Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: socialization

111 Organizational Socialization Levels in Nurses

Authors: Manar Aslan, Ayfer Karaaslan, Serap Selçuk

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The research was conducted in order to determine the organizational socialization levels of nurses working in hospitals in the form of a descriptive study. The research population was composed of nurses employed in public and private sector hospitals in the province of Konya with 0-3 years of professional experience in the hospitals (N=1200); and the sample was composed of 495 nurses that accepted to take part in the study voluntarily. Organizational Socialization Scale which was developed by Haueter, Macan and Winter (2003) and whose validity-reliability in Turkish was analyzed by Ataman (2012) was used. Statistical evaluation of data was conducted in SPSS.16 software. The results of the study revealed that the total score taken by nurses at the organizational socialization scale was 262.95; and this was close to the maximum score. Particularly the departmental socialization sub-dimension proved to be higher in comparison to the other two dimensions (organization socialization and task socialization). Statistically meaningful differences were found in the levels of organization socialization in relation to the status of organizational orientation training, level of education and age group.

Keywords: nurses, newcomers, organizational socialization, total score

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110 The Effect of Socialization Tactics on Job Satisfaction of Employees, Regarding to Personality Types in Tehran University of Medical Science’s Employees

Authors: Maryam Hoorzad, Narges Shokry, Mandan Momeni

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According to importance of socialization in effectiveness of organizations and on the other hand assessing the impact of individual differences on socialization tactics by measuring employees satisfaction, can be assessed for each of the personality types which socialization tactics is the more effective. The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect job satisfaction of employees according to personality types. A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein’s theory on organizational socialization tactics and Myers Briggs’ measurement tools of personality types. The respondents were employees with more than 3 years backward in Tehran University of Medical Science. Data collection was performed using both library and field, the data collection instrument was questionnaires and data were analysed using the Spss and Lisrel programs. It was found that investiture and serial tactics has a significant effect on employees satisfaction, any increase in investiture and serial tactics led to increase in job satisfaction and any increase in divestiture and disjunctive tactics led to reduction of job satisfaction. Investiture tactic has the most effect on employees satisfaction. Also based on the results, personality types affect the relationship between socialization tactics and job satisfaction. In the ESFJ personality type the effect of investiture tactic on employee satisfaction is the most.

Keywords: organizational socialization, organizational socialization tactics, personality types, job satisfaction

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109 Consequences of Sentence on Children's Socialization: Exploratory Study of Criminal Women of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shabbir

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This paper inspects the effects of the sentenced criminal women upon the socialization of their children, in the Pakistani context. The objectives of the study are to find out the socio-psychological and cultural effects of the jail environment on the children and behavior of sentenced women towards their children as well as analyze the facilities provided by the jail authorities for the socialization of the women. Quantitative variables and qualitative thematic variables caused by the opinions through open-ended questionnaire were collected and analyze by applying statistical measures, e.g. Social Sciences Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), to reflect out the results. It was found that the sentence of women shatters the socialization process of their children which commonly leads them to criminality. The government should review the ongoing sentence policies for an improvement and betterment. For this purpose, the idea of socialization centers would be a healthy initiative.

Keywords: socialization, criminal women, sentence, socio-psychological and cultural

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108 Democratic Political Socialization of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok

Authors: Mathinee Khongsatid, Phusit Phukamchanoad, Sakapas Saengchai

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This research aims to study the democratic political socialization of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok by using stratified sampling for probability sampling and using purposive sampling for non-probability sampling to collect data toward the distribution of questionnaires to 300 respondents. This covers all of the schools under the authority of Dusit District Office. The researcher analyzed the data by using descriptive statistics which include arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The result shows that 5th and 6th graders under the authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok, have displayed some characteristics following democratic political socialization both inside and outside classroom as well as outside school. However, the democratic political socialization in classroom through grouping and class participation is much more emphasized.

