Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3169

Search results for: thermal comfort

3169 A Literature Review of the Trend towards Indoor Dynamic Thermal Comfort

Authors: James Katungyi

Abstract:

The Steady State thermal comfort model which dominates thermal comfort practice and which posits the ideal thermal conditions in a narrow range of thermal conditions does not deliver the expected comfort levels among occupants. Furthermore, the buildings where this model is applied consume a lot of energy in conditioning. This paper reviews significant literature about thermal comfort in dynamic indoor conditions including the adaptive thermal comfort model and alliesthesia. A major finding of the paper is that the adaptive thermal comfort model is part of a trend from static to dynamic indoor environments in aspects such as lighting, views, sounds and ventilation. Alliesthesia or thermal delight is consistent with this trend towards dynamic thermal conditions. It is within this trend that the two fold goal of increased thermal comfort and reduced energy consumption lies. At the heart of this trend is a rediscovery of the link between the natural environment and human well-being, a link that was partially severed by over-reliance on mechanically dominated artificial indoor environments. The paper concludes by advocating thermal conditioning solutions that integrate mechanical with natural thermal conditioning in a balanced manner in order to meet occupant thermal needs without endangering the environment.

Keywords: adaptive thermal comfort, alliesthesia, energy, natural environment

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3168 Indoor Thermal Comfort in Educational Buildings in the State of Kuwait

Authors: Sana El-Azzeh, Farraj Al-Ajmi, Abdulrahman Al-Aqqad, Mohamed Salem

Abstract:

Thermal comfort is defined according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55 as a condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation. Sustaining this standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC design engineers. This paper presents a study of thermal comfort and adaptive behaviors of occupants who occupies two locations at the campus of the Australian College of Kuwait. A longitudinal survey and field measurement were conducted to measure thermal comfort, adaptive behaviors, and indoor environment qualities. The study revealed that female occupants in the selected locations felt warmer than males and needed more air velocity and lower temperature.

Keywords: indoor thermal comfort, educational facility, gender analysis, dry desert climate

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3167 Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

Authors: B. T. Chew, S. N. Kazi, A. Amiri

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0 oC, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0–34.6oC. The most comfortable temperature for students in the lecture hall was 25.7 oC.

Keywords: hot and humid, lecture halls, neutral temperature, adaptive thermal comfort model

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3166 Influence of Roofing Material on Indoor Thermal Comfort of Bamboo House

Authors: Thet Su Hlaing, Shoichi Kojima

Abstract:

The growing desire for better indoor thermal performance with moderate energy consumption is becoming an issue for challenging today’s built environment. Studies related to the effective way of enhancing indoor thermal comfort had been done by approaching in numerous ways. Few studies have been focused on the correlation between building material and indoor thermal comfort of vernacular house. This paper analyzes the thermal comfort conditions of Bamboo House, mostly located in a hot and humid region. Depending on the roofing material, how the indoor environment varies will be observed through monitoring indoor and outdoor comfort measurement of Bamboo house as well as occupants’ preferable comfort condition. The result revealed that the indigenous roofing material mostly influences the indoor thermal environment by performing to have less effect from the outdoor temperature. It can keep the room cool with moderate thermal comfort, especially in the early morning and night, in the summertime without mechanical device assistance. After analyzing the performance of roofing material, which effect on indoor thermal comfort for 24 hours, it can be efficiently managed the time for availing mechanical cooling devices and make it supply only the necessary period of a day, which will lead to a partially reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: bamboo house, hot and humid climate, indoor thermal comfort, local indigenous roofing material

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3165 Thermal Comfort Evaluation in an Office Space Based on Pmv-Ppd Model

Authors: Kaoutar Jraida

Abstract:

Growing evidence demonstrates that thermal conditions in office buildings broadly influence productivity of workers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the indoor thermal comfort in an office space based on the calculation of predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PMV-PPD) model and field survey.

