-Liquid Plug Flow Characteristics in Microchannel with T-Junction

Authors: Anna Yagodnitsyna, Alexander Kovalev, Artur Bilsky


The efficiency of certain technological processes in two-phase microfluidics such as emulsion production, nanomaterial synthesis, nitration, extraction processes etc. depends on two-phase flow regimes in microchannels. For practical application in chemistry and biochemistry it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a large variety of fluids and channel geometries. In the case of immiscible liquids, the plug flow is a typical and optimal regime for chemical reactions and needs to be predicted by empirical data or correlations. In this work flow patterns of immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a rectangular microchannel with T-junction are investigated. Three liquid-liquid flow systems are considered, viz. kerosene – water, paraffin oil – water and castor oil – paraffin oil. Different flow patterns such as parallel flow, slug flow, plug flow, dispersed (droplet) flow, and rivulet flow are observed for different velocity ratios. New flow pattern of the parallel flow with steady wavy interface (serpentine flow) has been found. It is shown that flow pattern maps based on Weber numbers for different liquid-liquid systems do not match well. Weber number multiplied by Ohnesorge number is proposed as a parameter to generalize flow maps. Flow maps based on this parameter are superposed well for all liquid-liquid systems of this work and other experiments. Plug length and velocity are measured for the plug flow regime. When dispersed liquid wets channel walls plug length cannot be predicted by known empirical correlations. By means of particle tracking velocimetry technique instantaneous velocity fields in a plug flow regime were measured. Flow circulation inside plug was calculated using velocity data that can be useful for mass flux prediction in chemical reactions.

Keywords: flow patterns, hydrodynamics, liquid-liquid flow, microchannel

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5998 Convective Boiling of CO₂ in Macro and Mini-Channels

Authors: Adonis Menezes, Julio C. Passos


The present work deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation of the convective boiling of CO₂ in macro and mini-channels. A review of the state of the art of convective boiling studies in mini-channels and conventional channels for operating with CO₂ was carried out, with special attention to the flow patterns and pressure drop maps in single-phase and two-phase flows. To carry out an experimental analysis of the convective boiling of CO₂, a properly instrumented experimental bench was built, which allows a parametric analysis for different thermodynamic conditions, such as mass velocities between 200 and 1300 kg/(m².s), pressures between 20 and 70bar, temperature monitoring at the entrance of the mini-channels, heat flow and pressure drop in the test section. The visualization of flow patterns was possible with the use of a high-speed CMOS camera. The results obtained are in line with those found in the literature, both for flow patterns and for the heat transfer coefficient.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, convective boiling, CO₂, mini-channels

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5997 Visualized Flow Patterns around and inside a Two-Sided Wind-Catcher in the Presence of Upstream Structures

Authors: M. Afshin, A. Sohankar, M. Dehghan Manshadi, M. R. Daneshgar, G. R. Dehghan Kamaragi


In this paper, the influence of an upstream structure on the flow pattern within and around the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation in this case is dependent on the presence of upstream objects. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns inside and outside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream object reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.

Keywords: natural ventilation, smoke flow visualization, two-sided wind-catcher, flow patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
5996 A Comparative CFD Study on the Hemodynamics of Flow through an Idealized Symmetric and Asymmetric Stenosed Arteries

Authors: B. Prashantha, S. Anish


The aim of the present study is to computationally evaluate the hemodynamic factors which affect the formation of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture in the human artery. An increase of atherosclerosis disease in the artery causes geometry changes, which results in hemodynamic changes such as flow separation, reattachment, and adhesion of new cells (chemotactic) in the artery. Hence, geometry plays an important role in the determining the nature of hemodynamic patterns. Influence of stenosis in the non-bifurcating artery, under pulsatile flow condition, has been studied on an idealized geometry. Analysis of flow through symmetric and asymmetric stenosis in the artery revealed the significance of oscillating shear index (OSI), flow separation, low WSS zones and secondary flow patterns on plaque formation. The observed characteristic of flow in the post-stenotic region highlight the importance of plaque eccentricity on the formation of secondary stenosis on the arterial wall.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, oscillatory shear index, stenosis nature, wall shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
5995 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: cell seeding, CFD, flow patterns, modelling, perfusion systems, scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
5994 High Pressure Multiphase Flow Experiments: The Impact of Pressure on Flow Patterns Using an X-Ray Tomography Visualisation System