Keywords: democratic, political socialization, students grades 5-6, descriptive statistics

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107 Citizenship Education and Access to Information for Political Socialization and Unity in Nigeria

Authors: Alh Rauf Bello Bella

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The main purpose of citizenship education if properly executed is to create awareness and enlightenment in the society to bring tolerance and political unity among the people. For the citizenry to have a meaningful participation for the achievement of this objective in a modern society where democracy thrives, all citizens should also have access to information on all matters affecting their lives and well-being. The paper therefore examines the scope of citizenship education and the complementary role of information providers in the quest for political socialization and national unity. It emphasizes some issues of national unity which should be addressed through proper enlightenment of the citizenry and access to relevant and timely information at the grassroots.

Keywords: citizenship education, national unity, political socialization, Nigeria

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106 Domains of Socialization Interview: Development and Psychometric Properties

Authors: Dilek Saritas Atalar, Cansu Alsancak Akbulut, İrem Metin Orta, Feyza Yön, Zeynep Yenen, Joan Grusec

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Objective: The aim of this study was to develop semi-structured Domains of Socialization Interview and its coding manual and to test their psychometric properties. Domains of Socialization Interview was designed to assess maternal awareness regarding effective parenting in five socialization domains (protection, mutual reciprocity, control, guided learning, and group participation) within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach. Method: A series of two studies were conducted to develop and validate the interview and its coding manual. The pilot study, sampled 13 mothers of preschool-aged children, was conducted to develop the assessment tools and to test their function and clarity. Participants of the main study were 82 Turkish mothers (Xage = 34.25, SD = 3.53) who have children aged between 35-76 months (Xage = 50.75, SD = 11.24). Mothers filled in a questionnaire package including Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionnaire, Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation-30, Child Rearing Questionnaire, and Two Dimensional Social Desirability Questionnaire. Afterward, interviews were conducted online by a single interviewer. Interviews were rated independently by two graduate students based on the coding manual. Results: The relationships of the awareness of effective parenting scores to the other measures demonstrate convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the coding manual. Intra-class correlation coefficient estimates were ranged between 0.82 and 0.90, showing high interrater reliability of the coding manual. Conclusion: Taken as a whole, the results of these studies demonstrate the validity and reliability of a new and useful interview to measure maternal awareness regarding effective parenting within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach.

Keywords: domains of socialization, parenting, interview, assessment

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105 Assessing the Roles Languages Education Plays in Nation Building in Nigeria

Authors: Edith Lotachukwu Ochege

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Nations stay together when citizens share enough values and preferences and can communicate with each other. Homogeneity among people can be built with education, teaching a common language to facilitate communication, infrastructure for easier travel, but also by brute force such as prohibiting local cultures. This paper discusses the role of language education in nation building. It defines education, highlights the functions of language. Furthermore, it expresses socialization agents that aid culture which are all embodied in language, problems of nation building.

Keywords: nation building, language education, function of language, socialization

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104 The Effects of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Academic Motivation: The Case of Lithuania

Authors: Ausra Turcinskaite-Balciuniene, Jonas Balciunas, Gediminas Merkys

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The problematic of gender and socioeconomic status biased differences in academic motivation patterns is discussed. Gender identity is understood according to symbolic interactionism perspective: as a result of reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-attributions, and identifications, shaped by social environment and family context. The effects of socioeconomic status on academic motivation are conceptualized according to Bourdieu’s habitus concept, reflecting the role of unconscious and internalized cultural signals, proper to low and high socioeconomic status family contexts. Since families differ by various socioeconomic features, the hypothesis about possible impact of parents’ socioeconomic status on their children’s academic motivation interfering with gender socialization effects is held. The survey, aiming to seize gender differences in academic motivation and self-recorded improvement-oriented efforts as a result of socialization processes operating in the families of low and high socioeconomic status, was designed. The results of Lithuanian higher education students’ survey are presented and discussed.