Keywords: Office, Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Percentage People Dissatisfied (PPD), Thermal comfort

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3164 Investigating and Comparing the Performance of Baseboard and Panel Radiators by Calculating the Thermal Comfort Coefficient

Authors: Mohammad Erfan Doraki, Mohammad Salehi

Abstract:

In this study, to evaluate the performance of Baseboard and Panel radiators with thermal comfort coefficient, A room with specific dimensions was modeled with Ansys fluent and DesignBuilder, then calculated the speed and temperature parameters in different parts of the room in two modes of using Panel and Baseboard radiators and it turned out that use of Baseboard radiators has a more uniform temperature and speed distribution, but in a Panel radiator, the room is warmer. Then, by calculating the thermal comfort indices, It was shown that using a Panel radiator is a more favorable environment and using a Baseboard radiator is a more uniform environment in terms of thermal comfort.

Keywords: Radiator, Baseboard, optimal, comfort coefficient, heat

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3163 Experimental Observation on Air-Conditioning Using Radiant Chilled Ceiling in Hot Humid Climate

Authors: Ashmin Aryal, Pipat Chaiwiwatworakul, Surapong Chirarattananon

Abstract:

Radiant chilled ceiling (RCC) has been perceived to save more energy and provide better thermal comfort than the traditional air conditioning system. However, its application has been rather limited by some reasons e.g., the scarce information about the thermal characteristic in the radiant room and the local climate influence on the system performance, etc. To bridge such gap, an office-like experiment room with a RCC was constructed in the hot and humid climate of Thailand. This paper presents exemplarily results from the RCC experiments to give an insight into the thermal environment in a radiant room and the cooling load associated to maintain the room's comfort condition. It gave a demonstration of the RCC system operation for its application to achieve thermal comfort in offices in a hot humid climate, as well.

Keywords: radiant chilled ceiling, thermal comfort, cooling load, outdoor air unit

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3162 Thermal Comfort Study of School Buildings in South Minahasa Regency Case Study: SMA Negeri 1 Amurang, Indonesia

Authors: Virgino Stephano Moniaga

Abstract:

Thermal comfort inside a building can affect students in their learning process. The learning process of students can be improved if the condition of the classrooms is comfortable. This study will be conducted in SMA Negeri 1 Amurang which is a senior high school building located in South Minahasa Regency. Based on preliminary survey, generally, students were not satisfied with the existing level of comfort, which subsequently affected the teaching and learning process in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to analyze the comfort level of classrooms occupants and recommend building design solutions that can improve the thermal comfort of classrooms. In this study, three classrooms will be selected for thermal comfort measurements. The thermal comfort measurements will be taken in naturally ventilated classrooms. The measured data comprise of personal data (clothing and students activity), air humidity, air temperature, mean radiant temperature and air flow velocity. Simultaneously, the students will be asked to fill out a questionnaire that asked about the level of comfort that was felt at the time. The results of field measurements and questionnaires will be analyzed based on the PMV and PPD indices. The results of the analysis will decide whether the classrooms are comfortable or not. This study can be continued to obtain a more optimal design solution to improve the thermal comfort of the classrooms. The expected results from this study can improve the quality of teaching and learning process between teachers and students which can further assist the government efforts to improve the quality of national education.

Keywords: classrooms, PMV, PPD, thermal comfort

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3161 Thermal Comfort Characteristics in an Enclosure with a Radiant Ceiling Heating and Floor Air Heating System

Authors: Seung-Ho Yoo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn

Abstract:

An environmental friendly or efficient heating & cooling systems attract a great attention, due to the energy or environmental problems. Especially the heat balance of human body is about 50% influenced by radiation exchange in built environment. Therefore, a thermal comfort characteristics in a radiant built environment need to be accessed through the development of an efficient evaluation method. Almost of Korean housings use traditionally the radiant floor heating system. A radiant cooling system attracts also many attention nowadays in the viewpoint of energy conservation and comfort. Thermal comfort characteristics in an enclosure with a radiant heating and cooling system are investigated by experiment, thermal sensation vote analysis and mean radiant temperature simulation. Asymmetric radiation between radiant heating ceiling and air heating system in 9 points of room is compared with each other.

