Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1450

Search results for: cognitive dissonance

1450 On-Line Impulse Buying and Cognitive Dissonance: The Moderating Role of the Positive Affective State

Authors: G. Mattia, A. Di Leo, L. Principato


The purchase impulsiveness is preceded by a lack of self-control: consequently, it is legitimate to believe that a consumer with a low level of self-control can result in a higher probability of cognitive dissonance. Moreover, the process of purchase is influenced by the pre-existing affective state in a considerable way. With reference to on-line purchases, digital behavior cannot be merely ascribed to the rational sphere, given the speed and ease of transactions and the hedonistic dimension of purchases. To our knowledge, this research is among the first cases of verification of the effect of moderation exerted by the positive affective state in the on-line impulse purchase of products with a high expressive value such as a smartphone on the occurrence of cognitive dissonance. To this aim, a moderation analysis was conducted on a sample of 212 impulsive millennials buyers. Three scales were adopted to measure the constructs of interest: IBTS for impulsivity, PANAS for the affective state, Sweeney for cognitive dissonance. The analysis revealed that positive affective state does not affect the onset of cognitive dissonance.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, impulsive buying, online shopping, online consumer behavior

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1449 Cognitive Dissonance in Robots: A Computational Architecture for Emotional Influence on the Belief System

Authors: Nicolas M. Beleski, Gustavo A. G. Lugo


Robotic agents are taking more and increasingly important roles in society. In order to make these robots and agents more autonomous and efficient, their systems have grown to be considerably complex and convoluted. This growth in complexity has led recent researchers to investigate forms to explain the AI behavior behind these systems in search for more trustworthy interactions. A current problem in explainable AI is the inner workings with the logic inference process and how to conduct a sensibility analysis of the process of valuation and alteration of beliefs. In a social HRI (human-robot interaction) setup, theory of mind is crucial to ease the intentionality gap and to achieve that we should be able to infer over observed human behaviors, such as cases of cognitive dissonance. One specific case inspired in human cognition is the role emotions play on our belief system and the effects caused when observed behavior does not match the expected outcome. In such scenarios emotions can make a person wrongly assume the antecedent P for an observed consequent Q, and as a result, incorrectly assert that P is true. This form of cognitive dissonance where an unproven cause is taken as truth induces changes in the belief base which can directly affect future decisions and actions. If we aim to be inspired by human thoughts in order to apply levels of theory of mind to these artificial agents, we must find the conditions to replicate these observable cognitive mechanisms. To achieve this, a computational architecture is proposed to model the modulation effect emotions have on the belief system and how it affects logic inference process and consequently the decision making of an agent. To validate the model, an experiment based on the prisoner's dilemma is currently under development. The hypothesis to be tested involves two main points: how emotions, modeled as internal argument strength modulators, can alter inference outcomes, and how can explainable outcomes be produced under specific forms of cognitive dissonance.

Keywords: cognitive architecture, cognitive dissonance, explainable ai, sensitivity analysis, theory of mind

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1448 The Association between Psychosocial Characteristics, Training Variables and Well-Being: An Exploratory Study among Organizational Workers

Authors: Norshaffika I. Zaiedy Nor, Andrew P. Smith


Background: Training is essential to develop individuals’ expertise to meet current and future job demands and to improve work performance. At the same time, individuals’ well-being is crucial to ensure that they can fully and positively carry out their daily duties. In addition to the studies that have examined what constitutes well-being and the factors behind it, many researchers have investigated the predictors of training effectiveness and transfer of training. However, there has been very little integration between them. This study was an attempt to bridge the gap between training effectiveness predictors and well-being. Purpose: This research paper aimed to investigate the association between well-being among employees and psychosocial characteristics, together with training variables. Training variables consist of motivation to learn; learning; implementation intention; and cognitive dissonance. Methodology: In total, 210 workers who had undergone various training programs completed an online survey measuring various psychosocial characteristics, four training variables, and level of well-being. Findings: The results showed that certain types of positive psychosocial characteristics (e.g., positive personality, positive work behaviors, positive work and resources) predict motivation to learn, learning and implementation intention. Meanwhile, negative psychosocial characteristics (e.g. negative work demands and resources, negative coping) predict cognitive dissonance. Also, all the training variables had a moderate to high correlation with well-being. However, after controlling other variables (age, gender, education and psychosocial characteristics), none of the training variables predicted well-being. Self-determination theory, cognitive dissonance theory, and the DRIVE model were used to explain these findings. Conclusion: As there is limited research on the integration of training variables with well-being, this study gives a new perspective in the field of both training and well-being. Further investigations are needed to examine the relationships between them.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, implementation intention, learning, motivation to learn, psychosocial characteristics, well-being

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1447 Cognitive Approach at the Epicenter of Creative Accounting in Cameroonian Companies: The Relevance of the Psycho-Sociological Approach and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Authors: Romuald Temomo Wamba, Robert Wanda


