Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: Joshua Mancini

61 De Novo Design of a Minimal Catalytic Di-Nickel Peptide Capable of Sustained Hydrogen Evolution

Authors: Saroj Poudel, Joshua Mancini, Douglas Pike, Jennifer Timm, Alexei Tyryshkin, Vikas Nanda, Paul Falkowski

Abstract:

On the early Earth, protein-metal complexes likely harvested energy from a reduced environment. These complexes would have been precursors to the metabolic enzymes of ancient organisms. Hydrogenase is an essential enzyme in most anaerobic organisms for the reduction and oxidation of hydrogen in the environment and is likely one of the earliest evolved enzymes. To attempt to reinvent a precursor to modern hydrogenase, we computationally designed a short thirteen amino acid peptide that binds the often-required catalytic transition metal Nickel in hydrogenase. This simple complex can achieve hundreds of hydrogen evolution cycles using light energy in a broad range of temperature and pH. Biophysical and structural investigations strongly indicate the peptide forms a di-nickel active site analogous to Acetyl-CoA synthase, an ancient protein central to carbon reduction in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and capable of hydrogen evolution. This work demonstrates that prior to the complex evolution of multidomain enzymes, early peptide-metal complexes could have catalyzed energy transfer from the environment on the early Earth and enabled the evolution of modern metabolism

Keywords: hydrogenase, prebiotic enzyme, metalloenzyme, computational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
60 Transcending or Going beyond the Concept of Race

Authors: Ovett Nwosimiri

Abstract:

Historically the concept of race has played a significant part in the existence of African philosophy. Race, as part of the historical events, has been used as a reason for colonization. In recent years, there has been a numerous work on the concept of race. Some philosophers have devoted their time to the discourse of race and to understand the ascription of the race. These philosophers have dedicated their time and energy to the concept of race. Philosophers, like Joshua Glasgow, W. E. B. Du Bois, Lucius Outlaw, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Naomi Zack, Emmanuel C. Eze and many others took up the task to explain the concept of race, and also to explain in their view whether the concept of race should be conserved or eliminated. According to the eliminativists, the concept of race should be eliminated. According to the conservationists, the concept of race should be conserved. The aim of this paper is to look at the possibility of transcending the concept of race. In order to do this, the paper will briefly explain Joshua Glasgow’ idea theory of ‘racial reconstructionism’, and it will propose a theory of ‘racial transcendentalism’ as a way of transcending the concept of race. The paper will argue that we should see the concept of race as a concept that has a future beyond the mere meaning and ideas that call for its elimination or conservation.

Keywords: conservationists, eliminativists, race, transcending

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
59 The Relationship between Ruins and Vegetation: Different Approaches during the Centuries and within the Various Disciplinary Fields, Investigation of Writings and Projects

Authors: Rossana Mancini

Abstract:

The charm of a ruin colonised by wild plants and flowers is part of Western culture. The relationship between ruins and vegetation involves a wide range of different fields of research. During the first phase of the research the most important writings and projects about this argument were investigated, to understand how the perception of the co-existence of ruins and vegetation has changed over time and to investigate the various different approaches that these different fields have adopted when tackling this issue. The paper presents some practical examples of projects carried out from the early 1900s on. The major result is that specifically regards conservation, the best attitude is the management of change, an inevitable process when it comes to the co-existence of ruins and nature and, particularly, ruins and vegetation. Limiting ourselves to adopting measures designed to stop, or rather slow down, the increasing level of entropy (and therefore disorder) may not be enough.

Keywords: ruins, vegetation, conservation, archaeology, architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
58 A Systematic Approach to Mitigate the Impact of Increased Temperature and Air Pollution in Urban Settings

Authors: Samain Sabrin, Joshua Pratt, Joshua Bryk, Maryam Karimi

Abstract:

Globally, extreme heat events have led to a surge in the number of heat-related moralities. These incidents are further exacerbated in high-density population centers due to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Varieties of anthropogenic activities such as unsupervised land surface modifications, expansion of impervious areas, and lack of use of vegetation are all contributors to an increase in the amount of heat flux trapped by an urban canopy which intensifies the UHI effect. This project aims to propose a systematic approach to measure the impact of air quality and increased temperature based on urban morphology in the selected metropolitan cities. This project will measure the impact of build environment for urban and regional planning using human biometeorological evaluations (mean radiant temperature, Tmrt). We utilized the Rayman model (capable of calculating short and long wave radiation fluxes affecting the human body) to estimate the Tmrt in an urban environment incorporating location and height of buildings and trees as a supplemental tool in urban planning, and street design. Our current results suggest a strong correlation between building height and increased surface temperature in megacities. This model will help with; 1. Quantify the impacts of the built environment and surface properties on surrounding temperature, 2. Identify priority urban neighborhoods by analyzing Tmrt and air quality data at pedestrian level, 3. Characterizing the need for urban green infrastructure or better urban planning- maximizing the cooling benefit from existing Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI), and 4. Developing a hierarchy of streets for new UGI integration and propose new UGI based on site characteristics and cooling potential.

Keywords: air quality, heat mitigation, human-biometeorological indices, increased temperature, mean radiant temperature, radiation flux, sustainable development, thermal comfort, urban canopy, urban planning

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57 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo

Abstract:

In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

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56 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi

Abstract:

The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: heterogeneous, settlement, foundation, seismic, technique

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55 Risk-Realistic Decision Support Intervention for Women in the Workplace

Authors: Joshua Midha

Abstract:

This paper provides an evaluation of an intervention designed to promote a risk-realistic environment for women in the workplace and regulate their risk-related decision-making. In past research, women -specifically women of color- are highly risk-averse, and this may prove to be an innate obstacle in gender progress in corporations. By helping women see the risks and the benefits and increasing potential benefits, we can increase the chances of success in the workplace. Our intervention was a success and significantly increased comfort, trust, and frequency in the use of decision-making skills in the workplace. In this paper, we explore the intervention, the methods, the results, and the implications.

Keywords: behavioral economics, decision support, risk, gender equality

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54 Evaluation of Mixtures of Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Aggregate in Road Subbases

Authors: Vahid Ayan, Joshua R Omer, Alireza Khavandi, Mukesh C Limbachiya

Abstract:

In Iran, utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregate has become a common practice in pavement rehabilitation during the last ten years. Such developments in highway engineering have necessitated several studies to clarify the technical and environmental feasibility of other alternative materials in road rehabilitation and maintenance. The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in asphalt pavements is one of the major goals of municipality of Tehran. Nevertheless little research has been done to examine the potential benefits of local RCA. The objective of this study is laboratory investigation of incorporating RCA into RAP for use in unbound subbase application. Laboratory investigation showed that 50%RCA+50%RAP is both technically and economically appropriate for subbase use.

Keywords: Roads & highways, Sustainability, Recycling & reuse of materials

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53 Radio-Guided Surgery with β− Radiation: Test on Ex-Vivo Specimens

Authors: E. Solfaroli Camillocci, C. Mancini-Terracciano, V. Bocci, A. Carollo, M. Colandrea, F. Collamati, M. Cremonesi, M. E. Ferrari, P. Ferroli, F. Ghielmetti, C. M. Grana, M. Marafini, S. Morganti, M. Patane, G. Pedroli, B. Pollo, L. Recchia, A. Russomando, M. Schiariti, M. Toppi, G. Traini, R. Faccini

Abstract:

A Radio-Guided Surgery technique exploiting β− emitting radio-tracers has been suggested to overcome the impact of the large penetration of γ radiation. The detection of electrons in low radiation background provides a clearer delineation of the margins of lesioned tissues. As a start, the clinical cases were selected between the tumors known to express receptors to a β− emitting radio-tracer: 90Y-labelled DOTATOC. The results of tests on ex-vivo specimens of meningioma brain tumor and abdominal neuroendocrine tumors are presented. Voluntary patients were enrolled according to the standard uptake value (SUV > 2 g/ml) and the expected tumor-to-non-tumor ratios (TNR∼10) estimated from PET images after administration of 68Ga-DOTATOC. All these tests validated this technique yielding a significant signal on the bulk tumor and a negligible background from the nearby healthy tissue. Even injecting as low as 1.4 MBq/kg of radiotracer, tumor remnants of 0.1 ml would be detectable. The negligible medical staff exposure was confirmed and among the biological wastes only urine had a significant activity.