Authors: Sandy Black, Calum McLaughlin, Alessandro Pranzitelli, Marc Laing


Multiphase flow structures of two-phase multicomponent fluids were experimentally investigated in a large diameter high-pressure pipeline up to 130 bar at TÜV SÜD’s National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Multiphase Facility. One of the main objectives of the experimental test campaign was to evaluate the impact of pressure on multiphase flow patterns as much of the existing information is based on low-pressure measurements. The experiments were performed in a horizontal and vertical orientation in both 4-inch and 6-inch pipework using nitrogen, ExxsolTM D140 oil, and a 6% aqueous solution of NaCl at incremental pressures from 10 bar to 130 bar. To visualise the detailed structure of the flow of the entire cross-section of the pipe, a fast response X-ray tomography system was used. A wide range of superficial velocities from 0.6 m/s to 24.0 m/s for gas and 0.04 m/s and 6.48 m/s for liquid was examined to evaluate different flow regimes. The results illustrated the suppression of instabilities between the gas and the liquid at the measurement location and that intermittent or slug flow was observed less frequently as the pressure was increased. CFD modellings of low and high-pressure simulations were able to successfully predict the likelihood of intermittent flow; however, further tuning is necessary to predict the slugging frequency. The dataset generated is unique as limited datasets exist above 100 bar and is of considerable value to multiphase flow specialists and numerical modellers.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, high pressure, multiphase, X-ray tomography

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5993 Prediction of Critical Flow Rate in Tubular Heat Exchangers for the Onset of Damaging Flow-Induced Vibrations

Authors: Y. Khulief, S. Bashmal, S. Said, D. Al-Otaibi, K. Mansour


The prediction of flow rates at which the vibration-induced instability takes place in tubular heat exchangers due to cross-flow is of major importance to the performance and service life of such equipment. In this paper, the semi-analytical model for square tube arrays was extended and utilized to study the triangular tube patterns. A laboratory test rig with instrumented test section is used to measure the fluidelastic coefficients to be used for tuning the mathematical model. The test section can be made of any bundle pattern. In this study, two test sections were constructed for both the normal triangular and the rotated triangular tube arrays. The developed scheme is utilized in predicting the onset of flow-induced instability in the two triangular tube arrays. The results are compared to those obtained for two other bundle configurations. The results of the four different tube patterns are viewed in the light of TEMA predictions. The comparison demonstrated that TEMA guidelines are more conservative in all configurations considered

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, cross-flow, heat exchangers,

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5992 3D Modeling of Flow and Sediment Transport in Tanks with the Influence of Cavity

Authors: A. Terfous, Y. Liu, A. Ghenaim, P. A. Garambois


With increasing urbanization worldwide, it is crucial to sustainably manage sediment flows in urban networks and especially in stormwater detention basins. One key aspect is to propose optimized designs for detention tanks in order to best reduce flood peak flows and in the meantime settle particles. It is, therefore, necessary to understand complex flows patterns and sediment deposition conditions in stormwater detention basins. The aim of this paper is to study flow structure and particle deposition pattern for a given tank geometry in view to control and maximize sediment deposition. Both numerical simulation and experimental works were done to investigate the flow and sediment distribution in a storm tank with a cavity. As it can be indicated, the settle distribution of the particle in a rectangular tank is mainly determined by the flow patterns and the bed shear stress. The flow patterns in a rectangular tank differ with different geometry, entrance flow rate and the water depth. With the changing of flow patterns, the bed shear stress will change respectively, which also play an influence on the particle settling. The accumulation of the particle in the bed changes the conditions at the bottom, which is ignored in the investigations, however it worth much more attention, the influence of the accumulation of the particle on the sedimentation should be important. The approach presented here is based on the resolution of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations to account for turbulent effects and also a passive particle transport model. An analysis of particle deposition conditions is presented in this paper in terms of flow velocities and turbulence patterns. Then sediment deposition zones are presented thanks to the modeling with particle tracking method. It is shown that two recirculation zones seem to significantly influence sediment deposition. Due to the possible overestimation of particle trap efficiency with standard wall functions and stick conditions, further investigations seem required for basal boundary conditions based on turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress. These observations are confirmed by experimental investigations processed in the laboratory.