The issue of creative accounting in the psychological and sociological framework has been a mixed subject for over 60 years. The objective of this article is to ensure the existence of creative accounting in Cameroonian entities on the one hand and to understand the strategies used by audit agents to detect errors, omissions, irregularities, or inadequacies in the financial state; optimization techniques used by account preparers to strategically bypass texts on the other hand. To achieve this, we conducted an exploratory study using a cognitive approach, and the data analysis was performed by the software 'decision explorer'. The results obtained challenge the authors' cognition (manifest latent and deceptive behavior). The tax inspectors stress that the entities in Cameroon do not derogate from the rules of piloting in the financial statements. Likewise, they claim a change in current income and net income through depreciation, provisions, inventories, and the spreading of charges over long periods. This suggests the suspicion or intention of manipulating the financial statements. As for the techniques, the account preparers manage the accruals at the end of the year as the basis of the practice of creative accounting. Likewise, management accounts are more favorable to results management.

Keywords: creative accounting, sociocognitive approach, psychological and sociological approach, cognitive dissonance theory, cognitive mapping

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1446 The Amorphousness of the Exposure Sphere

Authors: Nipun Ansal


People guard their beliefs and opinions with their lives. Beliefs that they’ve formed over a period of time, and can go to any lengths to defy, desist from, resist and negate any outward stimulus that has the potential to shake them. Cognitive dissonance is term used to describe it in theory. And every human being, in order to defend himself from cognitive dissonance applies 4 rings of defense viz. Selective Exposure, Selective Perception, Selective Attention, and Selective Retention. This paper is a discursive analysis on how the onslaught of social media, complete with its intrusive weaponry, has amorphized the external ring of defense: the selective exposure. The stimulus-response model of communication is one of the most inherent model that encompasses communication behaviours of children and elderly, individual and masses, humans and animals alike. The paper deliberates on how information bombardment through the uncontrollable channels of the social media, Facebook and Twitter in particular, have dismantled our outer sphere of exposure, leading users online to a state of constant dissonance, and thus feeding impulsive action-taking. It applies case study method citing an example to corroborate how knowledge generation has given in to the information overload and the effect it has on decision making. With stimulus increasing in number of encounters, opinion formation precedes knowledge because of the increased demand of participation and decrease in time for the information to permeate from the outer sphere of exposure to the sphere of retention, which of course, is through perception and attention. This paper discusses the challenge posed by this fleeting, stimulus rich, peer-dominated media on the traditional models of communication and meaning-generation.

Keywords: communication, discretion, exposure, social media, stimulus

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1445 Two Fold Dimensional Analysis of Post-Employment Dissonance in Employer Branding Framework of it SMES

Authors: J. Janani, S. Gomathi


Despite the new economy is embodied with the ample size of talent pool, the corporate world is facing the hardship in the mismatch of talent demand supply. Therefore to combat with this fallout crisis, here depicts the relevance of Employer Branding. Employer branding is gaining its popularity in Large sized companies especially IT companies but less employer branding awareness among IT SMEs (Small and Medium size Enterprises). There are N range of analysis has been dole out on employer branding from different perspectives and in different industries. The hidden factor behind the employer branding namely the post employment dissonance was not given a lot of importance into the research picture. The present study examines the employer branding as the employer image and the organizational identity. It focuses on the two fold dimensional branding initiatives namely job offer attributes and organizational attractiveness. The study will depict the dissonance level and their variations among the foresaid initiatives from the former employees and the post-employment dissonance from the present employees in IT SMEs and it will also examine the employer perception from the prospective employees towards the stated branding initiatives. The demographic factors such as generational factors (gen X and gen Y) and the career stages are majorly focused in the study. The study will promote the IT SMEs to strengthen their employer branding effectively and efficiently through implementing varied strategies and this will help them to enhance the talent pool at their best. This will eventually result in talent attraction and talent retention.

Keywords: employer image, organizational identity, post-employment dissonance, job offer attributes, organizational attractiveness, talent pool, career stages, generational factors, information technology, SMEs

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1444 Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Cognitive Dissonance: The Influence of Assertive Conflict Management Strategy and Team Psychological Safety

