Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: anesthesia

85 The Effect of Remifentanil on Emergence Agitation after Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Sung Young Park, Dae Hee Kim, Han Bum Joe, Ji Young Yoo, Jong Bum Choi, Sook Young Lee


Emergence agitation (EA) is commonly reported adverse events after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients. The efficacy of prophylactic remifentanil, one of mu opioid agonist, in preventing EA is controversial. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of remifentanil to decrease the incidence of EA from sevoflurane anesthesia in children. We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing sevoflurane alone anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil anesthesia to prevent EA in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed, and KoreaMed, and included 6 studies with 361 patients. The number of patients of reporting EA was summarized using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), with point estimates and 95CIs derived from a random effects Mantel-Haenszel method. Overall incidence of EA was about 41%. Compared with sevoflurane alone anesthesia, intravenous infusion of remifentanil with sevoflurane significantly reduced the incidence of EA (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.73, P < 0.0001), (heterogeneity, I2 = 0, P = 0.42). This meta-analysis suggested that continuous infusion of remifentanil could be effective in decreasing the EA of about 47% after sevoflurane anesthesia. However, considering limitations of the included studies, more randomized controlled studies are required to verify our results.

Keywords: emergence agitation, meta-analysis, remifentanil, pediatrics

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84 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: mechanical, thermal, electrical threshold, IVRA, NBA, hind limb, dairy cow

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83 MicroRNA Differential Profiling in Hepatitis C Patients Undergoing Major Surgeries: Propofol versus Sevoflurane Anesthesia

Authors: Hala Demerdash, Ola M. Zanaty, Emad Eldin Arida


Background: This study investigated the micoRNA expression changes induced by Sevoflurane and Propofol and their effects on liver functions. Patients and methods: The study was designed as randomized controlled study, carried out on 200 adult patients, scheduled for major surgeries under general anesthesia (GA). Patients were randomly divided into four groups; groups SC and PC included chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients where SC group are patients receiving Sevoflurane, and PC group are patients receiving Propofol anesthesia. While S and P groups included non- hepatitis patients; S group are patients receiving Sevoflurane and P group are patients receiving Propofol. Anesthesia in Group S and SC patients was maintained by sevoflurane, while anesthesia in Group P and PC patients was maintained by propofol infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for PT, PTT and liver enzymes. Serum samples were analyzed for microRNA before and after surgery. Results: Results show miRNA-122 and miRNA-21 were absent in serum of S and P groups in pre-operative samples. However, they were expressed in SC and PC groups. In post-operative samples; miRNA-122 revealed an increased expression in all groups; with more exaggerated response in SC group. On the other hand miRNA-21 revealed increased expression in both SC and PC groups; a slight expression in S group with absent expression in P group. There was a post-operative negative correlation between miR-122 and ALT (r=-0.46) in SC group and (r=-0.411) in PC group and positive correlation between ALT and miR-21 (r=0.335) in SC group and (r=0.379) in PC group. The amount of blood loss was positively correlated with miR-122 (r=0.366) in SC group and (r=0.384) in PC group. Conclusion: Propofol anesthesia is safer than Sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with CHC. Sevoflurane and Propofol anesthesia affect miRNA expression in both CHC and non-hepatitis patients.

Keywords: anesthesia, chronic hepatitis C, micoRNA, propofol, sevoflurane

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82 Maternal Perception of Using Epidural Anesthesia and the Childbirth Outcomes

Authors: Jiyoung Kim, Chae Weon Chung


Labor pain is one of the most common concerns of pregnant women, thus women are in need of possible options they could take to control the pain. So, this study aimed to explore maternal perception of epidural anesthesia and to compare the childbirth outcomes according to the use of epidural anesthesia. For this descriptive study, women who were over 36 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from an out-patient obstetric clinic in a public hospital in Seoul. Women were included in the study if agreed to participate, were pregnant singleton, without pregnancy complication, and expecting a natural birth. Data collection was done twice, the first one at the prenatal care visit and the second one at an in-patient ward on 2nd day postpartum. The instrument of the beliefs about epidural anesthesia, one item of asking intention to use epidural anesthesia, demographics, and obstetrical characteristics were incorporated into a questionnaire. One nurse researcher performed data collection with the structured questionnaire after the approval of the institutional review board. At the initial data collection 133 women were included, while 117 were retained at the second point after excluded 13 women due to the occurrence of complications. Analyses were done by chi-square, t-test, and ANOVA using the SPSS program. Women were aged 32.5 years old, 22.2% were over 35 years old. The average gestational age was 38.5 weeks, and 67.5% were nulliparous. Out of 38 multiparous women, 20 women (52.6%) had received epidural anesthesia in the previous delivery. At the initial interview, 62.6% (n=73) of women wanted to receive epidural anesthesia while 22.4% answered not decided and 15.4% did not want to take the procedure. However, there were changes in proportions between women’s intention to take it and actual procedures done, particularly, two-thirds of women (n=26) who had been undecided were found to receive epidural anesthesia during labor. There was a significant difference in the perception of epidural anesthesia measured before delivery between women who received and not received it (t=3.68, p < .001). Delivery outcomes were statistically different between the two groups in delivery mode (chi-square=8.64, p=.01), O₂ supply during labor (chi-square =5.01, p=.03), duration of 2nd stage of labor (t=3.70, p < .001), and arterial cord blood pH (t=2.64, p=.01). Interestingly, there was no difference in labor pain perceived between women with and without epidural anesthesia. Considering the preference and use of epidural anesthesia, health professionals need to assess coping ability of women undergoing delivery and to provide accurate information about pain control to support their decision making and eventually to enhance delivery outcomes for mothers and neonates.

Keywords: epidural anesthesia, delivery outcomes, labor pain, perception

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81 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: IVRA, four point NBA, dairy cow, hind limb, full onset

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
80 Model and Neural Control of the Depth of Anesthesia during Surgery

Authors: Javier Fernandez, Mayte Medina, Rafael Fernandez de Canete, Nuria Alcain, Juan Carlos Ramos-Diaz


At present, the experimentation of anesthetic drugs on patients requires a regulation protocol, and the response of each patient to several doses of entry drug must be well known. Therefore, the development of pharmacological dose control systems is a promising field of research in anesthesiology. In this paper, it has been developed a non-linear compartmental the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamical model which describes the anesthesia depth effect in a sufficiently reliable way over a set of patients with the depth effect quantified by the Bi-Spectral Index. Afterwards, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) predictive controller has been designed based on the depth of anesthesia model so as to keep the patient in the optimum condition while he undergoes surgical treatment. For the purpose of quantifying the efficiency of the neural predictive controller, a classical proportional-integral-derivative controller has also been developed to compare both strategies. Results show the superior performance of predictive neural controller during BiSpectral Index reference tracking.