Keywords: radiant heating and cooling ceiling, asymmetric radiation, thermal comfort, thermal sensation vote

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3160 Development of Winter Wears Having Improved Thermal Comfort and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Samen Boota, Arslan Ishaq

Abstract:

More than 4 billion tons of chicken feathers are wasted yearly worldwide which is not environmental friendly. In order to make use of these 4 billion tons of feathers it is necessary to incorporate them to the textile materials. The main objective of this study is to develop the winter wears with improved thermal comfort and mechanical properties. Chick feathers were blended with cotton fibers to spin them into yarn, weave them dye them using reactive dyes. The developed fabric was tested for thermal comfort, tensile and tears strength. The results were also compared with pure cotton fabric of similar GSM. It is observed from the results that chicken feathers and cotton blended fabric was improved thermal comfort and mechanical properties.

Keywords: Alambeta, compatibilizing, permeability, sliver

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3159 Study on the Impact of Windows Location on Occupancy Thermal Comfort by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Farhan E Shafrin, Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed

Abstract:

Natural ventilation strategies continue to be a key alternative to costly mechanical ventilation systems, especially in healthcare facilities, due to increasing energy issues in developing countries, including Bangladesh. Besides, overcrowding and insufficient ventilation strategies remain significant causes of thermal discomfort and hospital infection in Bangladesh. With the proper location of inlet and outlet windows, uniform flow is possible in the occupancy area to achieve thermal comfort. It also determines the airflow pattern of the ward that decreases the movement of the contaminated air. This paper aims to establish a relationship between the location of the windows and the thermal comfort of the occupants in a naturally ventilated hospital ward. It defines the openings and ventilation variables that are interrelated in a way that enhances or limits the health and thermal comfort of occupants. The study conducts a full-scale experiment in one of the naturally ventilated wards in a primary health care hospital in Manikganj, Dhaka. CFD simulation is used to explore the performance of various opening positions in ventilation efficiency and thermal comfort in the study area. The results indicate that the opening located in the hospital ward has a significant impact on the thermal comfort of the occupants and the airflow pattern inside the ward. The findings can contribute to design the naturally ventilated hospital wards by identifying and predicting future solutions when it comes to relationships with the occupants' thermal comforts.

Keywords: CFD simulation, hospital ward, natural ventilation, thermal comfort, window location

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3158 Thermal Comfort Investigation Based on Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) Index Using Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation: Case Study of University of Brawijaya, Malang-Indonesia

Authors: Dewi Hardiningtyas Sugiono

Abstract:

Concerning towards the quality of air comfort and safety to pedestrians in the University area should be increased as Indonesia economics booming. Hence, the University management needs guidelines of thermal comfort to innovate a new layout building. The objectives of this study is to investigate and then to evaluate the distribution of thermal comfort which is indicated by predicted mean vote (PMV) index at the University of Brawijaya (UB), Malang. The PMV figures are used to evaluate and to redesign the UB layout. The research is started with study literature and early survey to collect all information of building layout and building shape at the University of Brawijaya. The information is used to create a 3D model in CAD software. The model is simulated by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software to measure the PMV factors of air temperature, relative humidity and air speed in some locations. Validation is done by comparing between PMV value from observation and PMV value from simulation. The resuls of the research shows the most sensitive of microclimatic factors is air temperature surrounding the UB building. Finally, the research is successfully figure out the UB layout and provides further actions to increase the thermal comfort.

Keywords: thermal comfort, heat index (HI), CFD, layout

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3157 An Investigation on the Effect of Window Tinting on Thermal Comfort inside Office Buildings

Authors: S. El-Azzeh, A. Al-Aqqad, M. Salem, H. Al-Khaldi, S. Thaher

Abstract:

Thermal comfort studies are very important during the early stages of the building’s design. If this study was ignored, problems will start to occur for the occupants in the future. In hot climates, where solar radiations are entering buildings all year long, occupant’s thermal comfort in office buildings needs to be examined. This study aims to investigate the thermal comfort at an existing office building at the Australian College of Kuwait and test its validity and improve occupant’s thermal satisfaction by covering windows with a heat rejection tint material that enables sunlight to pass through the office while reflecting solar heat outside. Environmental variables were measured using thermal comfort data logger INNOVA 1221 to find the predicted mean vote (PMV) in the selected location. Also, subjective variables were measured to find the actual mean vote (AMV) through surveys distributed among occupants in the selected case study office. All the variables collected were analyzed and classified according to international standards ISO 7730 and ASHRAE55. The results of this study showed improvement in both PMV and AMV. The mean value of PMV based on the original design was 0.691 which dropped to 0.32 after installation and it still at comfort zone. Also, the mean value of the AMV has improved for the first occupant, where before it was -0.46 and it became -1 which is cooler. For the other occupant, it was slightly warm with a mean value of 0.9 and it was improved and became cooler with a -0.25 mean value based on American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) seven-point scale.

Keywords: thermal comfort, office buildings, indoor environments, predicted mean vote

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3156 Improved Thermal Comfort in Cabin Aircraft with in-Seat Microclimate Conditioning Module

Authors: Mathieu Le Cam, Tejaswinee Darure, Mateusz Pawlucki

Abstract:

Climate control of cabin aircraft is traditionally conditioned as a single unit by the environmental control system. Cabin temperature is controlled by the crew while passengers of the aircraft have control on the gaspers providing fresh air from the above head area. The small nozzles are difficult to reach and adjust to meet the passenger’s needs in terms of flow and direction. More dedicated control over the near environment of each passenger can be beneficial in many situations. The European project COCOON, funded under Clean Sky 2, aims at developing and demonstrating a microclimate conditioning module (MCM) integrated into a standard economy 3-seat row. The system developed will lead to improved passenger comfort with more control on their personal thermal area. This study focuses on the assessment of thermal comfort of passengers in the cabin aircraft through simulation on the TAITherm modelling platform. A first analysis investigates thermal comfort and sensation of passengers in varying cabin environmental conditions: from cold to very hot scenarios, with and without MCM installed in the seats. The modelling platform is also used to evaluate the impact of different physiologies of passengers on their thermal comfort as well as different seat locations. Under the current cabin conditions, a passenger of a 50th percentile body size is feeling uncomfortably cool due to the high velocity cabin air ventilation. The simulation shows that the in-seat MCM developed in COCOON project improves the thermal comfort of the passenger.

Keywords: cabin aircraft, in-seat HVAC, microclimate conditioning module, thermal comfort

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3155 Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

Keywords: building envelope, building mass effect, building thermal comfort, building thermal performance, school building

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3154 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: passive solar systems, heating, cooling, thermal comfort, ventilation systems

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3153 Thermal Comfort in Office Rooms in a Historic Building with Modernized Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: Hossein Bakhtiari, Mathias Cehlin, Jan Akander

Abstract:

Envelopes with low thermal performance is a common characteristic in many European historic buildings which leads to higher energy demand for heating and cooling as well as insufficient thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort in the City Hall (Rådhuset) in Gävle, Sweden. This historic building is currently used as an office building. It is equipped with two relatively modern mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices in the offices. The district heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from an electric heat pump that rejects heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system controls HVAC equipment (heating, ventilation and air conditioning). The methodology is based on on-site measurements, data logging on the management system and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. The main aim of the study is to investigate whether or not it is enough to have modernized HVAC systems to get adequate thermal comfort in a historic building with poor envelope performance used as an office building in Nordic climate conditions.

Keywords: historic buildings, on-site measurements, standardized questionnaire, thermal comfort

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3152 Comfort in Green: Thermal Performance and Comfort Analysis of Sky Garden, SM City, North EDSA, Philippines

Authors: Raul Chavez Jr.