Authors: Matthew P. Mancini, Vincent Ribiere


Today’s workers face more numerous and complex challenges and are required to be increasingly interdependent and faster learners. Knowledge sharing activities between people have been understood as a significant element affecting organizational innovation performance. While they do have the potential to spark cognitive conflict, disagreement is important from an organizational perspective because it can stimulate the development of new ideas and perhaps pave the way for creativity, innovation, and competitive advantage. How teams cope with the cognitive conflict dimension of knowledge sharing and the associated interpersonal risk is what captures our attention. Specifically, assertive conflict management strategies have a positive influence on knowledge sharing behaviors, and team psychological safety has a positive influence on knowledge sharing intention. This paper focuses on explaining the impact that these factors have on the shaping of an individual’s decision to engage or not in knowledge sharing activities. To accomplish this, we performed an empirical analysis on the results of our questionnaire about knowledge-sharing related conflict management and team psychological safety in pharmaceutical enterprises located in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, univariate analysis is used to characterize behavior regarding conflict management strategy into two groups. Group 1 presents assertive conflict management strategies and group 2 shows unassertive ones. Then, by using SEM methodology, we evaluated the relationships between them and the team psychological safety construct with the knowledge sharing process. The results of the SEM analysis show that assertive conflict management strategies affect the knowledge sharing process the most with a small, but significant effect from team psychological safety. The findings suggest that assertive conflict management strategies are just as important as knowledge sharing intentions for encouraging knowledge sharing behavior. This paper provides clear insights into how employees manage the sharing of their knowledge in the face of conflict and interpersonal risk and the relative importance of these factors in sustaining productive knowledge sharing activities.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, conflict management, knowledge sharing, organizational behavior, psychological safety

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1443 Effects of Spectrotemporal Modulation of Music Profiles on Coherence of Cardiovascular Rhythms

Authors: I-Hui Hsieh, Yu-Hsuan Hu


The powerful effect of music is often associated with changes in physiological responses such as heart rate and respiration. Previous studies demonstrate that Mayer waves of blood pressure, the spontaneous rhythm occurring at 0.1 Hz, corresponds to a progressive crescendo of the musical phrase. However, music contain dynamic changes in temporal and spectral features. As such, it remains unclear which aspects of musical structures optimally affect synchronization of cardiovascular rhythms. This study investigates the independent contribution of spectral pattern, temporal pattern, and dissonance level on synchronization of cardiovascular rhythms. The regularity of acoustical patterns occurring at a periodic rhythm of 0.1 Hz is hypothesized to elicit the strongest coherence of cardiovascular rhythms. Music excerpts taken from twelve pieces of Western classical repertoire were modulated to contain varying degrees of pattern regularity of the acoustic envelope structure. Three levels of dissonance were manipulated by varying the harmonic structure of the accompanying chords. Electrocardiogram and photoplethysmography signals were recorded for 5 minutes of baseline and simultaneously while participants listen to music excerpts randomly presented over headphones in a sitting position. Participants were asked to indicate the pleasantness of each music excerpt by adjusting via a slider presented on screen. Analysis of the Fourier spectral power of blood pressure around 0.1 Hz showed a significant difference between music excerpts characterized by spectral and temporal pattern regularity compared to the same content in random pattern. Phase coherence between heart rate and blood pressure increased significantly during listening to spectrally-regular phrases compared to its matched control phrases. The degree of dissonance of the accompanying chord sequence correlated with level of coherence between heart rate and blood pressure. Results suggest that low-level auditory features of music can entrain coherence of autonomic physiological variables. These findings have potential implications for using music as a clinical and therapeutic intervention for regulating cardiovascular functions.

Keywords: cardiovascular rhythms, coherence, dissonance, pattern regularity

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1442 'You Block Yourself from the Emotion': A Qualitative Inquiry into Teacher's Use of Discordant Emotional Labor Strategies in Student Aggression

Authors: Michal Levy


Despite the emotional impact students' misbehavior and aggression has on teacher's emotional wellbeing, teachers frequently use suppressive strategies in the classroom, which maintain a discordance between felt and expressed emotions. The current study sought to gain a deeper insight into teachers' utilization of discordant emotional labor strategies (i.e., expressive suppression, surface acting and emotional dissonance) and their motives to using these strategies in student aggression. A qualitative study was conducted on 16 special education Jewish Israeli teachers. Thematic analysis of the in-depth semi-structured interviews revealed novice teachers were inclined to use expressive suppression, while experienced teachers used emotional dissonance. The teacher's motives for using discordant emotional labor strategies included both instrumental and hedonic goals. Implications for policymakers and professionals in practice are discussed to improve teachers' emotional wellbeing.

Keywords: discordant strategies, emotional labor, student aggression, teachers

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1441 A Cross Cultural Study of Jewish and Arab Listeners: Perception of Harmonic Sequences