Keywords: ex-vivo test, meningioma, neuroendocrine tumor, radio-guided surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
52 Resistance and Sub-Resistances of RC Beams Subjected to Multiple Failure Modes

Authors: F. Sangiorgio, J. Silfwerbrand, G. Mancini

Abstract:

Geometric and mechanical properties all influence the resistance of RC structures and may, in certain combination of property values, increase the risk of a brittle failure of the whole system. This paper presents a statistical and probabilistic investigation on the resistance of RC beams designed according to Eurocodes 2 and 8, and subjected to multiple failure modes, under both the natural variation of material properties and the uncertainty associated with cross-section and transverse reinforcement geometry. A full probabilistic model based on JCSS Probabilistic Model Code is derived. Different beams are studied through material nonlinear analysis via Monte Carlo simulations. The resistance model is consistent with Eurocode 2. Both a multivariate statistical evaluation and the data clustering analysis of outcomes are then performed. Results show that the ultimate load behaviour of RC beams subjected to flexural and shear failure modes seems to be mainly influenced by the combination of the mechanical properties of both longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups, and the tensile strength of concrete, of which the latter appears to affect the overall response of the system in a nonlinear way. The model uncertainty of the resistance model used in the analysis plays undoubtedly an important role in interpreting results.

Keywords: modelling, Monte Carlo simulations, probabilistic models, data clustering, reinforced concrete members, structural design

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
51 LCA of Waste Disposal from Olive Oil Production: Anaerobic Digestion and Conventional Disposal on Soil

Authors: T. Tommasi, E. Batuecas, G. Mancini, G. Saracco, D. Fino

Abstract:

Extra virgin olive-oil (EVO) production is an important economic activity for several countries, especially in the Mediterranean area such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia. The two major by-products from olive oil production, solid-liquid Olive Pomace (OP) and the Olive Mill Waste Waters (OMWW), are still mainly disposed on soil, in spite of the existence of legislation which already limits this practice. The present study compares the environmental impacts associated with two different scenarios for the management of waste from olive oil production through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The two alternative scenarios are: (I) Anaerobic Digestion and (II) current Disposal on soil. The analysis was performed through SimaPro software and the assessment of the impact categories was based on International Life Cycle Data and Cumulative Energy Demand methods. Both the scenarios are mostly related to the cultivation and harvesting phase and are highly dependent on the irrigation practice and related energy demand. Results from the present study clearly show that as the waste disposal on soil causes the worst environmental performance of all the impact categories here considered. Important environmental benefits have been identified when anaerobic digestion is instead chosen as the final treatment. It was consequently demonstrated that anaerobic digestion should be considered a feasible alternative for olive mills, to produce biogas from common olive oil residues, reducing the environmental burden and adding value to the olive oil production chain.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, waste management, agro-food waste, biogas

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50 Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules: A Tool for Analysis of Protein Structures

Authors: Yuting Wu, Faraz Choudhury, Daniel Benjamin, James Whalin, Joshua Blatz, Leon Shohet, Michael Sussman, Mark Richards

Abstract:

Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules (PLIMB) has been developed as a technology, which, together with mass spectrometry, measures three-dimensional structural characteristics of proteins. This technique uses hydroxyl radicals generated by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge to react with the solvent-accessible side chains of protein in an aqueous solution. In this work, we investigate the three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin using PLIMB. Additional modifications to these proteins, such as oxidation, fragmentations, and conformational changes caused by PLIMB are also explored. These results show that PLIMB, coupled with mass spectrometry, is an effective way to determine solvent access to hemoproteins. Furthermore, we show that many factors, including pH and the electrical parameters used to generate the plasma, have a significant influence on solvent accessibility.