Keywords: academic motivation, gender, socialization, socioeconomic status

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103 Towards a Comprehensive Framework on Civic Competence Development of Teachers: A Systematic Review of Literature

Authors: Emilie Vandevelde, Ellen Claes

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This study aims to develop a comprehensive model for the civic socialization process of teachers. Citizenship has become one of the main objectives for the European education systems. It is expected that teachers are well prepared and equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes to also engage students in democratic citizenship. While a lot is known about young peoples’ civic competence development and how schools and teachers (don’t) support this process, less is known about how teachers themselves engage with (the teaching of) civics. Other than the civic socialization process of young adolescents that focuses on personal competence development, the civic socialization process of teachers includes the development of professional, civic competences. These professional competences make that they are able to prepare pupils to carry out their civic responsibilities in thoughtful ways. Existing models for the civic socialization process of young adolescents do not take this dual purpose into account. Based on these observations, this paper will investigate (1)What personal and professional civic competences teachers need to effectively teach civic education and (2) how teachers acquire these personal and professional civic competences. To answer the first research question, a systematic review of literature of existing civic education frameworks was carried out and linked to literature on teacher training. The second research question was addressed by adapting the Octagon model, developed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), to the context of teachers. This was done by carrying out a systematic review of the recent literature linking three theoretical topics involved in teachers’ civic competence development: theories about the civic socialization process of young adolescents, Schulmans (1987) theoretical assumptions on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and Nogueira & Moreira’s (2012) framework for civic education teachers’ knowledge and literature on teachers’ professional development. This resulted in a comprehensive conceptual framework describing the personal and professional civic competences of civic education teachers. In addition, this framework is linked to the OctagonT model: a model that describes the processes through which teachers acquire these personal and professional civic competences. This model recognizes that teachers’ civic socialization process is influenced by interconnected variables located at different levels in a multi-level structure (the individual teacher (e.g., civic beliefs), everyday contacts (e.g., teacher educators, the intended, informal and hidden curriculum of the teacher training program, internship contacts, participation opportunities in teacher training, etc.) and the influence of the national educational context (e.g., vision on civic education)). Furthermore, implications for teacher education programs are described.

Keywords: civic education, civic competences, civic socialization, octagon model, teacher training

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102 The Role of Cultural Expectations in Emotion Regulation among Nepali Adolescents

Authors: Martha Berg, Megan Ramaiya, Andi Schmidt, Susanna Sharma, Brandon Kohrt

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Nepali adolescents report tension and negative emotion due to perceived expectations of both academic and social achievement. These societal goals, which are internalized through early-life socialization, drive the development of self-regulatory processes such as emotion regulation. Emotion dysregulation is linked with adverse psychological outcomes such as depression, self-harm, and suicide, which are public health concerns for organizations working with Nepali adolescents. This study examined the relation among socialization, internalized cultural goals, and emotion regulation to inform interventions for reducing depression and suicide in this population. Participants included 102 students in grades 7 through 9 in a post-earthquake school setting in rural Kathmandu valley. All participants completed a tablet-based battery of quantitative measures, comprising transculturally adapted assessments of emotion regulation, depression, and self-harm/suicide ideation and behavior. Qualitative measures included two focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 22 students and 3 parents. A notable proportion of the sample reported depression symptoms in the past 2 weeks (68%), lifetime self-harm ideation (28%), and lifetime suicide attempts (13%). Students who lived with their nuclear family reported lower levels of difficulty than those who lived with more distant relatives (z=2.16, p=.03), which suggests a link between family environment and adolescent emotion regulation, potentially mediated by socialization and internalization of cultural goals. These findings call for further research into the aspects of nuclear versus extended family environments that shape the development of emotion regulation.

Keywords: adolescent mental health, emotion regulation, Nepal, socialization

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101 Parental and Peer Influences on Juvenile Delinquency: Case Studies in Malaysia

Authors: Tan Bee Piang

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The family is always seen as the most important agent of socialization, therefore, abusive parents and broken family have often been highlighted as two main factors contributing to juvenile delinquency. However, several studies have indicated that the peer group is one of the most powerful socialization agents in adolescent development, the influences of family are insignificant after peer influences are taken. This study aimed to investigate the relative influence of parents and peers on juvenile delinquency in Malaysia. Malaysia is a multicultural society, so different types of traditional values and religions permeate all aspects of Malaysian society, and the influences of family and parents are always seen as the most important agents of socialization. 80 juveniles from a reform school in Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study. Based on the experiences of juveniles in this study, it found that peer groups play an important role when the adolescents try to create their own identities. Adolescents merely make friends with those who have similar life experiences, so adolescents are easily influenced by their friends and the juvenile delinquency is mostly group behavior. This research found that there is no significant relationship between family factors and delinquency. The data shows that a significant percentage of juveniles come from middle-class family and most of them are not from broken family. However, most of them have strained family relationship. This research suggests that we should take a look into other causes, like peer influence, of juvenile delinquency in Malaysia.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, peer influence, group behaviour, family relationship