Authors: Roni Granot


Musical intervals are the building blocks of melody and harmony. Intervals differ in terms of their size, direction, or quality as consonants or dissonants. In Western music, perceptual dissonance is mostly associated with the sensation of beats or periodicity, whereas cognitive dissonance is associated with rules of harmony and voice leading. These two perceptions can be studied separately in musical cultures which include melodic with little or no harmonic structures. In the Arab musical system, there is a number of different quarter- tone intervals creating various combinations of consonant and dissonant intervals. While traditional Arab music includes only melody, today’s Arab pop music includes harmonization of songs, often using typical Western harmonic sequences. Therefore, the Arab population in Israel presents an interesting case which enables us to examine the distinction between perceptual and cognitive dissonance. In the current study, we compared the responses of 34 Jewish Western listeners and 56 Arab listeners to two types of stimuli and their relationships: Harmonic sequences and isolated harmonic intervals (dyads). Harmonic sequences were presented in synthesized piano tones and represented five levels of Harmonic prototypicality (Tonic ending; Tonic ending with half flattened third; Deceptive cadence; Half cadence; and Dissonant unrelated ending) and were rated on 5-point scales of closure and surprise. Here we report only findings related to the harmonic sequences. One-way repeated measures ANOVA with one within subjects factor with five levels (Type of sequence) and one between- subjects factor (Musical background) indicates a main effect of Type of sequence for surprise ratings F (4, 85) = 51 p<.001, and for closure ratings F (4, 78) 9.54 p < .001, no main effect of Background on either surprise or closure ratings, and a marginally significant Type X Background interaction for surprise F (4, 352) = 6.05 p = .069 and closure ratings F (4, 324) 3.89 p < .01). Planned comparisons show that the interaction of Type of sequence X Background center around surprise and closure ratings of the regular versus the half- flattened third tonic and the deceptive versus the half cadence. The half- flattened third tonic is rated as less surprising and as demanding less continuation than the regular tonic by the Arab listeners as compared to the Western listeners. In addition, the half cadence is rated as more surprising but demanding less continuation than the deceptive cadence in the Arab listeners as compared to the Western listeners. Together, our results suggest that despite the vast exposure of Arab listeners to Western harmony, sensitivity to harmonic rules seems to be partial with preference to oriental sonorities such as half flattened third. In addition, the percept of directionality which demands sensitivity to the level on which closure is obtained and which is strongly entrenched in Western harmony, may not be fully integrated into the Arab listeners’ mental harmonic scheme. Results will be discussed in terms of broad differences between Western and Eastern aesthetic ideals.

Keywords: harmony, cross cultural, Arab music, closure

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1440 The Underestimation of Cultural Risk in the Execution of Megaprojects

Authors: Alan Walsh, Peter Walker, Michael Ellis


There is a real danger that both practitioners and researchers considering risks associated with megaprojects ignore or underestimate the impacts of cultural risk. The paper investigates the potential impacts of a failure to achieve cultural unity between the principal actors executing a megaproject. The principle relationships include the relationships between the principle Contractors and the project stakeholders or the project stakeholders and their principle advisors, Western Consultants. This study confirms that cultural dissonance between these parties can delay or disrupt the megaproject execution and examines why cultural issues should be prioritized as a significant risk factor in megaproject delivery. This paper addresses the practical impacts and potential mitigation measures, which may reduce cultural dissonance for a megaproject's delivery. This information is retrieved from on-going case studies in live infrastructure megaprojects in Europe and the Middle East's GCC states, from Western Consultants' perspective. The collaborating researchers each have at least 30 years of construction experience and are engaged in architecture, project management and contracts management, dealing with megaprojects in Europe or the GCC. After examining the cultural interfaces they have observed during the execution of megaprojects, they conclude that globally, culture significantly influences their efficient delivery. The study finds that cultural risk is ever-present, where different nationalities co-manage megaprojects and that cultural conflict poses a real threat to the timely delivery of megaprojects. The study indicates that the higher the cultural distance between the principal actors, the more pronounced the risk, with the risk of cultural dissonance more prominent in GCC megaprojects. The findings support a more culturally aware and cohesive team approach and recommend cross-cultural training to mitigate the effects of cultural disparity.

Keywords: cultural risk underestimation, cultural distance, megaproject characteristics, megaproject execution

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1439 Trust: The Enabler of Knowledge-Sharing Culture in an Informal Setting

Authors: Emmanuel Ukpe, S. M. F. D. Syed Mustapha


Trust in an organization has been perceived as one of the key factors behind knowledge sharing, mainly in an unstructured work environment. In an informal working environment, to instill trust among individuals is a challenge and even more in the virtual environment. The study has contributed in developing the framework for building trust in an unstructured organization in performing knowledge sharing in a virtual environment. The artifact called KAPE (Knowledge Acquisition, Processing, and Exchange) was developed for knowledge sharing for the informal organization where the framework was incorporated. It applies to Cassava farmers to facilitate knowledge sharing using web-based platform. A survey was conducted; data were collected from 382 farmers from 21 farm communities. Multiple regression technique, Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test; Tukey’s Honestly significant difference (HSD) analysis; one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and all trust acceptable measures (TAM) were used to test the hypothesis and to determine noteworthy relationships. The results show a significant difference when there is a trust in knowledge sharing between farmers, the ones who have high in trust acceptable factors found in the model (M = 3.66 SD = .93) and the ones who have low on trust acceptable factors (M = 2.08 SD = .28), (t (48) = 5.69, p = .00). Furthermore, when applying Cognitive Expectancy Theory, the farmers with cognitive-consonance show higher level of trust and satisfaction with knowledge and information from KAPE, as compared with a low level of cognitive-dissonance. These results imply that the adopted trust model KAPE positively improved knowledge sharing activities in an informal environment amongst rural farmers.