Keywords: plasma, hemoglobin, myoglobin, solvent access

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49 Sustainable Design in the Use of Deployable Structures

Authors: Umweni Osahon Joshua, Anton Ianakiev

Abstract:

Deployable structures have been used in various scenarios from moving roofs in stadia, space antennae or booms. There has been a lot of literature relating deployable structures but with main focus on space applications. The complexities in the design of deployable structures may be the reason only few have been constructed for earth based solutions. This paper intends to explore the possibilities of integrating sustainable design concepts in deployable structures. Key aspects of sustainable design of structures as applicable to deployable structures have not been explored. Sustainable design of structures have mainly been concerned with static structures in the built environment. However, very little literature, concepts or framework has been drafted as it relates to deployable structures or their integration to static structures as a model for sustainable design. This article seeks to address this flaw in sustainable design for structural engineering and to provide a framework for designing structures in a sustainable manner. This framework will apply to deployable structures for earth-based environments as a form of disaster relief measures and also as part of static structures in the built environment.

Keywords: deployable structures, sustainable design, framework, earth-based environments

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48 Interdependencies Of Culture, Economy, And Resource Availability ’ As 'Determinants Of Spatial Inequality In Cities

Authors: Shahna KC, Ar. Belay Menon, Ar. Taniya Joshua

Abstract:

As globalization in the era progresses, spatial inequality is turned to be one of the major concerns; the main intent of the Study is to focus on if there is any interdependencies of culture economy and resource availability on creating spatial inequality in cities. The paper tries to establish the relationship between spatial inequality – the quality of life – the DETERMINANT TRIAD (culture, economy, resource availability). Slum area of Dharavi is taken to evaluate the influence of these determinants on the quality of life as spatial inequality is evident there. Interdependencies of the determinants on creating spatial inequality is evaluated. For this, It is understood that these three parameters, i.e., culture, economy, resource availability, are determinants of urban design, each from the social, economic, environmental domains of sustainability, respectively. And there are studies individually on each of these aspects, how they determine the urban spaces, and how influential on the whole process of urbanization. Now extending the study towards the interdependencies of these three so as to find out how these trilogy shapes the urban form and space.

Keywords: spatial inequality, culture, economy, resource availability, quality of life

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47 Hereditary Angioedema: Case Presentation and Review of Anaesthetic Implications

Authors: Joshua Chew, Vesa Cheng, David Thomson

Abstract:

Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) or C1 esterase deficiency is a relatively rare entity that has a potential for significant anesthetic complications. Methods: A literature review was performed of published cases of surgery in patients with HAE. Results were limited to English language only and cases were examined for management strategies and successful prevention of acute attacks. Results: The literature revealed the successful use of C1 esterase inhibitors as the most common agent in surgical prophylaxis therapy. Other therapeutic targets described included kallikrein inhibitors and bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. Conclusions: Therapeutic targets that exist for the management of acute attacks in HAE have been successfully employed in the setting of surgery. The data is currently limited and could not be used as a firm evidence base, but the limited outcomes seen are positive and reassuring for the prospective anesthetic management of this potentially fatal condition.

Keywords: anesthesia, C1 esterase deficiency, hereditary angioedema, surgical prophylaxis

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46 Application of Deep Learning in Colorization of LiDAR-Derived Intensity Images

Authors: Edgardo V. Gubatanga Jr., Mark Joshua Salvacion

Abstract:

Most aerial LiDAR systems have accompanying aerial cameras in order to capture not only the terrain of the surveyed area but also its true-color appearance. However, the presence of atmospheric clouds, poor lighting conditions, and aerial camera problems during an aerial survey may cause absence of aerial photographs. These leave areas having terrain information but lacking aerial photographs. Intensity images can be derived from LiDAR data but they are only grayscale images. A deep learning model is developed to create a complex function in a form of a deep neural network relating the pixel values of LiDAR-derived intensity images and true-color images. This complex function can then be used to predict the true-color images of a certain area using intensity images from LiDAR data. The predicted true-color images do not necessarily need to be accurate compared to the real world. They are only intended to look realistic so that they can be used as base maps.

Keywords: aerial LiDAR, colorization, deep learning, intensity images

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
45 Syndrome of Irreversible Lithium-Effectuated Neurotoxicity: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: David J. Thomson, Joshua C. J. Chew

Abstract:

Background: Syndrome of Irreversible Lithium-Effectuated Neurotoxicity (SILENT) is a rare complication of lithium toxicity that typically causes irreversible cerebellar dysfunction. These patients may require hemodialysis and extensive supports in the intensive care. Methods: A review was performed on the available literature of SILENT with a focus on current pathophysiological hypotheses and advances in treatment. Articles were restricted to the English language. Results: Although the exact mechanism is unclear, CNS demyelination, especially in the cerebellum, was seen on the brain biopsies of a proportion of patients. There is no definitive management of SILENT but instead current management is focused on primary and tertiary prevention – detection of those at risk, and rehabilitation post onset of neurological deficits. Conclusions: This review draws conclusions from a limited amount of available literature, most of which are isolated case reports. Greater awareness of SILENT and further investigation into the risk factors and pathogenesis are required so this serious and irreversible syndrome may be avoided.