Keywords: anesthesia, bi-spectral index, neural network control, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamical model

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79 Incidences and Factors Associated with Perioperative Cardiac Arrest in Trauma Patient Receiving Anesthesia

Authors: Visith Siriphuwanun, Yodying Punjasawadwong, Suwinai Saengyo, Kittipan Rerkasem


Objective: To determine incidences and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients who received anesthesia for emergency surgery. Design and setting: Retrospective cohort study in trauma patients during anesthesia for emergency surgery at a university hospital in northern Thailand country. Patients and methods: This study was permitted by the medical ethical committee, Faculty of Medicine at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We clarified data of 19,683 trauma patients receiving anesthesia within a decade between January 2007 to March 2016. The data analyzed patient characteristics, traumas surgery procedures, anesthesia information such as ASA physical status classification, anesthesia techniques, anesthetic drugs, location of anesthesia performed, and cardiac arrest outcomes. This study excluded the data of trauma patients who had received local anesthesia by surgeons or monitoring anesthesia care (MAC) and the patient which missing more information. The factor associated with perioperative cardiac arrest was identified with univariate analyses. Multiple regressions model for risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to conduct factors correlated with perioperative cardiac arrest. The multicollinearity of all variables was examined by bivariate correlation matrix. A stepwise algorithm was chosen at a p-value less than 0.02 was selected to further multivariate analysis. A P-value of less than 0.05 was concluded as statistically significant. Measurements and results: The occurrence of perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 170.04 per 10,000 cases. Factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients were age being more than 65 years (RR=1.41, CI=1.02–1.96, p=0.039), ASA physical status 3 or higher (RR=4.19–21.58, p < 0.001), sites of surgery (intracranial, intrathoracic, upper intra-abdominal, and major vascular, each p < 0.001), cardiopulmonary comorbidities (RR=1.55, CI=1.10–2.17, p < 0.012), hemodynamic instability with shock prior to receiving anesthesia (RR=1.60, CI=1.21–2.11, p < 0.001) , special techniques for surgery such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypotensive techniques (RR=5.55, CI=2.01–15.36, p=0.001; RR=6.24, CI=2.21–17.58, p=0.001, respectively), and patients who had a history of being alcoholic (RR=5.27, CI=4.09–6.79, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Incidence of perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was very high and correlated with many factors, especially age of patient and cardiopulmonary comorbidities, patient having a history of alcoholic addiction, increasing ASA physical status, preoperative shock, special techniques for surgery, and sites of surgery including brain, thorax, abdomen, and major vascular region. Anesthesiologists and multidisciplinary teams in pre- and perioperative periods should remain alert for warning signs of pre-cardiac arrest and be quick to manage the high-risk group of surgical trauma patients. Furthermore, a healthcare policy should be promoted for protecting against accidents in high-risk groups of the population as well.

Keywords: perioperative cardiac arrest, trauma patients, emergency surgery, anesthesia, factors risk, incidence

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78 Intrathecal Sufentanil or Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Low Dose Bupivacaine in Endoscopic Urological Procedures

Authors: Shikha Gupta, Suneet Kathuria, Supriya Sampley, Sunil Katyal


Opioids are being increasingly used these days as adjuvants to local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study is to compare the effects of adding sufentanil or fentanyl to low dose bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures. A total of 90 elective endoscopic urological surgery patients, 40‑80 years old, received spinal anesthesia with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (Group A) or by adding sufentanil 10 μg (Group B) or fentanyl 25 μg (Group C) to 5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. These groups were compared in terms of the quality of spinal anesthesia as well as analgesia. Analysis of variance and Chi‑square test were used for Statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid in Group A as compared with Groups B and C. The maximum upper level of sensory block was higher in Group A patients than Groups B and C patients. Quality of analgesia was significantly better and prolonged in sufentanil group as compared with other two groups. Motor block was more intense and prolonged in Group A as compared with Groups B and C patients. Request for post‑operative analgesic was significantly delayed in Group B patients. Hence in conclusions, spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures in elderly patients using low dose bupivacaine (5 mg) combined with 10 μg sufentanil is associated with a lower incidence of hemodynamic instability, better quality and prolonged duration as compared to that by adding 25 μg fentanyl.

Keywords: adjuvants, bupivacaine, fentanyl, intrathecal, low dose spinal, sufentanil

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77 First Documented Anesthesia with Use of Low Doses of Tiletamine-Zolazepam Combination in Ovoviparous Amazon Tree Boa Undergoing Emergency Coeliotomy-Case Report

Authors: Krzysztof Buczak, Sonia Lachowska, Pawel Kucharski, Agnieszka Antonczyk


Tiletamine - zolazepam combination is increasingly used in veterinary anaesthesiology in wild animals, including snakes. The available literature shows a lack of information about anesthesia in this mixture in ovoviviparous snakes. The studies show the possibility of using the combination at a dose of 20 mg/kg or more for snake immobilization. This paper presents an anesthetic protocol with the use of a combination of tiletamine - zolazepam at the dose of 10 mg/kg intramuscularly and maintenance with inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane in pure oxygen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the anesthetic protocol to proceed with coeliotomy in Amazon Tree Boa. The patient was a five years old bicolor female Amazon Tree Boa (Corallus hortulanus) with dystocia. The clinical examination reveals significant emaciation (bodyweight 520g), high degree of dehydration, heart rate (HR = 60 / min), pale mucous membranes and poor reactivity. Meloxicam (1 mg/kg) and tramadol (10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously and the patient was placed in an incubator with access to fresh oxygen. Four hours later, the combination of tiletamine - zolazepam (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for induction of anesthesia. The snake was intubated and connected to inhalant anesthesia equipment. For maintenance, the anesthesia isoflurane in pure oxygen was used due to apnea, which occurs 30 minutes after the induction semi-closed system was attached and the ventilator was turned on (PCV system, four breaths per minute, 8 cm of H2O). Cardiopulmonary parameters (HR, RR, SPO2, ETCO2, ETISO) were assessed throughout the procedure. During the entire procedure, the operating room was heated to a temperature of 26 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the hose was placed on a heating mat, which maintained a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius. For 15 minutes after induction, the loss of muscle tone was observed from the head to the tail. Induction of general anesthesia was scored as good because of the possibility of intubation. During the whole procedure, the heart rate was at the rate of 58 beats per minute (bpm). Ventilation parameters were stable throughout the procedure. The recovery period lasts for about 4 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The muscle tension returned from tail to head. The snake started to breathe spontaneously within 1,5 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The protocol of general anesthesia with the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam with a dose of 10 mg/kg is useful for proceeding with the emergency coeliotomy in maintenance with isoflurane in oxygen. Further study about the impact of the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam for the recovery period is needed.