Keywords: trust, knowledge, sharing, knowledge acquisition, processing and exchange, KAPE

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1438 Intervention of Threat and Surveillance on the Obedience of Preschool Children

Authors: Sarah Mhae Diaz, Erika Anna De Leon, Jacklin Alwil Cartagena, Geordan Caruncong, Micah Riezl Gonzales


This study examined the intervention of threat and surveillance on the obedience of 100 preschool children through a task variable experiment replicated from the previous studies of Higbee (1979), and Chua, J., Chua, M., & Pico (1983). Nowadays, obedience among Filipino children to authority is disregarded since they are more outspoken and rebel due to social influences. With this, aside from corporal punishment, threat and surveillance became a mean of inducing obedience. Threat, according to the Dissonance Theory, can give attitudinal change. On the other hand, surveillance, according to the Theory of Social Facilitation, can either contribute to the completion or failure to do a task. Through a 2x2 factorial design, results show; (1) threat (F(1,96) = 12.487, p < 0.05) and (2) surveillance (F(1,96)=9.942, p<.05) had a significant main effect on obedience, suggesting that the Dissonance Theory and Theory of Social Facilitation is respectively true in the study. On the other hand, (3) no interaction (F(1,96)=1.303, p > .05) was seen since threat and surveillance both have a main effect that could be positive or negative, or could be because of their complementary property as supported by the post-hoc results. Also, (4) most effective commanding style is threat and surveillance setting (M = 30.04, SD = 7.971) due to the significant main effect of the two variables. With this, in the Filipino Setting, threat and surveillance has proven to be a very effective strategy to discipline and induce obedience from a child.

Keywords: experimental study, obedience, preschool children, surveillance, threat

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1437 Community Based Heritage Tourism in the Old City of Nazareth

Authors: Alon Gelbman, Daniel Laven


The paper focuses on a case study of a small-scale heritage tourism venture that seeks to influence tourism development in Nazareth’s old city. This is an exploratory case study that uses qualitative research methods including extensive participant observation and in-depth interviews with the venture’s senior management group and selected employees. Study findings indicate a model of the relationship between community-based tourism development, heritage, and peace-building in a city that has experienced a wide range of cross-cultural conflicts. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict.

Keywords: cultural heritage tourism, tourism and peace, community-based tourism, sustainable tourism, cross-cultural conflict, Nazareth historic city

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1436 I Feel Pretty: Using Discretization to Unpack Gender Disparity in Musical Theatre - A Study of Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story

Authors: Erin McKellar, Narelle Yeo


Gender disparity can be found in the representation of the female characters in Leonard Bernstein’s musical West Side Story. As a postmodern composer, Bernstein was open about his social activism, yet did not consider his compositional portrayal of female characters as part of that activism. Using discretization as an analysis tool, this thesis explores the melodic contours of male and female songs in West Side Story to show differences in complexity between male and female characterisation. The analysis explores the intervallic relationship between the vocal line and melodic color in relation to the accompaniment harmony, taking into consideration the use of consonance and dissonance. West Side Story is commonly known for its distinct use of the tritone motif and its inherent dissonance. It is evident when reviewing the findings of this study that there is a distinct disparity between male-led and female-led music. The male-led numbers consistently adhere to a dissonant aesthetic with the tritone motif implemented in all of the extracted songs. By contrast, the female songs remain consonant with simple intervallic movements. By examining the results of this study through the lens of Equality Feminism, this thesis finds that Bernstein has simplified the characterisations of the female leads. The thesis further proposes that without cognisant consideration of the compositional portrayal of women, the musical theatre will continue to reinforce gender stereotypes, as evident through this study of Bernstein’s West Side Story.

Keywords: music theatre, gender bias, composition, Leonard Bernstein

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1435 Mitigating Self-Regulation Issues in the Online Instruction of Math