Keywords: lithium toxicity, pathogenesis, SILENT, syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity

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44 Closed Loop Large Bowel Obstruction Due to Appendiceal Signet Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Joshua Teo, Leo Phan

Abstract:

Signet cell carcinoma of the appendix is the rarest and the most aggressive subtype of appendiceal malignancy, typically with non-specific presentations. We describe a case of a 62-year-old male with large bowel obstruction and CT demonstrating dilated large bowels from caecum to proximal sigmoid colon with pneumoperitoneum. Intra-operatively, closed-loop obstruction caused by dense adherence of sigmoid colon to caecum was noted, which had resulted in caecal perforation. Histopathology study indicated primary appendiceal malignancy of signet cell morphology with intra-peritoneal spread to the sigmoid colon. Large bowel obstruction from appendiceal malignancy has rarely been reported, and a similar presentation has not been described in the existing literature. When left-sided large bowel obstruction is suspected to be caused by a malignant stricture, it is essential to consider transperitoneal spread of appendiceal malignancy as potential aetiology, particularly in the elderly.

Keywords: appendiceal carcinoma, large bowel obstruction, signet ring cell cancer, caecal perforation

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43 Effect of Slag Application to Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield on Acid Sulphate Soils with Different Pyrite Depth

Authors: Richardo Y. E. Sihotang, Atang Sutandi, Joshua Ginting

Abstract:

The expansion of marginal soil such as acid sulphate soils for the development of staple crops, including rice was unavoidable. However, acid sulphate soils were less suitable for rice field due to the low fertility and the threats of pyrite oxidation. An experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design was designed to investigate the effect of slag in stabilizing soil reaction (pH), improving soil fertility and rice yield. Experiments were conducted in two locations with different pyrite depth. The results showed that slag application was able to decrease the exchangeable Al and available iron (Fe) as well as increase the soil pH, available-P, soil exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Furthermore, the slag application increased the plant nutrient uptakes, particularly N, P, K, followed by the increasing of rice yield significantly. Nutrients availability, nutrient uptake, and rice yield were higher in the shallow pyrite soil instead of the deep pyrite soil. In addition, slag application was economically feasible due to the ability to reduce standard fertilizer requirements.

Keywords: acid sulphate soils, available nutrients, pyrite, slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
42 Construction of Large Scale UAVs Using Homebuilt Composite Techniques

Authors: Brian J. Kozak, Joshua D. Shipman, Peng Hao Wang, Blake Shipp

Abstract:

The unmanned aerial system (UAS) industry is growing at a rapid pace. This growth has increased the demand for low cost, custom made and high strength unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The area of most growth is in the area of 25 kg to 200 kg vehicles. Vehicles this size are beyond the size and scope of simple wood and fabric designs commonly found in hobbyist aircraft. These high end vehicles require stronger materials to complete their mission. Traditional aircraft construction materials such as aluminum are difficult to use without machining or advanced computer controlled tooling. However, by using general aviation composite aircraft homebuilding techniques and materials, a large scale UAV can be constructed cheaply and easily. Furthermore, these techniques could be used to easily manufacture cost made composite shapes and airfoils that would be cost prohibitive when using metals. These homebuilt aircraft techniques are being demonstrated by the researchers in the construction of a 75 kg aircraft.