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100 Dilemma between the Education-Area and the Working-Area in Socialization of Teaching Profession: Scrutiny on the Beginning Teachers through the Relationality of the Regulations and Institutions in Turkey Case

Authors: Dilek Dede

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This study aims at scrutinized the dilemma between education place and working place with professional socialization dimension over the beginning teachers in Turkey is to be found the solution for the dilemma in Turkey. The research question is that how can be explained the gap between education place and working place for beginning teachers in Turkey. That expected to contribute to literature with the solutions for shorting the gap between working area and education area of the teaching profession in Turkey case. The study is constructed in two section. Firstly, socialization of the teaching profession and teaching modules have been discussed through the profession, education, working place indicators. In the second section, Secondly, two educational specialists from Turkey has been interviewed about their observation on trainee teachers compelling to participate the class for candidate teachers after university grade. Then, the dilemma between education area and working area of the teaching profession has been detected by of semi-structured and in-depth interviews, the literature on the relationality of institutions and regulation is discussed. The following outcomes have been accessed in accordance with the data set and literature linkage axis: Firstly, teachers coming from the distinctive programmes as an educational background. Hence, teachers who pertain to distinctive cultures work in the same environment. That cause cultural conflicts and complication of socialization of profession. Secondly, the insufficient partnership between schools and universities besides, the education classes lead to a struggle of culture among these two institutions. Thirdly, the education classes are designed as bureaucratic form instead of coalescence between head teachers and trainee teachers around a common culture. That become deep the dilemma. In conclusion, on condition that applied-oriented education that advocates in-service learning is promoted and this programme is supported with well-structured the in-service training through the partnership of universities and schools, the gap between the working-area and education-area might be shortened.

Keywords: beginning teachers, construction of a common, social mobilization in the teaching profession, teacher training institution, the relationality of the regulations and institutions

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99 Impact of Teacher’s Behavior in Class Room on Socialization and Mental Health of School Children: A Student’s Perspective

Authors: Umaiza Bashir, Ushna Farukh

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The present study examined the perspective of school students regarding teacher’s behavioral pattern during a teaching in classroom and its influence on the students’ socialization particularly forming peer relationships with the development of emotional, behavioral problems in school children. To study these dimension of teacher-student classroom relationship, 210 school children (105 girls and 105 boys) within the age range of 14 to 18 years were taken from the government, private schools. The cross-sectional research design was used in which stratified random sampling was done. Teacher-student interaction scale was used to assess the teacher-student relationship in the classroom, which had two factors such as positive and negative interaction. Peer relationship scale was administered to investigate the socialization of students, and School Children Problem Scale was also given to the participants to explore their emotional, behavioral issues. The analysis of Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant positive relationship between negative teacher-student interaction and student’s emotional-behavioral as well as social problems. Another analysis of t-test revealed that boys perceived more positive interaction with teachers than girls (p < 0.01). Girls showed more emotional behavioral problems than boys (p < 0.001) Linear regression explained that age, gender, negative teacher’s interaction with students and victimization in social gathering predicts mental health problems in school children. This study suggests and highlights the need for the school counselors for the better mental health of students and teachers.