Keywords: storm sewers, sediment deposition, numerical simulation, experimental investigation

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5991 High Viscous Oil–Water Flow: Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: A. Archibong-Eso, J. Shi, Y Baba, S. Alagbe, W. Yan, H. Yeung


This study presents over 100 experiments conducted in a 25.4 mm internal diameter (ID) horizontal pipeline. Oil viscosity ranging from 3.5 Pa.s–5.0 Pa.s are used with superficial velocities of oil and water ranging from 0.06 to 0.55 m/s and 0.01 m/s to 1.0 m/s, respectively. Pressure gradient measurements and flow pattern observations are discussed. Numerical simulation of some flow conditions is performed using the commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent® and the simulation results are compared with experimental results. Results indicate that CFD numerical simulation performed moderately well in predicting the flow configurations observed in this study while discrepancies were observed in the pressure gradient predictions.

Keywords: flow patterns, plug, pressure gradient, rivulet

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5990 Experimental Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Used for Pharyngeal Flow Patterns during Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Authors: Pragathi Gurumurthy, Christina Hagen, Patricia Ulloa, Martin A. Koch, Thorsten M. Buzug


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder where the patient suffers a disturbed airflow during sleep due to partial or complete occlusion of the pharyngeal airway. Recently, numerical simulations have been used to better understand the mechanism of pharyngeal collapse. However, to gain confidence in the solutions so obtained, an experimental validation is required. Therefore, in this study an experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) used for the study of human pharyngeal flow patterns during OSA is performed. A stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equation solved using the finite element method was used to numerically study the flow patterns in a computed tomography-based human pharynx model. The inlet flow rate was set to 250 ml/s and such that a flat profile was maintained at the inlet. The outlet pressure was set to 0 Pa. The experimental technique used for the validation of CFD of fluid flow patterns is phase contrast-MRI (PC-MRI). Using the same computed tomography data of the human pharynx as in the simulations, a phantom for the experiment was 3 D printed. Glycerol (55.27% weight) in water was used as a test fluid at 25°C. Inflow conditions similar to the CFD study were simulated using an MRI compatible flow pump (CardioFlow-5000MR, Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies). The entire experiment was done on a 3 T MR system (Ingenia, Philips) with 108 channel body coil using an RF-spoiled, gradient echo sequence. A comparison of the axial velocity obtained in the pharynx from the numerical simulations and PC-MRI shows good agreement. The region of jet impingement and recirculation also coincide, therefore validating the numerical simulations. Hence, the experimental validation proves the reliability and correctness of the numerical simulations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, experimental validation, phase contrast-MRI, obstructive sleep apnea

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
5989 Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints

Authors: Zongjie Wang, Zhizhong Guo


While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.

Keywords: optimal power flow, time period, security, economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
5988 Helical Motions Dynamics and Hydraulics of River Channel Confluences

Authors: Ali Aghazadegan, Ali Shokria, Julia Mullarneya, Jon Tunnicliffe


River channel confluences are dynamic systems with branching structures that exhibit a high degree of complexity both in natural and man-made open channel networks. Recent and past fields and modeling have investigated the river dynamics modeling of confluent based on a series of over-simplified assumptions (i.e. straight tributary channel with a bend with a 90° junction angle). Accurate assessment of such systems is important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and river engineering processes. Despite their importance, there has been little study of the hydrodynamics characteristics of river confluences, and the link between flow hydrodynamics and confluence morphodynamics in the confluence is still incompletely understood. This paper studies flow structures in confluences, morphodynamics and deposition patterns in 30 and 90 degrees confluences with different flow conditions. The results show that the junction angle is primarily the key factor for the determination of the confluence bed morphology and sediment pattern, while the discharge ratio is a secondary factor. It also shows that super elevation created by mixing flows is a key function of the morphodynamics patterns.