Authors: Robert Vanderburg, Michael Cowling, Nicholas Gibson


Mathematics is one of the core subjects taught in the Australian K-12 education system and is considered an important component for future studies in areas such as engineering and technology. In addition to this, Australia has been a world leader in distance education due to the vastness of its geographic landscape. Despite this, research is still needed on distance math instruction. Even though delivery of curriculum has given way to online studies, and there is a resultant push for computer-based (PC, tablet, smartphone) math instruction, much instruction still involves practice problems similar to those original curriculum packs, without the ability for students to self-regulate their learning using the full interactive capabilities of these devices. Given this need, this paper addresses issues students have during online instruction. This study consists of 32 students struggling with mathematics enrolled in a math tutorial conducted in an online setting. The study used a case study design to understand some of the blockades hindering the students’ success. Data was collected by tracking students practice and quizzes, tracking engagement of the site, recording one-on-one tutorials, and collecting data from interviews with the students. Results revealed that when students have cognitively straining tasks in an online instructional setting, the first thing to dissipate was their ability to self-regulate. The results also revealed that instructors could ameliorate the situation and provided useful data on strategies that could be used for designing future online tasks. Specifically, instructors could utilize cognitive dissonance strategies to reduce the cognitive drain of the tasks online. They could segment the instruction process to reduce the cognitive demands of the tasks and provide in-depth self-regulatory training, freeing mental capacity for the mathematics content. Finally, instructors could provide specific scheduling and assignment structure changes to reduce the amount of student centered self-regulatory tasks in the class. These findings will be discussed in more detail and summarized in a framework that can be used for future work.

Keywords: digital education, distance education, mathematics education, self-regulation

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1434 Cognitive Based Approach to Organizational Development

Authors: Tatiana V. Korsakova


The cognitive methodology in management is considered: Cognitive structuring - the formation of ideas about the functioning of a developing organization; Cognitive modeling - heuristic construction of existing actions (zone of successful actions); and Cognitive construct - the formation of filters for converting external information into specific events of managerial reality. The major findings of the study are the identification of areas of successful actions in the organization, harmonization of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of company management, and the frame-description that indicates the connection of environmental elements with the elements of the organization. It is stated the development of specific events of managerial reality in the direction of the further development of the organization depends on the personal cognitive construct of the development-subjects when it is used in the zone of successful actions.

Keywords: cognitive construct, focus of applicability, knowledge corporate culture, zones of successful actions

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1433 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina


Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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1432 Status Quo Bias: A Paradigm Shift in Policy Making

Authors: Divyansh Goel, Varun Jain


Classical economics works on the principle that people are rational and analytical in their decision making and their choices fall in line with the most suitable option according to the dominant strategy in a standard game theory model. This model has failed at many occasions in estimating the behavior and dealings of rational people, giving proof of some other underlying heuristics and cognitive biases at work. This paper probes into the study of these factors, which fall under the umbrella of behavioral economics and through their medium explore the solution to a problem which a lot of nations presently face. There has long been a wide disparity in the number of people holding favorable views on organ donation and the actual number of people signing up for the same. This paper, in its entirety, is an attempt to shape the public policy which leads to an increase the number of organ donations that take place and close the gap in the statistics of the people who believe in signing up for organ donation and the ones who actually do. The key assumption here is that in cases of cognitive dissonance, where people have an inconsistency due to conflicting views, people have a tendency to go with the default choice. This tendency is a well-documented cognitive bias known as the status quo bias. The research in this project involves an assay of mandated choice models of organ donation with two case studies. The first of an opt-in system of Germany (where people have to explicitly sign up for organ donation) and the second of an opt-out system of Austria (every citizen at the time of their birth is an organ donor and has to explicitly sign up for refusal). Additionally, there has also been presented a detailed analysis of the experiment performed by Eric J. Johnson and Daniel G. Goldstein. Their research as well as many other independent experiments such as that by Tsvetelina Yordanova of the University of Sofia, both of which yield similar results. The conclusion being that the general population has by and large no rigid stand on organ donation and are gullible to status quo bias, which in turn can determine whether a large majority of people will consent to organ donation or not. Thus, in our paper, we throw light on how governments can use status quo bias to drive positive social change by making policies in which everyone by default is marked an organ donor, which will, in turn, save the lives of people who succumb on organ transplantation waitlists and save the economy countless hours of economic productivity.

Keywords: behavioral economics, game theory, organ donation, status quo bias

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1431 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius


Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

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1430 Military Leadership: Emotion Culture and Emotion Coping in Morally Stressful Situations

Authors: Sofia Nilsson, Alicia Ohlsson, Linda-Marie Lundqvist, Aida Alvinius, Peder Hyllengren, Gerry Larsson


In irregular warfare contexts, military personnel are often presented with morally ambiguous situations where they are aware of the morally correct choice but may feel prevented to follow through with it due to organizational demands. Moral stress and/or injury can be the outcome of the individual’s experienced dissonance. These types of challenges put a large demand on the individual to manage their own emotions and the emotions of others, particularly in the case of a leader. Both the ability and inability for emotional regulation can result in different combinations of short and long term reactions after morally stressful events, which can be either positive or negative. Our study analyzed the combination of these reactions based upon the types of morally challenging events that were described by the subjects. 1)What institutionalized norms concerning emotion regulation are favorable in short-and long-term perspectives after a morally stressful event? 2)What individual emotion-focused coping strategies are favorable in short-and long-perspectives after a morally stressful? To address these questions, we conducted a quantitative study in military contexts in Sweden and Norway on upcoming or current military officers (n=331). We tested a theoretical model built upon a recently developed qualitative study. The data was analyzed using factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and subgroup analyses. The results indicated that an individual’s restriction of emotion in order to achieve an organizational goal, which results in emotional dissonance, can be an effective short term strategy for both the individual and the organization; however, it appears to be unfavorable in a long-term perspective which can result in negative reactions. Our results are intriguing because they showed an increased percentage of reported negative long term reactions (13%), which indicated PTSD-related symptoms in comparison to previous Swedish studies which indicated lower PTSD symptomology.