Abstract:

Green roof's body of knowledge appears to be in its infancy stage in the Philippines. To contribute to its development, this study intends to answer the question: Does the existing green roof in Metro Manila perform well in providing thermal comfort and satisfaction to users? Relatively, this study focuses on thermal sensation and satisfaction of users, surface temperature comparison, weather data comparison of the site (Sky Garden) and local weather station (PAG-ASA), and its thermal resistance capacity. Initially, the researcher conducted a point-in-time survey in parallel with weather data gathering from PAG-ASA and Sky Garden. In line with these, ambient and surface temperature are conducted through the use of a digital anemometer, with humidity and temperature, and non-contact infrared thermometer respectively. Furthermore, to determine the Sky Garden's overall thermal resistance, materials found on site were identified and tabulated based on specified locations. It revealed that the Sky Garden can be considered comfortable based from PMV-PPD Model of ASHRAE Standard 55 having similar results from thermal comfort and thermal satisfaction survey, which is contrary to the actual condition of the Sky Garden by means of a psychrometric chart which falls beyond the contextualized comfort zone. In addition, ground floor benefited the most in terms of lower average ambient temperature and humidity compared to the Sky Garden. Lastly, surface temperature data indicates that the green roof portion obtained the highest average temperature yet performed well in terms of heat resistance compared to other locations. These results provided the researcher valuable baseline information of the actual performance of a certain green roof in Metro Manila that could be vital in locally enhancing the system even further and for future studies.

Keywords: Green Roof, Thermal Analysis, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Performance

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3151 An Assessment of Thermal Comfort and Air Quality in Educational Space: A Case Study of Design Studios in the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria

Authors: Bakr Gomaa, Hana Awad

Abstract:

A stuffy room is one of the indicators of poor indoor air quality. Through working in an educational building in Alexandria, it is noticed that one of the rooms is smelly. A field study is conducted in a private university building in Alexandria to achieve indoor sustainable educational environment. Additionally, the indoor air quality is empirically assessed, and thermal comfort is identified in educational buildings, in studio halls specifically during lecture hours. The current research uses qualitative and quantitative methods in the form of literature review, investigation and test measurements. At a similar time that the teachers and students fill in a questionnaire regarding the concept of indoor climate, thermal comfort variables are determined. The indoor thermal conditions of the studio are assessed through three variables including Fanger’s comfort indicators (calculated using PMV, predicted mean vote and PPD, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people), the actual people clothing and metabolic rate. Actual measurements of air quality are obtained in a case study in an architectural building. Results have proved that indoor climatic conditions as air flow and temperature are inconvenient to inhabitants. Regarding questionnaire results, occupants appear to be uncomfortable in both seasons, with result percentages out of the acceptable range. Finally, further researches will center on how to preserve thermal comfort in school buildings since it has a vital influence on the student’s knowledge.

Keywords: educational buildings, Indoor air quality, productivity, thermal comfort

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3150 Thermal Resistance of Special Garments Exposed to a Radiant Heat

Authors: Jana Pichova, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik

Abstract:

Protective clothing is designed to keep a wearer save in hazardous conditions or enable perform short time working operation without being injured or feeling discomfort. Firefighters or other related workers are exposed to abnormal heat which can be conductive, convective or radiant type. Their garment is proposed to resist this conditions and prevent burn injuries or dead of human. However thermal comfort of firefighter exposed to high heat source have not been studied yet. Thermal resistance is the best representative parameter of thermal comfort. In this study a new method of testing of thermal resistance of special clothing exposed to high radiation heat source was designed. This method simulates human body wearing single or multi-layered garment which is exposed to radiative heat. Setup of this method enables measuring of radiative heat flow in time without effect of convection. The new testing method is verified on chosen group of textiles for firefighters.

Keywords: protective clothing, radiative heat, thermal comfort of firefighters, thermal resistance of special garments

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3149 Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings

Authors: K. C. Rajan, H. B. Rijal, Kazui Yoshida, Masanori Shukuya

Abstract:

The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.

Keywords: energy reduction, thermal comfort, HEMS utility, thermal environment

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3148 A Comparative Analysis about the Effects of a Courtyard in Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space Adjacent to Courtyard of a House in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

Attaining appropriate comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it is resided at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. Courtyards are the part of buildings which are used as space for outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to have indoor thermal comfort as an effect of courtyard. This paper aims to investigate the effect of courtyard in indoor thermal environment of a room adjacent to the courtyard and a room next to transitional space after a courtyard through field measurements of a case study house. The field measurement was conducted in a two-storey house. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature in both situations. Ventilation or air movement was considered to have no impact because of the rooms’ layout and location. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of courtyards and in its relation to indoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: courtyard, old Dhaka, temperature, thermal comfort, transitional space

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3147 Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study

Authors: Christina Kalogirou

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.