Keywords: anesthesia, corallus hortulanus, ovoviparous, snake, tiletamine, zolazepam

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76 Unexpected Acute Respiratory Failure following Administration of Rocuronium Bromide during Cesarean Delivery in a Severely Preeclamptic Parturient Treated with Magnesium Sulfate

Authors: Joseph Carl Macalintal, Erlinda Armovit


Magnesium sulfate has been a mainstay in the management of preeclampsia and is associated with a decreased incidence of morbidity and mortality. The syndrome has an unpredictable course, sometimes rapidly evolving to full-blown disease. In patients with deteriorating status, it is indicated to terminate the pregnancy via cesarean section. The anesthesiologists would prefer to have the procedure done under regional anesthesia; however, there may be cases when neuraxial anesthesia is contraindicated, or a general anesthesia would permit prompt delivery of the fetus. A patient with severe preeclampsia was given magnesium sulfate intrapartum, wherein a primary cesarean section was indicated for arrest in cervical dilatation, and was performed under general anesthesia. The patient developed acute respiratory failure and the causes of this occurrence were investigated in this report. It was later found out that neither the hypermagnesemia nor the muscle relaxant alone caused the patient’s condition but the interaction between the two. The patient was managed expectantly at the intensive care unit (ICU) and was eventually extubated during the 1st post-operative day. Knowledge of this drug interaction would allow obstetricians to advise their patients and their family about the possibility of prolonged intubation and ICU admission. This would also bring to the anesthesiologists’ attention the need to decrease the dose of muscle relaxant and to prepare drugs for immediate decurarisation.

Keywords: eclampsia, magnesium sulfate, preeclampsia, rocuronium bromide

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75 Comparative Study for Neonatal Outcome and Umbilical Cord Blood Gas Parameters in Balanced and Inhalant Anesthesia for Elective Cesarean Section in Dogs

Authors: Agnieszka Antończyk, MałGorzata Ochota, Wojciech Niżański, ZdzisłAw Kiełbowicz


The goal of the cesarean section (CS) is the delivery of healthy, vigorous pups with the provision of surgical plane anesthesia, appropriate analgesia, and rapid recovery of the dam. In human medicine, spinal or epidural anesthesia is preferred for a cesarean section as associated with a lower risk of neonatal asphyxia and the need for resuscitation. Nevertheless, the specificity of veterinary patients makes the application of regional anesthesia as a sole technique impractical, thus to obtain patient compliance the general anesthesia is required. This study aimed to compare the influence of balanced (inhalant with epidural) and inhalant anesthesia on neonatal umbilical cord blood gas (UCBG) parameters and vitality (modified Apgar scoring). The bitches (31) undergoing elective CS were enrolled in this study. All females received a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg s.c. Meloxicam. Females were randomly assigned into two groups: Gr I (Isoflurane, n=16) and Gr IE (Isoflurane plus Epidural, n=15). Anesthesia was induced with propofol at 4-6 mg/kg to effect, and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen; in IE group epidural anesthesia was also done using lidocaine (3-4 mg/kg) into the lumbosacral space. CSs were performed using a standard mid-line approach. Directly after the puppy extraction, the umbilical cord was double clamped before the placenta detachment. The vessels were gently stretched between forceps to allow blood sampling. At least 100 mcl of mixed umbilical cord blood was collected into a heparinized syringe for further analysis. The modified Apgar scoring system (AS) was used to objectively score neonatal health and vitality immediately after birth (before first aid or neonatal care was instituted), at 5 and 20 min after birth. The neonates were scored as normal (AS 7-10), weak (AS 4-6), or critical (AS 0-3). During surgery, the IE group required a lower isoflurane concentration compared to the females in group I (MAC 1.05±0.2 and 1.4±0.13, respectively, p<0.01). All investigated UCBG parameters were not statistically different between groups. All pups had mild acidosis (pH 7.21±0.08 and 7.21±0.09 in Gr I and IE, respectively) with moderately elevated pCO2 (Gr I 57.18±11.48, Gr IE 58.74±15.07), HCO3- on the lower border (Gr I 22.58±3.24, Gr IE 22.83±3.6), lowered BE (Gr I -6.1±3.57, Gr IE -5.6±4.19) and mildly elevated level of lactates (Gr I 2.58±1.48, Gr IE2.53±1.03). The glucose levels were above the reference limits in both groups of puppies (74.50±25.32 in Gr I, 79.50±29.73 in Gr IE). The initial Apgar score results were similar in I and IE groups. However, the subsequent measurements of AS revealed significant differences between both groups. Puppies from the IE group received better AS scores at 5 and 20 min compared to the I group (6.86±2.23 and 8.06±2.06 vs 5.11±2.40 and 7.83±2.05, respectively). The obtained results demonstrated that administration of epidural anesthesia reduced the requirement for isoflurane in dams undergoing cesarean section and did not affect the neonatal umbilical blood gas results. Moreover, newborns from the epidural anesthesia group were scored significantly higher in AS at 5 and 20 min, indicating their better vitality and quicker improvement post-surgery.