Keywords: composite aircraft, homebuilding, unmanned aerial system industry, UAS, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV

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41 Secondary Charged Fragments Tracking for On-Line Beam Range Monitoring in Particle Therapy

Authors: G. Traini, G. Battistoni, F. Collamati, E. De Lucia, R. Faccini, C. Mancini-Terracciano, M. Marafini, I. Mattei, S. Muraro, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, E. Solfaroli Camillocci, M. Toppi, S. M. Valle, C. Voena, V. Patera

Abstract:

In Particle Therapy (PT) treatments a large amount of secondary particles, whose emission point is correlated to the dose released in the crossed tissues, is produced. The measurement of the secondary charged fragments component could represent a valid technique to monitor the beam range during the PT treatments, that is a still missing item in the clinical practice. A sub-millimetrical precision on the beam range measurement is required to significantly optimise the technique and to improve the treatment quality. In this contribution, a detector, named Dose Profiler (DP), is presented. It is specifically planned to monitor on-line the beam range exploiting the secondary charged particles produced in PT Carbon ions treatment. In particular, the DP is designed to track the secondary fragments emitted at large angles with respect to the beam direction (mainly protons), with the aim to reconstruct the spatial coordinates of the fragment emission point extrapolating the measured track toward the beam axis. The DP is currently under development within of the INSIDE collaboration (Innovative Solutions for In-beam Dosimetry in hadrontherapy). The tracker is made by six layers (20 × 20 cm²) of BCF-12 square scintillating fibres (500 μm) coupled to Silicon Photo-Multipliers, followed by two plastic scintillator layers of 6 mm thickness. A system of front-end boards based on FPGAs arranged around the detector provides the data acquisition. The detector characterization with cosmic rays is currently undergoing, and a data taking campaign with protons will take place in May 2017. The DP design and the performances measured with using MIPs and protons beam will be reviewed.

Keywords: fragmentation, monitoring, particle therapy, tracking

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40 Retrospective Casenote Audit of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Maxillofacial Patients

Authors: Joshua Abraham, Craig Wales

Abstract:

Abstract—SIGN Guideline 122 recommends that all patients who are admitted to hospital are assessed for venous thromboembolism risk within 24 hours of admission. NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde provide guidance on this in the form of a proforma. Patients are then subsequently prescribed either thrombo-embolic-deterrent stockings (TEDS)/low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of VTE based on their score. A retrospective casenote audit of a random sample of fifty oncology and trauma inpatients at the QEUH in December 2019 was performed. 90% of patients had a risk assessment conducted as evidenced by a completed proforma. In 78% of these patients, the proforma fully completed. Overall 94% of patients had some for of thromboprophylaxis prescribed in the form of TEDS or LMWH. A lack of 100% compliance against the given standards highlighted potential implications for patient safety, but also medico-legal ramifications for staff. Clinical judgement can only be relied upon if there is written documentation as evidence. Further staff education and the suggestion of a written prompt to the clerk-in documentation will hopefully improve compliance, whilst a repeat audit should demonstrate any improvement.

Keywords: Maxillofacial , Thromboembolism, Thromboprophylaxis , Prescription

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39 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

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38 Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Cognitive Dissonance: The Influence of Assertive Conflict Management Strategy and Team Psychological Safety

Authors: Matthew P. Mancini, Vincent Ribiere

Abstract:

Today’s workers face more numerous and complex challenges and are required to be increasingly interdependent and faster learners. Knowledge sharing activities between people have been understood as a significant element affecting organizational innovation performance. While they do have the potential to spark cognitive conflict, disagreement is important from an organizational perspective because it can stimulate the development of new ideas and perhaps pave the way for creativity, innovation, and competitive advantage. How teams cope with the cognitive conflict dimension of knowledge sharing and the associated interpersonal risk is what captures our attention. Specifically, assertive conflict management strategies have a positive influence on knowledge sharing behaviors, and team psychological safety has a positive influence on knowledge sharing intention. This paper focuses on explaining the impact that these factors have on the shaping of an individual’s decision to engage or not in knowledge sharing activities. To accomplish this, we performed an empirical analysis on the results of our questionnaire about knowledge-sharing related conflict management and team psychological safety in pharmaceutical enterprises located in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, univariate analysis is used to characterize behavior regarding conflict management strategy into two groups. Group 1 presents assertive conflict management strategies and group 2 shows unassertive ones. Then, by using SEM methodology, we evaluated the relationships between them and the team psychological safety construct with the knowledge sharing process. The results of the SEM analysis show that assertive conflict management strategies affect the knowledge sharing process the most with a small, but significant effect from team psychological safety. The findings suggest that assertive conflict management strategies are just as important as knowledge sharing intentions for encouraging knowledge sharing behavior. This paper provides clear insights into how employees manage the sharing of their knowledge in the face of conflict and interpersonal risk and the relative importance of these factors in sustaining productive knowledge sharing activities.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, conflict management, knowledge sharing, organizational behavior, psychological safety