Keywords: emotion culture, emotion coping, emotion management, military

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1429 Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation

Authors: Fariea Bakul, Chhanda Karmaker


The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.

Keywords: cognitive emotion regulation, parental bonding, parental care, parental over-protection

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1428 Prevalence of Cognitive Decline in Major Depressive Illness

Authors: U. B. Zubair, A. Kiyani


Introduction: Depressive illness predispose individuals to a lot of physical and mental health issues. Anxiety and substance use disorders have been studied widely as comorbidity. Biological symptoms also now considered part of the depressive spectrum. Cognitive abilities also decline or get affected and need to be looked into in detail in depressed patients. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cognitive decline among patients with major depressive illness and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Methods: 190 patients of major depressive illness were included in our study to determine the presence of cognitive decline among them. Depression was diagnosed by a consultant psychiatrist by using the ICD-10 criteria for major depressive disorder. British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI) was the psychometric tool used to determine the cognitive decline. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and the relationship of various factors with cognitive decline was also ascertained. Findings: 70% of the patients suffering from depression included in this study showed the presence of some degree of cognitive decline, while 30% did not show any evidence of cognitive decline when screened through BCCCI. Statistical testing revealed that the female gender was the only socio-demographic parameter linked significantly with the presence of cognitive decline. Conclusion: Decline in cognitive abilities was found in a significant number of patients suffering from major depression in our sample population. Screening for this parameter f mental function should be done in depression clinics to pick it early.

Keywords: depression, cognitive decline, prevalence, socio-demographic factors

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1427 Effectiveness of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Improving Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rehabilitation

Authors: Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Azadeh Bashiri


Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in early childhood that in addition to its main symptoms provide significant deficits in the areas of educational, social and individual relationship. Considering the importance of rehabilitation in ADHD patients to control these problems, this study investigated the advantages of computer-based cognitive training in these patients. Methods: This review article has been conducted by searching articles since 2005 in scientific databases and e-Journals and by using keywords including computerized cognitive rehabilitation, computer-based training and ADHD. Results: Since drugs have short term effects and also they have many side effects in the rehabilitation of ADHD patients, using supplementary methods such as computer-based cognitive training is one of the best solutions. This approach has quick feedback and also has no side effects. So, it provides promising results in cognitive rehabilitation of ADHD especially on the working memory and attention. Conclusion: Considering different cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD patients, application of the computerized cognitive training has the potential to improve cognitive functions and consequently social, academic and behavioral performances in patients with this disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, computer-based cognitive training, cognitive functions, rehabilitation

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1426 The Impact of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Emotional Abuse in Turbulent Couples

Authors: M. Kargar., S. A. Kimiaei, A. Mashhadie


This paper is a quasi-experimental study investigating the effect of self-regulation couple therapy on cognitive emotion regulation and emotional abuse in turbulent couples. Of the couples consulting the counseling and psychotherapy centers of Social Welfare and Education Office of Mashahd, ten couples were randomly selected through a stratified sampling method and were equally assigned to experimental and waiting list control groups. After completing the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and emotional abuse scale (EAS), the results showed that self-regulation couple therapy can increase the participants’ adaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation strategies, reduce their maladaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation, and decrease their emotional abuse.

Keywords: self-regulation couple therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, emotional abuse

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1425 Attachment as a Predictor for Cognitive Rigidity

Authors: Barbara Gawda


Attachment model formed in childhood has an important impact on emotional development, personality, and social relationships. Attachment is also thought to have an impact on construction of affective-cognitive schemas and cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to verify whether there is an association between attachment and cognitive rigidity defined as dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The analysis of 180 participants (persons of a similar age and education level, number of men and women was equal) was conducted. To test the attachment styles, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-R) was used. To examine cognitive rigidity, the Rokeach and Budner questionnaires were used. A multiple regression model was employed to examine whether attachment styles are predictors for dogmatism. The results confirmed that fearful-ambivalent attachment is the main predictor for dogmatism but not for intolerance of ambiguity.