Keywords: apgar scoring, balanced anesthesia, cesarean section, umbilical blood gas

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74 Technical Aspects of Closing the Loop in Depth-of-Anesthesia Control

Authors: Gorazd Karer


When performing a diagnostic procedure or surgery in general anesthesia (GA), a proper introduction and dosing of anesthetic agents are one of the main tasks of the anesthesiologist. However, depth of anesthesia (DoA) also seems to be a suitable process for closed-loop control implementation. To implement such a system, one must be able to acquire the relevant signals online and in real-time, as well as stream the calculated control signal to the infusion pump. However, during a procedure, patient monitors and infusion pumps are purposely unable to connect to an external (possibly medically unapproved) device for safety reasons, thus preventing closed-loop control. The paper proposes a conceptual solution to the aforementioned problem. First, it presents some important aspects of contemporary clinical practice. Next, it introduces the closed-loop-control-system structure and the relevant information flow. Focusing on transferring the data from the patient to the computer, it presents a non-invasive image-based system for signal acquisition from a patient monitor for online depth-of-anesthesia assessment. Furthermore, it introduces a UDP-based communication method that can be used for transmitting the calculated anesthetic inflow to the infusion pump. The proposed system is independent of a medical device manufacturer and is implemented in Matlab-Simulink, which can be conveniently used for DoA control implementation. The proposed scheme has been tested in a simulated GA setting and is ready to be evaluated in an operating theatre. However, the proposed system is only a step towards a proper closed-loop control system for DoA, which could routinely be used in clinical practice.

Keywords: closed-loop control, depth of anesthesia (DoA), modeling, optical signal acquisition, patient state index (PSi), UDP communication protocol

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73 Comparison of Two Anesthetic Methods during Interventional Neuroradiology Procedure: Propofol versus Sevoflurane Using Patient State Index

Authors: Ki Hwa Lee, Eunsu Kang, Jae Hong Park


Background: Interventional neuroradiology (INR) has been a rapidly growing and evolving neurosurgical part during the past few decades. Sevoflurane and propofol are both suitable anesthetics for INR procedure. Monitoring of depth of anesthesia is being used very widely. SEDLine™ monitor, a 4-channel processed EEG monitor, uses a proprietary algorithm to analyze the raw EEG signal and displays the Patient State Index (PSI) values. There are only a fewer studies examining the PSI in the neuro-anesthesia. We aimed to investigate the difference of PSI values and hemodynamic variables between sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia during INR procedure. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who scheduled to undergo embolization of non-ruptured intracranial aneurysm by a single operator from May 2013 to December 2014, retrospectively. Sixty-five patients were categorized into two groups; sevoflurane (n = 33) vs propofol (n = 32) group. The PSI values, hemodynamic variables, and the use of hemodynamic drugs were analyzed. Results: Significant differences were seen between PSI values obtained during different perioperative stages in both two groups (P < 0.0001). The PSI values of propofol group were lower than that of sevoflurane group during INR procedure (P < 0.01). The patients in propofol group had more prolonged time of extubation and more phenylephrine requirement than sevoflurane group (p < 0.05). Anti-hypertensive drug was more administered to the patients during extubation in sevoflurane group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The PSI can detect depth of anesthesia and changes of concentration of anesthetics during INR procedure. Extubation was faster in sevoflurane group, but smooth recovery was shown in propofol group.

Keywords: interventional neuroradiology, patient state index, propofol, sevoflurane

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72 Preoperative Parental Anxiety is not Associated with Postoperative Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and/or Tonsillectomy

Authors: S. Öcal, A. Erakgün, E. Yüksel, M. N. Deniz, E. Erhan, A. Çertuğ


Background: Emergence agitation (EA) is defined as a dissociated state of consciousness during the early post-anesthesia period in which the child is inconsolable, irritable, uncompromising or uncooperative, typically thrashing, crying, moaning, or incoherent, and not recognizing or identifying familiar and known objects or people. Some studies found preoperative parental anxiety to be a predictor of EA. Methods: Seventy-four children, between the ages of 3-12 undergoing adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy at Ege University Hospital, were studied. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using 2% sevoflurane in 50% oxygen and 50% air following a premedicative dose of 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam. After the children were taken into the operating theater, the mothers were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. To evaluate EA, Post Anesthetic Emergence Delirium (PAED) score of the children were noted every 10min during the first 30min of the postoperative period. EA was defined with a highest PAED score of ≥ 10, and non-EA with a highest PAED score of ≤ 9. Results: In this study, the incidence of postoperative EA was 31% (34% under the age of 6 and 19% over). Mothers of children with EA were found not to be significantly more anxious on STAI compared to mothers of non-EA children. Conclusions: Contrary to some earlier studies, we were unable to find an association between preoperative parental anxiety and postoperative EA.

Keywords: parental anxiety, emergence agittion, Post Anesthetic Emergence Delirium, anesthesia

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71 Anesthesia for Spinal Stabilization Using Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Dog: Case Report

Authors: Agata Migdalska, Joanna Berczynska, Ewa Bieniek, Jacek Sterna


Muscle relaxation is considered important during general anesthesia for spine stabilization. In a presented case peripherally acting muscle relaxant was applied during general anesthesia for spine stabilization surgery. The patient was a dog, 11-years old, 26 kg, male, mix breed. Spine fracture was situated between Th13-L1-L2, probably due to the car accident. Preanesthetic physical examination revealed no sign underlying health issues. The dog was premedicated with midazolam 0.2 mg IM and butorphanol 2.4 mg IM. General anesthesia was induced with propofol IV. After the induction, the dog was intubated with an endotracheal tube and connected to an open-ended rebreathing system and maintained with the use of inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. 0,5 mg/ kg of rocuronium was given IV. Use of muscle relaxant was accompanied by an assessment of the degree of neuromuscular blockade by peripheral nerve stimulator. Electrodes were attached to the skin overlying at the peroneal nerve at the lateral cranial tibia. Four electrical pulses were applied to the nerve over a 2 second period. When satisfying nerve block was detected dog was prepared for the surgery. No further monitoring of the effectiveness of blockade was performed during surgery. Mechanical ventilation was kept during anesthesia. During surgery dog maintain stable, and no anesthesiological complication occur. Intraoperatively surgeon claimed that neuromuscular blockade results in a better approach to the spine and easier muscle manipulation which was helpful in order to see the fracture and replace bone fragments. Finally, euthanasia was performed intraoperatively as a result of vast myelomalacia process of the spinal cord. This prevented examination of the recovering process. Neuromuscular blocking agents act at the neuromuscular junction to provide profound muscle relaxation throughout the body. Muscle blocking agents are neither anesthetic nor analgesic; therefore inappropriately used may cause paralysis in fully conscious and feeling pain patient. They cause paralysis of all skeletal muscles, also diaphragm and intercostal muscles when given in higher doses. Intraoperative management includes maintaining stable physiological conditions, which involves adjusting hemodynamic parameters, ensuring proper ventilation, avoiding variations in temperature, maintain normal blood flow to promote proper oxygen exchange. Neuromuscular blocking agent can cause many side effects like residual paralysis, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, delayed recovery from anesthesia, histamine release, recurarization. Therefore reverse drug like neostigmine (with glikopyrolat) or edrofonium (with atropine) should be used in case of a life-threatening situation. Another useful drug is sugammadex, although the cost of this drug strongly limits its use. Muscle relaxant improves surgical conditions during spinal surgery, especially in heavily muscled individuals. They are also used to facilitate the replacement of dislocated joints as they improve conditions during fracture reduction. It is important to emphasize that in a patient with muscle weakness neuromuscular blocking agents may result in intraoperative and early postoperative cardiovascular and respiratory complications, as well as prolonged recovery from anesthesia. This should not appear in patients with recent spine fracture or luxation. Therefore it is believed that neuromuscular blockers could be useful during spine stabilization procedures.