Keywords: thermal comfort, in situ measurements, occupant behaviour, vernacular architecture

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3146 Experiencing Daylight in Architectural Spaces: A Case Study of Public Buildings in the Context of Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Safia Asif, Saadia Bano

Abstract:

In a world with rapidly depleting resources, using artificial lighting during daytime is an act of human ignorance. Imitated light is the major source of energy consumption in public buildings. Despite, the fact that substantial working hours of these buildings usually persist in natural daylight time; there is a trend of isolated, un-fenestrated and a-contextual interiors majorly dependent on active energy sources. On the contrary, if direct and un-controlled sunlight is allowed inside the building, it will create visual and thermal discomfort. Controlled daylighting with appropriate design mechanisms is one of the important aspects of achieving thermal and visual comfort. The natural sunlight can be utilized intelligently with the help of architectural thermal controlling mechanisms to achieve a healthy and productive environment. This paper is an attempt to investigate and analyze the importance of daylighting with reference to energy efficiency and thermal comfort. For this purpose, three public buildings including two educational institutions and one general post office are selected, as case-studies in the context of Karachi, Pakistan. Various parameters of visual and thermal comfort are analyzed which includes orientation, ceiling heights, overall building profile along with daylight controlling mechanisms in terms of penetration, distribution, protection, and control. In the later part of the research, a questionnaire survey is also conducted to evaluate the user experience in terms of adequate daylighting and thermal comfort.

Keywords: daylight, public buildings, sustainable architecture, visual and thermal comfort

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3145 The Impact and Performances of Controlled Ventilation Strategy on Thermal Comfort and Indoor Atmosphere in Building

Authors: Selma Bouasria, Mahi Abdelkader, Abbès Azzi, Herouz Keltoum

Abstract:

Ventilation in buildings is a key element to provide high indoor air quality. Its efficiency appears as one of the most important factors in maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings. Personal displacement ventilation is a new ventilation concept that combines the positive features of displacement ventilation with those of task conditioning or personalized ventilation. This work aims to study numerically the supply air flow in a room to optimize a comfortable microclimate for an occupant. The room is heated, and a dummy is designed to simulate the occupant. Two types of configurations were studied. The first consist of a room without windows; and the second one is a local equipped with a window. The influence of the blowing speed and the solar radiation coming from the window on the thermal comfort of the occupant is studied. To conduct this study we used the turbulence models, namely the high Reynolds k-e, the RNG and the SST models. The numerical tool used is based on the finite volume method. The numerical simulation of the supply air flow in a room can predict and provide a significant information about indoor comfort.

Keywords: local, comfort, thermique, ventilation, internal environment

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3144 The Assessment of Natural Ventilation Performance for Thermal Comfort in Educational Space: A Case Study of Design Studio in the Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Alexandria

Authors: Alaa Sarhan, Rania Abd El Gelil, Hana Awad

Abstract:

Through the last decades, the impact of thermal comfort on the working performance of users and occupants of an indoor space has been a concern. Research papers concluded that natural ventilation quality directly impacts the levels of thermal comfort. Natural ventilation must be put into account during the design process in order to improve the inhabitant's efficiency and productivity. One example of daily long-term occupancy spaces is educational facilities. Many individuals spend long times receiving a considerable amount of knowledge, and it takes additional time to apply this knowledge. Thus, this research is concerned with user's level of thermal comfort in design studios of educational facilities. The natural ventilation quality in spaces is affected by a number of parameters including orientation, opening design, and many other factors. This research aims to investigate the conscious manipulation of the physical parameters of the spaces and its impact on natural ventilation performance which subsequently affects thermal comfort of users. The current research uses inductive and deductive methods to define natural ventilation design considerations, which are used in a field study in a studio in the university building in Alexandria (AAST) to evaluate natural ventilation performance through analyzing and comparing the current case to the developed framework and conducting computational fluid dynamics simulation. Results have proved that natural ventilation performance is successful by only 50% of the natural ventilation design framework; these results are supported by CFD simulation.