Keywords: attachment styles, cognitive rigidity, dogmatism, intolerance of ambiguity

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1424 Critical Thinking for a Global Society: A Holistic Approach

Authors: Natasha Robson


The 'post-truth', 'surveillance capitalist' world in which we live - a world of psychometric targeting, social media, and pervasive conspiracy theorising - is not a world for which our current education system prepares its participants. Instead, the 2013 reforms scrapped the 'low-content' subject of 'critical thinking' just at the moment when its importance, it might be argued, was becoming greater than ever before. The research the paper will discuss has led to the creation, or formulation, of a new perspective on critical thinking - a concept with an already somewhat contested definition. Using a combination of recent research in neuroscience and long-accepted concepts from the social sciences, this design focuses on the aspects of our thinking that 'let us down' when interacting with information - and with one another. The paper will propose that these concepts can be integrated into the existing curricula and that this would not require a great deal of extra work or training for teachers. The paper will explore these ideas, their utility and applicability in the classroom, and their relevance in the context of the ever-changing modern world. Using evidence from research into ‘metacognition’ (which is not dissimilar to John Dewey’s ‘reflective thinking’), it will propose that it would be relatively easy and incredibly powerful to move to the more explicit teaching of critical thinking in existing subjects in secondary education. The paper will also suggest ways of doing this in the classroom, in the context of various secondary subjects. Using this work, I have already designed and delivered a course teaching these ideas explicitly to employees of Reading Borough Council and will be giving talks to two local schools in the next term. I have also provided local schools with resources on some concepts, such as confirmation bias, and am currently writing a workbook for teachers to easily apply these ideas in their practice. My work in this area has led me to become a Fellow of the RSA, and the intention, when my doctorate is completed, is to engage as far as possible with educators – not only young people but also adults – in the hope that a new relationship with knowledge and information might be created, and a better toolkit for the modern world provided to our learners. Beginning at the most internal – how we make and store meaning in the brain – the discussion will move outward to consider heuristics and biases, problematic mechanisms such as cognitive dissonance, and finally to external contributions to our ‘cognitive fallibility’ – social factors such as group membership and conditioning. By considering how these impact our engagement with one another and with the world, it will be proposed that, with relative ease, these ideas can be taught (with a specifically metacognitive focus) to secondary school learners to help address the growing problems of disinformation and ideological manipulation.

Keywords: cognitive science, critical thinking, metacognition, education

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1423 A Self-Coexistence Strategy for Spectrum Allocation Using Selfish and Unselfish Game Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Noel Jeygar Robert, V. K.Vidya


Cognitive radio is a software-defined radio technology that allows cognitive users to operate on the vacant bands of spectrum allocated to licensed users. Cognitive radio plays a vital role in the efficient utilization of wireless radio spectrum available between cognitive users and licensed users without making any interference to licensed users. The spectrum allocation followed by spectrum sharing is done in a fashion where a cognitive user has to wait until spectrum holes are identified and allocated when the licensed user moves out of his own allocated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a self –coexistence strategy using bargaining and Cournot game model for achieving spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. The game-theoretic model analyses the behaviour of cognitive users in both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios and provides an equilibrium level of spectrum allocation. Game-theoretic models such as bargaining game model and Cournot game model produce a balanced distribution of spectrum resources and energy consumption. Simulation results show that both game theories achieve better performance compared to other popular techniques

Keywords: cognitive radio, game theory, bargaining game, Cournot game

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1422 Complex Learning Tasks and Their Impact on Cognitive Engagement for Undergraduate Engineering Students

Authors: Anastassis Kozanitis, Diane Leduc, Alain Stockless


This paper presents preliminary results from a two-year funded research program looking to analyze and understand the relationship between high cognitive engagement, higher order cognitive processes employed in situations of complex learning tasks, and the use of active learning pedagogies in engineering undergraduate programs. A mixed method approach was used to gauge student engagement and their cognitive processes when accomplishing complex tasks. Quantitative data collected from the self-report cognitive engagement scale shows that deep learning approach is positively correlated with high levels of complex learning tasks and the level of student engagement, in the context of classroom active learning pedagogies. Qualitative analyses of in depth face-to-face interviews reveal insights into the mechanisms influencing students’ cognitive processes when confronted with open-ended problem resolution. Findings also support evidence that students will adjust their level of cognitive engagement according to the specific didactic environment.

Keywords: cognitive engagement, deep and shallow strategies, engineering programs, higher order cognitive processes

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1421 The Postcognitivist Era in Cognitive Psychology

Authors: C. Jameke


During the cognitivist era in cognitive psychology, a theory of internal rules and symbolic representations was posited as an account of human cognition. This type of cognitive architecture had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s, but it has now been largely abandoned in favour of subsymbolic architectures (e.g. connectionism), non-representational frameworks (e.g. dynamical systems theory), and statistical approaches such as Bayesian theory. In this presentation I describe this changing landscape of research, and comment on the increasing influence of neuroscience on cognitive psychology. I then briefly review a few recent developments in connectionism, and neurocomputation relevant to cognitive psychology, and critically discuss the assumption made by some researchers in these frameworks that higher-level aspects of human cognition are simply emergent properties of massively large distributed neural networks

Keywords: connectionism, emergentism, postocgnitivist, representations, subsymbolic archiitecture

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