Keywords: anesthesia, dog, neuromuscular block, spine surgery

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70 The Prevalence of Intubation Induced Dental Complications among Hospitalized Patients

Authors: Dorsa Rahi, Arghavan Tonkanbonbi, Soheila Manifar, Behzad Jafvarnejad


Background and Aim: Intraoral manipulation is performed during endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia, which can traumatize the soft and hard tissue in the oral cavity and cause postoperative pain and discomfort. Dental trauma is the most common complication of intubation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental complications due to intubation in patients hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2018-2019. Materials and Methods: A total of 805 patients presenting to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital for preoperative anesthesia consultation were randomly enrolled. A dentist interviewed the patients and performed a comprehensive clinical oral examination preoperatively. The patients underwent clinical oral examination by another dentist postoperatively. Results: No significant correlation was found between dental trauma (tooth fracture, tooth mobility, or soft tissue injury) after intubation with the age or gender of patients. According to the Wilcoxon test and McNemar-Bowker Test, the rate of mobility before the intubation was significantly different from that after the intubation (P=0.000). Maxillary central incisors, maxillary left canine and mandibular right and left central incisors had the highest rate of fracture. Conclusion: Mobile teeth before the intubation are at higher risk of avulsion and aspiration during the procedure. Patients with primary temporomandibular joint disorders are more susceptible to post-intubation trismus.

Keywords: oral trauma, dental trauma, intubation, anesthesia

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69 Anesthetic Considerations for Carotid Endarterectomy: Prospective Study Based on Clinical Trials

Authors: Ahmed Yousef A. Al Sultan


Introduction: The aim of this review is based on clinical research that studies the changes in middle cerebral artery velocity using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cerebral oxygen saturation using cerebral oximetry in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery under local anesthesia (LA). Patients with or without neurological symptoms during the surgery are taking a role in this study using triplet method of cerebral oximetry, transcranial doppler and awake test in detecting any cerebral ischemic symptoms. Methods: about one hundred patients took part during their CEA surgeries under local anesthesia, using triple assessment mentioned method, Patients requiring general anesthesia be excluded from analysis. All data were recorded at eight surgery stages separately to serve this study. Results: In total regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity, and pulsatility index were significantly decreased during carotid artery clamping step in CEA procedures on the targeted carotid side. With most observed changes in MCA velocity during the study. Discussion: Cerebral oxygen saturation and middle cerebral artery velocity were significantly decreased during clamping step of the procedures on the targeted side. The team with neurological symptoms during the procedures showed higher changes of rSO2 and MCA velocity than the team without neurological symptoms. Cerebral rSO2 and MCA velocity significantly increased directly after de-clamping of the internal carotid artery on the affected side.

Keywords: awake testing, carotid endarterectomy, cerebral oximetry, Tanscranial Doppler

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68 A Comparative Study of Granisetron and Palonosetron in Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Following Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Burra Vijitha


A prospective randomized comparative study for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the patients undergoing general anesthesia ,for elective laparoscopic surgeries with respect to efficacy and side effects of granisetron and palonosetron. Sixty adult patients of class ASA 1,2 of either sex in age group between 20-70 yrs,scheduled for elective laparoscopic surgeries were selected for the study.Patients were randomly divided into two groups 30 each. Group G: Granisetron group (n=30), 40µg/kg; Group P: Palonosetron group (n=30), 0.075 mg. at end of surgery before extubation group G patients 40 µg/kg of inj.granisetron and group P patients received 0.075 mg of inj.palonosetron slow iv over 30 sec.In post anesthesia care unit, episodes of nausea and vomiting experienced by each patient was recorded by direct questioning the patient .study medication was assessed in terms of incidence of nausea and vomiting during periods of 0-4 hrs,4-12 hrs,12-24 hrs,24-48hrs.our study demonstrated that complete response for those patients who received granisetron were 86.66%,80% and 66.66% ,while those received palonosetron were 100%,86.6%,90% between 0-4hrs,4-12hrs,12-24 hrs. It shows no statistically signidficant differences between the baseline values of hemodynamic variables beween two groups during study. Keywords: Granisetron, nausea, palonosetron, vomiting.

Keywords: granisetron, palonosetron, nausea, vomiting

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67 Comparison of Remifentanil EC50 for Facilitating I-Gel and Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion with Propofol Anesthesia

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Jong Bum Choi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee


Background: Each supraglottic airway requires different anesthetic depth because it has a specific structure and different compressive force in the oropharyngeal cavity. We designed the study to investigate remifentanil effect-site concentration (Ce) in 50% of patients (EC50) for successful insertion of i- gel, and to compare it with that for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI). Methods: Forty-one female patients were randomized to the i-gel group (n=20) or the LMA group (n=21). Anesthesia induction was performed using propofol Ce of 5 μg/ml and the predetermined remifentanil Ce, and i-gel or LMA insertion was attempted 5 min later. The remifentanil Ce was estimated by modified Dixon's up-and-down method (initial concentration: 3.0 ng/ml, step size: 0.5 ng/ml). The patient’s response to device insertion was classified as either ‘success (no movement)’ or ‘failure (movement)’. Results: Using the Dixon’s up and down method, EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel (1.58 ± 0.41 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA (2.25 ± 0.55 ng/ml) (p=0.038). Using isotonic regression, EC50 (83% CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [1.50 (1.37-1.80) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [2.00 (1.82-2.34) ng/ml]. EC95 (95% CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [2.38 (1.48-2.50) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [3.35 (2.58-3.48) ng/ml]. Conclusion: We found that EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel insertion (1.58 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA insertion (2.25 ng/ml), in female patients during propofol TCI without neuromuscular blockade.