Keywords: educational buildings, natural ventilation, , mediterranean climate, thermal comfort

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3143 Determining the Thermal Performance and Comfort Indices of a Naturally Ventilated Room with Reduced Density Reinforced Concrete Wall Construction over Conventional M-25 Grade Concrete

Authors: P. Crosby, Shiva Krishna Pavuluri, S. Rajkumar

Abstract:

Purpose: Occupied built-up space can be broadly classified as air-conditioned and naturally ventilated. Regardless of the building type, the objective of all occupied built-up space is to provide a thermally acceptable environment for human occupancy. Considering this aspect, air-conditioned spaces allow a greater degree of flexibility to control and modulate the comfort parameters during the operation phase. However, in the case of naturally ventilated space, a number of design features favoring indoor thermal comfort should be mandatorily conceptualized starting from the design phase. One such primary design feature that requires to be prioritized is, selection of building envelope material, as it decides the flow of energy from outside environment to occupied spaces. Research Methodology: In India and many countries across globe, the standardized material used for building envelope is re-enforced concrete (i.e. M-25 grade concrete). The comfort inside the RC built environment for warm & humid climate (i.e. mid-day temp of 30-35˚C, diurnal variation of 5-8˚C & RH of 70-90%) is unsatisfying to say the least. This study is mainly focused on reviewing the impact of mix design of conventional M25 grade concrete on inside thermal comfort. In this mix design, air entrainment in the range of 2000 to 2100 kg/m3 is introduced to reduce the density of M-25 grade concrete. Thermal performance parameters & indoor comfort indices are analyzed for the proposed mix and compared in relation to the conventional M-25 grade. There are diverse methodologies which govern indoor comfort calculation. In this study, three varied approaches specifically a) Indian Adaptive Thermal comfort model, b) Tropical Summer Index (TSI) c) Air temperature less than 33˚C & RH less than 70% to calculate comfort is adopted. The data required for the thermal comfort study is acquired by field measurement approach (i.e. for the new mix design) and simulation approach by using design builder (i.e. for the conventional concrete grade). Findings: The analysis points that the Tropical Summer Index has a higher degree of stringency in determining the occupant comfort band whereas also providing a leverage in thermally tolerable band over & above other methodologies in the context of the study. Another important finding is the new mix design ensures a 10% reduction in indoor air temperature (IAT) over the outdoor dry bulb temperature (ODBT) during the day. This translates to a significant temperature difference of 6 ˚C IAT and ODBT.

Keywords: Indian adaptive thermal comfort, indoor air temperature, thermal comfort, tropical summer index

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3142 Study on Eco-Feedback of Thermal Comfort and Cost Efficiency for Low Energy Residence

Authors: Y. Jin, N. Zhang, X. Luo, W. Zhang

Abstract:

China with annual increasing 0.5-0.6 billion squares city residence has brought in enormous energy consumption by HVAC facilities and other appliances. In this regard, governments and researchers are encouraging renewable energy like solar energy, geothermal energy using in houses. However, high cost of equipment and low energy conversion result in a very low acceptable to residents. So what’s the equilibrium point of eco-feedback to reach economic benefit and thermal comfort? That is the main question should be answered. In this paper, the objective is an on-site solar PV and heater house, which has been evaluated as a low energy building. Since HVAC system is considered as main energy consumption equipment, the residence with 24-hour monitoring system set to measure temperature, wind velocity and energy in-out value with no HVAC system for one month of summer and winter. Thermal comfort time period will be analyzed and confirmed; then the air-conditioner will be started within thermal discomfort time for the following one summer and winter month. The same data will be recorded to calculate the average energy consumption monthly for a purpose of whole day thermal comfort. Finally, two analysis work will be done: 1) Original building thermal simulation by computer at design stage with actual measured temperature after construction will be contrastive analyzed; 2) The cost of renewable energy facilities and power consumption converted to cost efficient rate to assess the feasibility of renewable energy input for residence. The results of the experiment showed that a certain deviation exists between actual measured data and simulated one for human thermal comfort, especially in summer period. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness is high for a house in targeting city Guilin now with at least 11 years of cost-covering. The conclusion proves that an eco-feedback of a low energy residence is never only consideration of its energy net value, but also the cost efficiency that is the critical factor to push renewable energy acceptable by the public.