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37 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

Abstract:

This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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36 Practices of Entomophagy and Entomotherapy in Baranggay Alambijud, Argao and Baranggay Lusaran, Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Jake Joshua C. Garces, Zandra O. Jarito, Leslie Ann T. Barriga, Froilen C. Domicelo, Nimfa R. Pansit

Abstract:

The study was conducted in order to discover the medicinal and edible potentialities of different insect species in Baranggay Alambijud, Argao and Baranggay Lusaran, Cebu City, Cebu. In order to identify these entomological practices, a survey was carried out by the researchers in these key sites. Fourteen key informants were obtained and these were identified with the aide of two sampling methods- snowball technique and purposive sampling. Open-ended questionnaires were employed in order to obtain authentic and significant information from the key informants. Results portrayed that in the practice of entomotherapy, two insects were used as medicine namely: migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manillensis) and honey bee (Apis dorsata); and two insect by-products were utilized namely: feces of cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) and honey. White grub (Cotinis nitida) and bee eggs were also documented to manifest edible capability and were thus utilized in the entomophagic practices. After applying thematic analysis, it was determined that the causative factors of their entomological practices include their limited educational attainment, their inability to access urban societies and the influence brought about by their family and community.

Keywords: entomophagy, entomotherapy, entomology, key informants

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35 Assessment of Some Heavy Metals (Manganese, Copper, Nickel and Zinc) in Muscle and Liver of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ilushi River, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua I. Izegaegbe, Femi F. Oloye, Catherine E. Nasiru

Abstract:

This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the extent of contamination. Heavy metal determination of digested fish samples was done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results show that the muscles and livers were contaminated to varying levels with the presence of some non-metallic elements. The heavy metal load revealed that zinc had the highest mean concentration of 0.217±0.008µg/g in liver and 0.130±0.006µg/g in muscle, while copper recorded the least concentration in liver 0.063±0.004µg/g and 0.027±0.003µg/gin muscle. The distribution of the heavy metals in the muscles and livers of Clarias gariepinus showed significant variations and the results also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu,Ni and Mn) found in the liver was higher than those found in the muscle. This indicates that the liver is a better accumulator of heavy metal in Clarias gariepinus than the muscles. On comparison with WHO/FAO/FEPA/USFDA standards, the study shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver and muscle were within permissible limits safe for human consumption.

Keywords: clarias gariepinus, heavy metals, liver, muscle

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34 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, rivers, sediments, wastewater effluents

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33 The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance

Authors: Joshua Bradley, Matthew Buns

Abstract:

This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.

Keywords: GPS, nutrition, simulation, supplementation

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32 Taguchi-Based Optimization of Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy in Wire EDM Process with S7 Heat Treated Steel

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Joshua Cox

Abstract:

This research focuses on the use of the Taguchi method to reduce the surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy of parts machined by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) with S7 heat treated steel material. Due to its high impact toughness, the material is a candidate for a wide variety of tooling applications which require high precision in dimension and desired surface roughness. This paper demonstrates that Taguchi Parameter Design methodology is able to optimize both dimensioning and surface roughness successfully by investigating seven wire-EDM controllable parameters: pulse on time (ON), pulse off time (OFF), servo voltage (SV), voltage (V), servo feed (SF), wire tension (WT), and wire speed (WS). The temperature of the water in the Wire EDM process is investigated as the noise factor in this research. Experimental design and analysis based on L18 Taguchi orthogonal arrays are conducted. This paper demonstrates that the Taguchi-based system enables the wire EDM process to produce (1) high precision parts with an average of 0.6601 inches dimension, while the desired dimension is 0.6600 inches; and (2) surface roughness of 1.7322 microns which is significantly improved from 2.8160 microns.

Keywords: Taguchi Parameter Design, surface roughness, Wire EDM, dimensional accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 247