Keywords: i-gel, laryngeal mask airway, propofol, remifentanil

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66 Long Standing Orbital Floor Fracture Repair: Case Report

Authors: Hisham A. Hashem, Sameh Galal, Bassem M. Moeshed


A 36 years old male patient presented to our unit with a history of motor-car accident from 7 months complaining of disfigurement and double vision. On examination and investigations, there was an orbital floor fracture in the left eye with inferior rectus muscle entrapment causing diplopia, dystopia and enophthalmos. Under general anesthesia, a sub-ciliary incision was performed, and the orbital floor fracture was repaired with a double layer Medpor sheet (30x50x15) with removing and freeing fibrosis that was present and freeing of the inferior rectus muscle. Remarkable improvement of the dystopia was noticed, however, there was a residual diplopia in upgaze and enophthalmos. He was then referred to a strabismologist, which upon examination found left hypotropia of 8 ΔD corrected by 8 ΔD base up prism and positive forced duction test on elevation and pseudoptosis. Under local anesthesia, a limbal incision approach with hangback 4mm recession of inferior rectus muscle was performed after identifying an inferior rectus muscle structure. Improvement was noted shortly postoperative with correction of both diplopia and pseudoptosis. Follow up after 1, 4 and 8 months was done showing a stable condition. Delayed surgery in cases of orbital floor fracture may still hold good results provided proper assessment of the case with management of each sign separately.

Keywords: diplopia, dystopia, late surgery, orbital floor fracture

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65 The Investigation of Work Stress and Burnout in Nurse Anesthetists: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Yen Ling Liu, Shu-Fen Wu, Chen-Fuh Lam, I-Ling Tsai, Chia-Yu Chen


Purpose: Nurse anesthetists are confronting extraordinarily high job stress in their daily practice, deriving from the fast-track anesthesia care, risk of perioperative complications, routine rotating shifts, teaching programs and interactions with the surgical team in the operating room. This study investigated the influence of work stress on the burnout and turnover intention of nurse anesthetists in a regional general hospital in Southern Taiwan. Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study carried out in 66 full-time nurse anesthetists. Data was collected from March 2017 to June 2017 by in-person interview, and a self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by the interviewee. Outcome measurements included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and nursing staff turnover intention. Numerical data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent t test, or one-way ANOVA. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test (x²). Datasets were computed with Pearson product-moment correlation and linear regression. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20.0 software. Results: The average score for job burnout was 68.7916.67 (out of 100). The three major components of burnout, including emotional depletion (mean score of 26.32), depersonalization (mean score of 13.65), and personal(mean score of 24.48). These average scores suggested that these nurse anesthetists were at high risk of burnout and inversely correlated with turnover intention (t = -4.048, P < 0.05). Using linear regression model, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were the two independent factors that predicted turnover intention in the nurse anesthetists (19.1% in total variance). Conclusion/Implications for Practice: The study identifies that the high risk of job burnout in the nurse anesthetists is not simply derived from physical overload, but most likely resulted from the additional emotional and psychological stress. The occurrence of job burnout may affect the quality of nursing work, and also influence family harmony, in turn, may increase the turnover rate. Multimodal approach is warranted to reduce work stress and job burnout in nurse anesthetists to enhance their willingness to contribute in anesthesia care.

Keywords: anesthesia nurses, burnout, job, turnover intention

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64 A Comparative Study to Evaluate Changes in Intraocular Pressure with Thiopentone Sodium and Etomidate in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Vasudha Govil, Prashant Kumar, Ishwar Singh, Kiranpreet Kaur


Traumatic brain injury leads to elevated intracranial pressure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) may also be affected by intracranial pressure. Increased venous pressure in the cavernous sinus is transmitted to the episcleral veins, resulting in an increase in IOP. All drugs used in anesthesia induction can change IOP. Irritation of the gag reflex after usage of the endotracheal tube can also increase IOP; therefore, the administration of anesthetic drugs, which make the lowest change in IOP, is important, while cardiovascular depression must also be avoided. Thiopentone decreases IOP by 40%, whereas etomidate decreases IOP by 30-60% for up to 5 minutes. Hundred patients (age 18-55 years) who underwent emergency craniotomy for TBI are selected for the study. Patients are randomly assigned to two groups of 50 patients each accord¬ing to the drugs used for induction: group T was given thiopentone sodium (5mg kg-1) and group E was given etomi¬date (0.3mg kg-1). Preanaesthesia intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Schiotz tonometer. Induction of anesthesia was achieved with etomidate (0.3mg kg-1) or thiopentone (5mg kg-1) along with fentanyl (2 mcg kg-1). Intravenous rocuronium (0.9mg kg-1) was given to facilitate intubation. Intraocular pressure was measured after 1 minute of induction agent administration and 5 minutes after intubation. Maintainance of anesthesia was done with isoflurane in 50% nitrous oxide with fresh gas flow of 5 litres. At the end of the surgery, the residual neuromuscular block was reversed and the patient was shifted to ward/ICU. Patients in both groups were comparable in terms of demographic profile. There was no significant difference between the groups for the hemody¬namic and respiratory variables prior to thiopentone or etomidate administration. Intraocular pressure in thiopentone group in left eye and right eye before induction was 14.97±3.94 mmHg and 14.72±3.75 mmHg respectively and for etomidate group was 15.28±3.69 mmHg and 15.54±4.46 mmHg respectively. After induction IOP decreased significantly in both the eyes (p<0.001) in both the groups. After 5 min of intubation IOP was significantly less than the baseline in both the eyes but it was more than the IOP after induction with the drug. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in IOP between the two groups at any point of time. Both the drugs caused a significant decrease in IOP after induction and after 5 minutes of endotracheal intubation. The mechanism of decrease in IOP by intravenous induction agents is debatable. Systemic hypotension after the induction of anaesthesia has been shown to cause a decrease in intra-ocular pressure. A decrease in the tone of the extra-ocular muscles can also result in a decrease in intra-ocular pressure. We observed that it is appropriate to use etomidate as an induction agent when elevation of intra-ocular pressure is undesirable owing to the cardiovascular stability it confers in the patients.