Keywords: teacher-student interaction, school psychology, student’s emotional behavioral problems

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98 The Impact of Socialization Preferences on Perceptions of Generalized Social Trust in China

Authors: Menghzheng Yao

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Generalized social trust among Chinese has been declining in the past few decades, making the search for its causes necessary. Drawing on the symbolic interaction theory and the 2012 Chinese General Social Survey data, this research investigated the impact of people’s socialization preferences and frequencies on their perceptions of generalized social trust in China. This research also took a preliminary step towards understanding the spatial differences of the generalized social trust using the ArcGIS software. The results show that respondents who interacted with their neighbors more frequently were more likely to have higher levels of perceptions of generalized social trust. Several demographics were also significantly related to perception of generalized social trust. Elderly and better educated Chinese and people with higher self-perceived social status were associated with greater levels of generalized social trust perception, while urban dwellers and religious respondents expressed lower levels of such perception. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

Keywords: China, generalized social trust, symbolic interaction, ArcGIS

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97 Managing Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Corona Age

Authors: Raju Singh, Shikha Singh

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This article is note for managing Autistic Child during the Corona time line. It becomes very critical for the primary caregiver as corona pandemic poses new challenges and completely variety of threats to line of treatment, growth, socialization, mental health for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and, so for the family of the children. It is a highly distressful situation, where the line of treatment has shrunken, physical contact has reduced and therapies footprints reduced in several parts of the world. As children with ASD already face socialization challenges, isolation rules imposed by individuals (or social groups), government agencies have only made the situation worse for the children with ASD and their family. This note will try to touch the basics on understanding the ASD and related development disorders, challenges, impact, and suggest approaches to deal with such situation. This document also covers data analysis, deep dive into the increasing impact of ASD on children. This document can also act as a baseline for many researchers, psychiatrists, psychologists, therapists to view the problem statement and measure its impact.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, mental health, applied behavior therapy, occupational therapy, social anxiety

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96 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

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This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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95 Music for Peace, a Model for Socialization

Authors: Mina Fenercioglu

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This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema. In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema’s global program. Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.

Keywords: El Sistema, music education, music for peace, socialization

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94 Story of Alex: Sociology of Gender

Authors: Karen V. Lee

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The significance of this study involves autoethnographic research about a music teacher learning about the socialization of gender issues in teaching. Mentorship involving intervention helps with the consequences influencing a transgendered music teacher. Basic storytelling methodology involves the qualitative method of research as a theoretical framework where the author provides a storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers and the sociology of gender. Sub-themes involve counseling, adult education to ensure students and teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and educational resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how stories are helpful resources for others who struggle with the socialization of gender. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist having his sex reassignment surgery during his undergraduate education degree. In conclusion, the research is a reflexive storied framework that embraces a positive outlook about a transgendered teacher during his masectomy. The sensory experience seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of the sociology of gender and society provides transformative aspects that contributes to social change. Overall, the surgery surrounding the story about transgendered issues are not uncommon in society. Thus, continued education supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome and understand issues of gender that can socially impacts their professional lives as teachers.

Keywords: sociology of gender, transgender, music teachers, story, autoethnography as research, ideology

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93 The Effectiveness of Tehran Municipality's Transformation of a Metro Station into Pedestrian-Friendly Public Spaces

Authors: Homa Hedayat

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Public spaces have been a central concern of urban planners for centuries but have been neglected for a long time. In the modernist planning, the focus has been on the requirements of cars rather than the needs and expectations of pedestrians, and therefore, cities have lost many qualities. Urban public space is a space within the city area which is accessible to all people and is the ground for their activity. People’s public life occurs in urban public spaces in a complex set of forms and functions. These spaces must facilitate diverse behavior, uses, and activities such as shopping, walking, conversation, entertainment, relaxation or even passing the time during festivities and events. One of the public spaces is the surrounding space of public transportation stations. Subway stations, although potentially encompass many different groups of people accommodate few social interactions. Making the surrounding areas of subway stations pedestrian-oriented, potentially increases the socialization capacity. The Sadeghieh Subway Station can be considered as the most important subway station in Tehran, which on the one hand is the rail port of Tehran's western entrance, and on the other is the port for railway journeys inside the city. The main concern of this study is to assess the success or failure of the interventions made by the municipality for changing the surrounding area of the Sadeghieh Subway Station into a pedestrian-oriented space and examine the amount of the area's improvement into a desirable space. The method used in this study is surveying, in which the data were collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study's population is all people who use Sadeghieh Subway, and the sample size for the study was 140 subjects. Using parametric one-sample t-test, we found improvement in factors such as transportation, security, pedestrian infrastructure, vitality and climate comfort. However, there was no improvement in mix use, recreational activity, readability.