Keywords: helical flow, river confluence, bed morphology , secondary flows, shear layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5987 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge


Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
5986 Estimating Knowledge Flow Patterns of Business Method Patents with a Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Yoonjung An, Yongtae Park


Knowledge flows are a critical source of faster technological progress and stouter economic growth. Knowledge flows have been accelerated dramatically with the establishment of a patent system in which each patent is required by law to disclose sufficient technical information for the invention to be recreated. Patent analysis, thus, has been widely used to help investigate technological knowledge flows. However, the existing research is limited in terms of both subject and approach. Particularly, in most of the previous studies, business method (BM) patents were not covered although they are important drivers of knowledge flows as other patents. In addition, these studies usually focus on the static analysis of knowledge flows. Some use approaches that incorporate the time dimension, yet they still fail to trace a true dynamic process of knowledge flows. Therefore, we investigate dynamic patterns of knowledge flows driven by BM patents using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). An HMM is a popular statistical tool for modeling a wide range of time series data, with no general theoretical limit in regard to statistical pattern classification. Accordingly, it enables characterizing knowledge patterns that may differ by patent, sector, country and so on. We run the model in sets of backward citations and forward citations to compare the patterns of knowledge utilization and knowledge dissemination.

Keywords: business method patents, dynamic pattern, Hidden-Markov Model, knowledge flow

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5985 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language

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5984 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker


Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

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5983 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop in Core Annular Horizontal Pipe Flow

Authors: John Abish, Bibin John


Liquid-liquid flow in horizontal pipe is investigated in order to reveal the flow patterns arising from the co-existed flow of oil and water. The main focus of the study is to identify the feasibility of reducing the pumping power requirements of petroleum transportation lines by having an annular flow of water around the thick oil core. This idea makes oil transportation cheaper and easier. The present study uses computational fluid dynamics techniques to model oil-water flows with liquids of similar density and varying viscosity. The simulation of the flow is conducted using commercial package Ansys Fluent. Flow domain modeling and grid generation accomplished through ICEM CFD. The horizontal pipe is modeled with two different inlets and meshed with O-Grid mesh. The standard k-ε turbulence scheme along with the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase modeling method is used to simulate the oil-water flow. Transient flow simulations carried out for a total period of 30s showed significant reduction in pressure drop while employing core annular flow concept. This study also reveals the effect of viscosity ratio, mass flow rates of individual fluids and ration of superficial velocities on the pressure drop across the pipe length. Contours of velocity and volume fractions are employed along with pressure predictions to assess the effectiveness of this proposed concept quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The outcome of the present study is found to be very relevant for the petrochemical industries.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, core-annular flows, frictional flow resistance, oil transportation, pressure drop

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5982 Impact of Fluid Flow Patterns on Metastable Zone Width of Borax in Dual Radial Impeller Crystallizer at Different Impeller Spacings

Authors: A. Čelan, M. Ćosić, D. Rušić, N. Kuzmanić


Conducting crystallization in an agitated vessel requires a proper selection of mixing parameters that would result in a production of crystals of specific properties. In dual impeller systems, which are characterized by a more complex hydrodynamics due to the possible fluid flow interactions, revealing a clear link between mixing parameters and crystallization kinetics is still an open issue. The aim of this work is to establish this connection by investigating how fluid flow patterns, generated by two impellers mounted on the same shaft, reflect on metastable zone width of borax decahydrate, one of the most important parameters of the crystallization process. Investigation was carried out in a 15-dm3 bench scale batch cooling crystallizer with an aspect ratio (H/T) equal to 1.3. For this reason, two radial straight blade turbines (4-SBT) were used for agitation. Experiments were conducted at different impeller spacings at the state of complete suspension. During the process of an unseeded batch cooling crystallization, solution temperature and supersaturation were continuously monitored what enabled a determination of the metastable zone width. Hydrodynamic conditions in the vessel achieved at different impeller spacings investigated were analyzed in detail. This was done firstly by measuring the mixing time required to attain the desired level of homogeneity. Secondly, fluid flow patterns generated in a described dual impeller system were both photographed and simulated by VisiMix Turbulent software. Also, a comparison of these two visualization methods was performed. Experimentally obtained results showed that metastable zone width is definitely affected by the hydrodynamics in the crystallizer. This means that this crystallization parameter can be controlled not only by adjusting the saturation temperature or cooling rate, as is usually done, but also by choosing a suitable impeller spacing that will result in a formation of crystals of wanted size distribution.