Keywords: etomidate, intraocular pressure, thiopentone, traumatic

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63 Animal Welfare Violations during Treatment at Different Level of Veterinary Hospitals

Authors: Aparna Datta, Mahabub Alam


Animal welfare is comparatively new area of research in Bangladesh and welfare concern for animal is increasing day by day. The study was conducted to investigate the animal welfare violations during treatment at different level of hospitals in Bangladesh and India. This study was conducted between January and May, 2017. The recorded data (N=180) were categorized into eight major types of violation like - delay in starting treatment, non-specific treatment, surgery without anesthesia, use of unsterilized needle, rough and painful handling, fearful approach, multiple pricking during injection and use of blunt needle. Categorized groups were analyzed according to different hospitals like Upazila Veterinary Hospitals, Bangladesh (UVHs), SAQ-Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Bangladesh (SAQTVH) and Veterinary College and Research Institute, India (VCRI). Among all hospitals, violation during treatment more frequently occurred in UVH. Among all violations, surgery without anesthesia was only found in UVH (80%) and it was belong to considerable number of cases (80%). In the view of other major violations like - non-specific treatment was 69% in UVHs, 13% in SAQTVH and 5% in VCRI. Use of unsterilized instruments during treatment was also higher in UVHs (65%) than SAQTVH (5%) and VCRI (1%). But delay in starting treatment varied insignificantly and it was 26-42% across the different levels of hospitals. Although multiple pricking during injection was found 30% cases in UVH, but statistical variations with other level of hospitals were unnoticed (p>0.05). The findings of this study will help to take necessary steps to control violation against animal welfare during treatment. A comprehensive study considering all levels of hospitals including field treatment is also recommended to find out the welfare violations during treatment.

Keywords: animal welfare, treatment, veterinary hospitals, violations

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
62 Direct Cost of Anesthesia in Traumatic Patients with Massive Bleeding: A Prospective Micro-Costing Study

Authors: Asamaporn Puetpaiboon, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart, Nalinee Kovitwanawong, Osaree Akaraborworn


Traumatic patients with massive bleeding require intensive resuscitation. The actual cost of anesthesia per case has never been clarified, so our study aimed to quantify the direct cost, and cost-to-charge ratio of anesthetic care in traumatic patients with intraoperative massive bleeding. This study was a prospective, observational, cost analysis study, conducted in Prince of Songkla University hospital, Thailand, with traumatic patients, of any mechanisms being recruited. Massive bleeding was defined as estimated blood loss of at least one blood volume in 24 hours, or a half of blood volume in 3 hours. The cost components were identified by the micro-costing method, and valued by the bottom-up approach. The direct cost was divided into 4 categories: the labor cost, the capital cost, the material cost and the cost of drugs. From September 2017 to August 2018, 10 patients with multiple injuries were included. Seven patients had motorcycle accidents, two patients fell from a height and another one was in a minibus accident. Two patients died on the operating table, and another two died within 48 hours. The median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8. The median intraoperative blood loss was 3,500 ml. The median direct cost, per case, was 250 United States Dollars (2017 exchange rate), and the cost-to-charge ratio was 0.53. In summary, the direct cost was nearly half of the hospital charge, for these traumatic patients with massive bleeding. However, our study did not analyze the indirect cost.

Keywords: cost, cost-to-charge ratio, micro-costing, trauma

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61 Risk Factors for Post-Induction Hypotension Among Elderly Patients Undergoing Elective Non-Cardiac Surgery Under General Anesthesia

Authors: Karuna Sutthibenjakul, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart


Background: Postinduction hypotension is common and occurs more often in elderly patients. We aimed to determine risk factors for hypotension after induction among elderly patients (aged 65 years and older) who underwent elective non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: This cohort study analyzed from 580 data between December 2017 and July 2018 at a tertiary university hospital in south of Thailand. Hypotension is defined as more than 30% decrease mean arterial pressure from baseline after induction within 20 minutes or the use of vasopressive agent to treat low blood pressure. Intraoperative parameters were blood pressure and heart rate at T0, TEI, T5, T10, T15 and T20 (immediately after arrival at operating room, time after intubation, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after intubation) respectively. Results: The median age was 72.5 (68, 78) years. A prevalence of post-induction hypotension was 64.8%. The highest prevalence (39.7%) was at 15 minutes after intubation. The association of post-induction hypotension is rising with diuretic drug as preoperative medication (P-value=0.016), hematocrit level (P-value=0.031) and the degree of hypertension immediately after arrival at operating room (P-value<0.001). Increasing fentanyl dosage during induction was associated with hypotension at intubation time (P-value<0.01) and 5 minutes after intubation (P-value<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the increasing propofol dosage. Conclusion: The degree of hypertension immediately after arrival at operating room and increasing fentanyl dosage were a significant risk factors for postinduction hypotension in elderly patients.

Keywords: risk factors, post-induction, hypotension, elderly

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60 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Transdermal Delivery of Articaine

Authors: Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Paul Chambers, Kavitha Kongara, Preet Singh


The objective of this study is to formulate different topical preparations containing articaine and to investigate their permeation through goat skin. Initially, articaine and its hydrochloride salt were compared for in vitro permeation using Franz cell model. Goat skin samples were collected after euthanizing male goat kids purchased from the dairy goat farmers. Subcutaneous fat was removed and the skin was mounted on the donor chamber (orifice area 1.00 cm²) and drugs were applied onto the epidermis. Phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) was used to maintain sink condition in the receptor chamber (8 ml) of the Franz cell. Samples (0.4 ml) were collected at various intervals over 24 hours after each sampling equal volume of PBS was replaced in the receptor chamber. Articaine in the collected samples were quantified using LC/MS. The results suggested that articaine free base permeates better than its hydrochloride salt through goat skin. This study results support the fact that local anesthetics in its base form are lipophilic and thus penetrates faster through cell membranes than their salts. Later, articaine free base was formulated either using ethanol and octyl salicylate or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as penetration enhancers and was compared for in vitro permeation. The transdermal flux of articaine in the formulation containing DMSO was approximately 3.8 times higher than that of the formulation containing ethanol and octyl salicylate. Further studies to evaluate the local anesthetic efficacy of the topical formulation containing articaine for dermal anesthesia in animals have been planned.

