Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: macrofungi

7 Three Macrofungi Taxa Records of Basidiomycota from Turkey

Authors: Ahmet Afyon, Dursun Yagiz, Kutret Gezer, Aziz Turkoglu

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to contribute to Turkey’s macrofungus flora. The fungi samples forming the study material were collected from Afyonkarahisar province in 2009. The photos of mushrooms were taken in their own habitats. Their tastes, odors and clours were determined. These samples were brought to the laboratory. The microscopic properties of fungi were determined in the laboratory. The fungi were identified according to their macroscopic and microscopic features with the help of written literature. The identified macrofungi are; Limacella furnace (Letell.) E.-J. Gilbert from the Amanitaceae familia, Marasmiellus vaiillantii (Pers.) Singer from Omphalotaceae familia, Mycena flos-nivium Kuhner from Mycenaceae familia. With this study, it has been contributed to Turkey’s macrofungi flora and biodiversity.

Keywords: Afyonkarahisar, macrofungi, records, Turkey

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6 The Effect of Some Macrofungi Extracts on Cytoplasmic Membrane of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria by Flow Cytometry

Authors: Yener Tekeli, Hayri Baba

Abstract:

The natural active compounds found in medicinal plants are belong to various chemical structures including polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, essential oils, and vitamins and some of these compounds have anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity. However, these compounds have been little known about mechanisms to confer antibacterial drug resistance. In this study; some macrofungi extracts (Pholiota lucifera, Gnaoderma applanatum and Pleurotus ostreatus) were investigated for their abilities to enhance bacterial permeability by flow cytometry. This experiments exhibited enhancement of these extracts to disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane of living bacterial (Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli) cells. These experiments were designed to detect uptake of PI&SYT by enhancing with a ranged concentration of herb extracts.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, flow cytometry, macrofungi, multidrug resistant

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5 Effects of Conversion of Indigenous Forest to Plantation Forest on the Diversity of Macro-Fungi in Kereita Forest, Kikuyu Escarpment, Kenya

Authors: Susan Mwai, Mary Muchane, Peter Wachira, Sheila Okoth, Muchai Muchane, Halima Saado

Abstract:

Tropical forests harbor a wide range of biodiversity and rich macro-fungi diversity compared to the temperate regions in the World. However, biodiversity is facing the threat of extinction following the rate of forest loss taking place before proper study and documentation of macrofungi is achieved. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of converting indigenous habitat to plantation forest on macrofungi diversity. To achieve the objective of this study, an inventory focusing on macro-fungi diversity was conducted within Kereita block in Kikuyu Escarpment forest which is on the southern side of Aberdare mountain range. The macrofungi diversity was conducted in the indigenous forest and in more than 15 year old Patula plantation forest , during the wet (long rain season, December 2014) and dry (Short rain season, May, 2015). In each forest type, 15 permanent (20m x 20m) sampling plots distributed across three (3) forest blocks were used. Both field and laboratory methods involved recording abundance of fruiting bodies, taxonomic identity of species and analysis of diversity indices and measures in terms of species richness, density and diversity. R statistical program was used to analyze for species diversity and Canoco 4.5 software for species composition. A total number of 76 genera in 28 families and 224 species were encountered in both forest types. The most represented taxa belonged to the Agaricaceae (16%), Polyporaceae (12%), Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae (7%) families respectively. Most of the recorded macro-fungi were saprophytic, mostly colonizing the litter 38% and wood 34% based substrates, which was followed by soil organic dwelling species (17%). Ecto-mycorrhiza fungi (5%) and parasitic fungi (2%) were the least encountered. The data established that indigenous forests (native ecosystems) hosts a wide range of macrofungi assemblage in terms of density (2.6 individual fruit bodies / m2), species richness (8.3 species / plot) and species diversity (1.49/ plot level) compared to the plantation forest. The Conversion of native forest to plantation forest also interfered with species composition though did not alter species diversity. Seasonality was also shown to significantly affect the diversity of macro-fungi and 61% of the total species being present during the wet season. Based on the present findings, forested ecosystems in Kenya hold diverse macro-fungi community which warrants conservation measures.

Keywords: diversity, Indigenous forest, macro-fungi, plantation forest, season

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4 Cytotoxicity of 13 South African Macrofungal Species and Mechanism/s of Action against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Gerhardt Boukes, Maryna Van De Venter, Sharlene Govender

Abstract:

Macrofungi have been used for the past two thousand years in Asian countries, and more recently in Western countries, for their medicinal properties. Biological activities include antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and immunomodulatory to name a few. Several biologically active compounds have been identified and isolated. Macrofungal research in Africa is poorly documented and to the best of our knowledge non-existent. South Africa has a rich macrofungal biodiversity, which includes endemic and exotic macrofungal species. Ethanolic extracts of 13 macrofungal species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs, were prepared and screened for cytotoxicity against a panel of seven cell lines, including A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HT-29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), MIA PaCa-2 (human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma) and Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial) cells using MTT. Cell lines were chosen according to the most prevalent cancer types affecting males and females in South Africa and globally, and the mutations they contain. Preliminary results have shown that three of the macrofungal genera, i.e. Fomitopsis, Gymnopilus and Pycnoporus, have shown cytotoxic activity, ranging between IC50 ~20 and 200 µg/mL. The molecular mechanism of action contributing to cell death investigated and being investigated include apoptosis (i.e. DNA cell cycle arrest, caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial membrane potential), autophagy (i.e. acridine orange and LC3B staining) and ER stress (i.e. thioflavin T staining and caspase-12) in the presence of melphalan, chloroquine and thapsigargin/tuncamycin as positive controls, respectively. The genus, Pycnoporus, has shown the best cytotoxicity of the three macrofungal genera. Future work will focus on the identification and isolation of novel active compounds and elucidating the mechanism/s of action.