Keywords: cost efficiency, eco-feedback, low energy residence, thermal comfort

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3141 Thermal and Visual Comfort Assessment in Office Buildings in Relation to Space Depth

Authors: Elham Soltani Dehnavi

Abstract:

In today’s compact cities, bringing daylighting and fresh air to buildings is a significant challenge, but it also presents opportunities to reduce energy consumption in buildings by reducing the need for artificial lighting and mechanical systems. Simple adjustments to building form can contribute to their efficiency. This paper examines how the relationship between the width and depth of the rooms in office buildings affects visual and thermal comfort, and consequently energy savings. Based on these evaluations, we can determine the best location for sedentary areas in a room. We can also propose improvements to occupant experience and minimize the difference between the predicted and measured performance in buildings by changing other design parameters, such as natural ventilation strategies, glazing properties, and shading. This study investigates the condition of spatial daylighting and thermal comfort for a range of room configurations using computer simulations, then it suggests the best depth for optimizing both daylighting and thermal comfort, and consequently energy performance in each room type. The Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) is 40% with 0.8m window sill and 0.4m window head. Also, there are some fixed parameters chosen according to building codes and standards, and the simulations are done in Seattle, USA. The simulation results are presented as evaluation grids using the thresholds for different metrics such as Daylight Autonomy (DA), spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA), Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE), and Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) for visual comfort, and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD), occupied Thermal Comfort Percentage (occTCP), over-heated percent, under-heated percent, and Standard Effective Temperature (SET) for thermal comfort that are extracted from Grasshopper scripts. The simulation tools are Grasshopper plugins such as Ladybug, Honeybee, and EnergyPlus. According to the results, some metrics do not change much along the room depth and some of them change significantly. So, we can overlap these grids in order to determine the comfort zone. The overlapped grids contain 8 metrics, and the pixels that meet all 8 mentioned metrics’ thresholds define the comfort zone. With these overlapped maps, we can determine the comfort zones inside rooms and locate sedentary areas there. Other parts can be used for other tasks that are not used permanently or need lower or higher amounts of daylight and thermal comfort is less critical to user experience. The results can be reflected in a table to be used as a guideline by designers in the early stages of the design process.

Keywords: occupant experience, office buildings, space depth, thermal comfort, visual comfort

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3140 Effects of the Air Supply Outlets Geometry on Human Comfort inside Living Rooms: CFD vs. ADPI

Authors: Taher M. Abou-deif, Esmail M. El-Bialy, Essam E. Khalil

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to numerically investigating the influence of the air supply outlets geometry on human comfort inside living looms. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed to examine the air flow characteristics of a room with different supply air diffusers. The work focuses on air flow patterns, thermal behavior in the room with few number of occupants. As an input to the full-scale 3-D room model, a 2-D air supply diffuser model that supplies direction and magnitude of air flow into the room is developed. Air distribution effect on thermal comfort parameters was investigated depending on changing the air supply diffusers type, angles and velocity. Air supply diffusers locations and numbers were also investigated. The pre-processor Gambit is used to create the geometric model with parametric features. Commercially available simulation software “Fluent 6.3” is incorporated to solve the differential equations governing the conservation of mass, three momentum and energy in the processing of air flow distribution. Turbulence effects of the flow are represented by the well-developed two equation turbulence model. In this work, the so-called standard k-ε turbulence model, one of the most widespread turbulence models for industrial applications, was utilized. Basic parameters included in this work are air dry bulb temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and turbulence parameters are used for numerical predictions of indoor air distribution and thermal comfort. The thermal comfort predictions through this work were based on ADPI (Air Diffusion Performance Index),the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) model and the PPD (Percentage People Dissatisfied) model, the PMV and PPD were estimated using Fanger’s model.

Keywords: thermal comfort, Fanger's model, ADPI, energy effeciency

Procedia PDF Downloads 311