Keywords: articaine, dermal anesthesia, local anesthetic, transdermal

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59 Exchanging Radiology Reporting System with Electronic Health Record: Designing a Conceptual Model

Authors: Azadeh Bashiri


Introduction: In order to better designing of electronic health record system in Iran, integration of health information systems based on a common language must be done to interpret and exchange this information with this system is required. Background: This study, provides a conceptual model of radiology reporting system using unified modeling language. The proposed model can solve the problem of integration this information system with electronic health record system. By using this model and design its service based, easily connect to electronic health record in Iran and facilitate transfer radiology report data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013. The student community was 22 experts that working at the Imaging Center in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and the sample was accorded with the community. Research tool was a questionnaire that prepared by the researcher to determine the information requirements. Content validity and test-retest method was used to measure validity and reliability of questioner respectively. Data analyzed with average index, using SPSS. Also, Visual Paradigm software was used to design a conceptual model. Result: Based on the requirements assessment of experts and related texts, administrative, demographic and clinical data and radiological examination results and if the anesthesia procedure performed, anesthesia data suggested as minimum data set for radiology report and based it class diagram designed. Also by identifying radiology reporting system process, use case was drawn. Conclusion: According to the application of radiology reports in electronic health record system for diagnosing and managing of clinical problem of the patient, provide the conceptual Model for radiology reporting system; in order to systematically design it, the problem of data sharing between these systems and electronic health records system would eliminate.

Keywords: structured radiology report, information needs, minimum data set, electronic health record system in Iran

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58 Comparison of the Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Morphine, Paracetamol, and Ketorolac in Patient-Controlled Analgesia in the Patients Undergoing Open Cholecystectomy

Authors: Siamak Yaghoubi, Vahideh Rashtchi, Marzieh Khezri, Hamid Kayalha, Monadi Hamidfar


Background and objectives: Effective postoperative pain management in abdominal surgeries, which are painful procedures, plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications and increasing patient’s satisfaction. There are many techniques for pain control, one of which is Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of morphine, paracetamol and ketorolac in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method. Material and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 330 ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) I-II patients ( three equal groups, n=110) who were scheduled for elective open cholecystectomy in Shahid Rjaee hospital of Qazvin, Iran from August 2013 until September 2015. All patients were managed by general anesthesia with TIVA (Total Intra Venous Anesthesia) technique. The control group received morphine with maximum dose of 0.02mg/kg/h, the paracetamol group received paracetamol with maximum dose of 1mg/kg/h, and the ketorolac group received ketorolac with maximum daily dose of 60mg using IV-PCA method. The parameters of pain, nausea, hemodynamic variables (BP and HR), pruritus, arterial oxygen desaturation, patient’s satisfaction and pain score were measured every two hours for 8 hours following operation in all groups. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic data between the three groups. there was a statistically significant difference with regard to the mean pain score at all times between morphine and paracetamol, morphine and ketorolac, and paracetamol and ketorolac groups (P<0.001). Results indicated a reduction with time in the mean level of postoperative pain in all three groups. At all times the mean level of pain in ketorolac group was less than that in the other two groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study ketorolac is more effective than morphine and paracetamol in postoperative pain control in the patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, using PCA method.

Keywords: analgesia, cholecystectomy, ketorolac, morphine, paracetamol

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57 Pentax Airway Scope Video Laryngoscope for Orotracheal Intubation in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: In Kyong Yi, Yun Jeong Chae, Jihoon Hwang, Sook-Young Lee, Jong-Yeop Kim


Background: Pentax airway scope (AWS) is a recently developed video laryngoscope for use in both normal and difficult airways, providing a good laryngeal view. The purpose of this randomized noninferior study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Pentax-AWS regarding intubation time, laryngeal view and ease of intubation in pediatric patients with normal airway, compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. Method: A total of 136 pediatric patients aged 1 to 10 with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing general anesthesia required orotracheal intubation were randomly allocated into two groups: Macintosh laryngoscope (n =68) and Pentax AWS (n=68). Anesthesia was induced with propofol, rocuronium, and sevoflurane. The primary outcome was intubation time. Cormack-Lehane laryngeal view grade, application of optimal laryngeal external manipulation (OELM), intubation difficulty scale (IDS), intubation failure rate and adverse events were also measured. Result: No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding intubation time (Macintosh; 23[22-26] sec vs. Pentax; 23.5[22-27.75] sec, p=0.713). As for the laryngeal view grade, the Pentax group showed less number of grade 2a or higher grade cases compared to the Macintosh group (1/2a/2b/3; 52.9%/41.2%/4.4%/1.5% vs. 98.5%/1.5%/0%/0%, p=0.000). No optimal laryngeal external manipulation application was required in the Pentax group (38.2% vs. 0%, p=0.000). Intubation difficulty scale resulted in lower values for Pentax group (0 [0-2] vs. 0 [0-0.55], p=0.001). Failure rate was not different between the two groups (1.5% vs. 4.4%, p=0.619). Adverse event-wise, slightly higher incidence of bleeding (1.5% vs. 5.9%, p=0.172) and teeth injury (0% vs. 5.9%, p=0.042) occurred in the Pentax group. Conclusion: In conclusion, Pentax-AWS provided better laryngeal view, similar intubation time and similar success rate compared with Macintosh laryngoscope in children with normal airway. However, the risk of teeth injury might increase and warrant special attention.

Keywords: Pentax-AWS, pediatric, video laryngoscope, intubation

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56 Close Loop Controlled Current Nerve Locator

Authors: H. A. Alzomor, B. K. Ouda, A. M. Eldeib


Successful regional anesthesia depends upon precise location of the peripheral nerve or nerve plexus. Locating peripheral nerves is preferred to be done using nerve stimulation. In order to generate a nerve impulse by electrical means, a minimum threshold stimulus of current “rheobase” must be applied to the nerve. The technique depends on stimulating muscular twitching at a close distance to the nerve without actually touching it. Success rate of this operation depends on the accuracy of current intensity pulses used for stimulation. In this paper, we will discuss a circuit and algorithm for closed loop control for the current, theoretical analysis and test results and compare them with previous techniques.

Keywords: Close Loop Control (CLC), constant current, nerve locator, rheobase

Procedia PDF Downloads 140