Keywords: dual impeller crystallizer, fluid flow pattern, metastable zone width, mixing time, radial impeller

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5981 Effect of Prandtl Number on Flow and Heat Transfer Across a Confined Equilateral Triangular Cylinder

Authors: Tanveer Rasool, A. K. Dhiman


The paper reports 2-D numerical study used to investigate the effect of changing working fluids with Prandtl numbers 0.71, 10 and 50 on the flow and convective heat transfer across an equilateral triangular cylinder placed in a horizontal channel with its apex facing the flow. Numerical results have been generated for fixed blockage ratio of 50% and for three Reynolds numbers of 50, 75, and 100 for each Prandtl numbers respectively. The studies show that for above range of Reynolds numbers, the overall drag coefficient is insensitive to the Prandtl number changes while as the heat transfer characteristics change drastically with changing Prandtl number of the working fluid. The results generated are in complete agreement with the previous literature available.

Keywords: Prandtl number, Reynolds number, drag coefficient, flow and isothermal patterns

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5980 A Study on Urine Flow Characteristics in Ureter with Fluid-Structure Interaction

Authors: Myoung Je Song


Ureteral stent insertion is being used as one of the clinical interventional treatments due to stenosis and/or obstruction in the ureter. For the development of the ureteral stents, we have to know the flow patterns with and without peristalsis in the ureter. The purpose of this study is to understand the flow characteristics and movement of the ureter for the ureter model according to the presence or absence of peristalsis and to use it as fundamental information to design the optimal ureteral stent. In this study, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FSI (Fluid-Structure Interaction) approaches were applied and compared the flow characteristics in the ureter. The distribution of streamlines was different in the near ureteropelvic junction. As a result of analyzing the area change of the ureter, the area change was large at the frontal and posterior ends, and the frontal and posterior aspects of the area change were reversed. There was no significant difference in the flow rate at the ureter outlet, and the movement of the ureter was larger when peristalsis was considered. Finally, as an introductory stage for the development of ureteral stents, basic information about the ureters according to the presence or absence of peristalsis is acquired.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluid-structure interaction, peristalsis, urine flow

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5979 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

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5978 Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence

Authors: Rafik Bouakkaz


A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, heat transfer, square cylinder, inclination angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
5977 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç


Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
5976 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho


Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
5975 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda


In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
5974 An Analysis of Sequential Pattern Mining on Databases Using Approximate Sequential Patterns

Authors: J. Suneetha, Vijayalaxmi


Sequential Pattern Mining involves applying data mining methods to large data repositories to extract usage patterns. Sequential pattern mining methodologies used to analyze the data and identify patterns. The patterns have been used to implement efficient systems can recommend on previously observed patterns, in making predictions, improve usability of systems, detecting events, and in general help in making strategic product decisions. In this paper, identified performance of approximate sequential pattern mining defines as identifying patterns approximately shared with many sequences. Approximate sequential patterns can effectively summarize and represent the databases by identifying the underlying trends in the data. Conducting an extensive and systematic performance over synthetic and real data. The results demonstrate that ApproxMAP effective and scalable in mining large sequences databases with long patterns.

Keywords: multiple data, performance analysis, sequential pattern, sequence database scalability

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5973 Estimation and Forecasting Debris Flow Phenomena on the Highway of the 'TRACECA' Corridor

Authors: Levan Tsulukidze


The paper considers debris flow phenomena and forecasting of them in the corridor of ‘TRACECA’ on the example of river Naokhrevistkali, as well as the debris flow -type channel passing between the villages of Vale-2 and Naokhrevi. As a result of expeditionary and reconnaissance investigations, as well as using empiric dependencies, the debris flow expenditure has been estimated in case of different debris flow provisions.

Keywords: debris flow, Traceca corridor, forecasting, river Naokhrevistkali

Procedia PDF Downloads 275