Keywords: cancer, cytotoxicity, macrofungi, mechanism/s of action

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3 Nutrient and Trace Element Content in Some Wild Boletus Taxa from Marmara Region (Turkey)

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Hasan Hüseyin Doğan, Öyküm Öztürk

Abstract:

Element contents were analysed in some wild Boletus taxa [Boletus fechtnerii, Boletus edulis, Boletus dupainii, Boletus calopus, Boletus pulverulentus, Boletus rhodoxanthus] from Marmara region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Boletus species. The highest Fe, Ca, Ni, Cd, and Cr concentrations were determined as 4927, 1927, 3.56, 2.69 and 2.63 mg.kg-1 in B. fechtnerii respectively. B. dupainii has highest K, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentrations as 41910, 2757, 476, and 125 mg.kg-1 respectively, whereas B. calopus has highest P, Cu, and B concentrations as 4982, 48.6, and 28.3 mg.kg-1 respectively. B. edulis has highest Na and S contents as 1666 and 5544 mg.kg-1 respectively. Although B. pulverulentus has only the highest Al content as 871 mg.kg-1, on the other hand B. rhodoxanthus has highest Mo concentrations as 0.86 mg.kg-1.

Keywords: Boletus, element, macrofungi, Turkey

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2 Element Content in Some Wild Agaricus and Agrocybe Taxa from Marmara Region (Turkey)

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Hasan Hüseyi̇n Doğan

Abstract:

Twenty-two element contents were analyzed in five wild Agaricus and Agrocybe taxa [Agaricus bresadolanus Bohus, Agaricus essettei Bon, Agaricus xanthoderma Genev. Agrocybe paludosa (J.E. Lange) Kühner & Romagn. Ex Bon and Agrocybe praecox (Pers.) Fayod] from Marmara region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Agaricus and Agrocybe species. The highest Pb and P concentrations were determined as 16.74 and 1.501 mg.kg-1 in A. essettei and A.bresadolanus respectively. Ag, P, and Hg concentrations were determined as 30685, 1,501, and 5978 mg.kg-1 in A. bresadolanus respectively. A. essettei has highest Ni, Cu, and Mn concentrations as 37.1, 43.63 and 1476 mg.kg-1 respectively, whereas A. praecox has highest Mo, Ni and P as 0.54, 10.20 and 27.9 mg.kg-1 respectively. A. paludosa has highest Zn, Cd, and Ba concentration as 336.8, 2.26 and 571.5 mg.kg-1 respectively. The highest K concentration was found in A. xanthoderma with 5.31 mg.kg-1. According to Who and FAO critters, identified metals in Agaricus and Agrocybe genera are not harmful to People if they would be consumed.

Keywords: agaricus, element, macrofungi, Turkey

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1 Element Content in Some Wild Amantia Taxa from Marmara Region, Turkey

Authors: Hasan Hüseyin Doğan, Murad Aydın Şanda

Abstract:

Element contents were analyzed in twelve wild Amanita taxa [A. caesarea (Scop.) Pers., A. citrina (Schaeff.) Pers., A. excelsa (Fr.) Bertill., A. franchetii (Boud.) Fayod, A. gemmata (Fr.) Bertill., A. mairei Foley, A. muscaria (L.) Lam., A. pantherina (DC.) Krombh., A. phalloides (Fr.) Link, A. rubescens Pers., A. vaginata (Bull.) Lam., and A. verna (Bull.) Lam.] from Marmara Region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Amanita species. The highest Pb and P concentrations were determined as 15.11 and 0.861 mg.kg-1 in A. caesarea. Fe, Co, As, Sr, Ca, Mg, Al and Na concentrations were determined as 0.832, 4.56, 15.6, 18.9, 0.44, 0.253 and 0.190 mg.kg-1 in A. gemmata respectively. A. muscaria has highest Mo, Th, Sb, V, Cr, and B concentrations as 1.45, 1.17, 1.06, 44, 75, and 7 mg.kg-1 respectively, whereas A. rubescens has highest Zn, Ba, K, S, and Se as 430.6, 65.7, 5.47, 1.16, 11.5 mg.kg-1 respectively. A. muscaria has highest Hg concentrations as 5855 µg.kg-1.The highest Mn concentration were found in A. pantherina with 1176 mg.kg-1, the highest Cd were found in A. phalloides as 10.77 mg.kg-1. In contrast to A. verna has highest Ag and Au content as 77728 and 192 µg.kg-1. Although A. citrina has only the highest Ni content as 75.9 mg.kg-1and A. vaginata has Cu content as 67.04 mg.kg-1 on the other hand A. phalloides has highest Cd concentrations as 10.77 mg.kg-1.

Keywords: amanita, element, macrofungi, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 318