Keywords: public space, public transportation stations, pedestrian-oriented space, socialization

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92 [Keynote Talk]: Knowledge Codification and Innovation Success within Digital Platforms

Authors: Wissal Ben Arfi, Lubica Hikkerova, Jean-Michel Sahut

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This study examines interfirm networks in the digital transformation era, and in particular, how tacit knowledge codification affects innovation success within digital platforms. Hence, one of the most important features of digital transformation and innovation process outcomes is the emergence of digital platforms, as an interfirm network, at the heart of open innovation. This research aims to illuminate how digital platforms influence inter-organizational innovation through virtual team interactions and knowledge sharing practices within an interfirm network. Consequently, it contributes to the respective strategic management literature on new product development (NPD), open innovation, industrial management, and its emerging interfirm networks’ management. The empirical findings show, on the one hand, that knowledge conversion may be enhanced, especially by the socialization which seems to be the most important phase as it has played a crucial role to hold the virtual team members together. On the other hand, in the process of socialization, the tacit knowledge codification is crucial because it provides the structure needed for the interfirm network actors to interact and act to reach common goals which favor the emergence of open innovation. Finally, our results offer several conditions necessary, but not always sufficient, for interfirm managers involved in NPD and innovation concerning strategies to increasingly shape interconnected and borderless markets and business collaborations. In the digital transformation era, the need for adaptive and innovative business models as well as new and flexible network forms is becoming more significant than ever. Supported by technological advancements and digital platforms, companies could benefit from increased market opportunities and creating new markets for their innovations through alliances and collaborative strategies, as a mode of reducing or eliminating uncertainty environments or entry barriers. Consequently, an efficient and well-structured interfirm network is essential to create network capabilities, to ensure tacit knowledge sharing, to enhance organizational learning and to foster open innovation success within digital platforms.

Keywords: interfirm networks, digital platform, virtual teams, open innovation, knowledge sharing

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91 Effect of Culture and Parenting Styles on Ambivalent Sexism in Mexican Population

Authors: Ilse Gonzalez-Rivera, Rolando Diaz-Loving

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Family, and parents in particular, are the main agents of socialization of children since they transmit values, beliefs, and cultural norms based on their own guidelines, so that children acquire the knowledge on how to interact with others in terms of the interaction with their parents. One way to measure socialization parenting is through parenting styles. Parenting styles are the set of parental behaviors that have a direct effect on the development of specific behaviors of children. The ideal parenting style depends on the cultural characteristics where people develop. In Mexico, the hierarchical structure of the family is built on a model in which men are dominant over women and their power is legitimized. This research explores the effect of parenting styles and the culture of the ambivalent sexism in the Mexican population. 150 men and 150 women participated. The instrument of individualism-collectivism was used to measure culture; participants also answered the instrument of ambivalent sexism and the parenting styles questionnaire. Regression analyses were done using sexism as the dependent variable and individualism-collectivism and parenting styles as independent variables. In addition, an analysis of variance between parental styles and gender of the participants was performed. The results indicate that the permissive style and authoritarian style are predictors of ambivalent sexism and higher levels of collectivism predict higher levels of sexism in both men and women. It is also found that parents tend to use authoritarian parenting style with women and permissive style with males. These results confirm the findings of other studies that indicate that parenting is an important variable that influences the interaction of adults. On the other hand, the effect of collectivism on sexism may be related to the fact that gender Mexican rules are rigid and for people with higher levels of collectivism, the social rules are more important than individual interests. In conclusion, these results indicate that both culture and parenting styles contribute to the maintenance of the status quo and prejudice towards women. Therefore, it is necessary to create proposals that break with this cultural paradigm and to further develop democratic styles of parenting with the aim of reducing prejudice and the legitimization of gender roles.

Keywords: culture, gender, parenting style, sexism

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90 Effectiveness of Qanun Number 14 of 2013 on Khalwat, Nasty in the Enforcement of Islamic Shari'a in Banda Aceh, Aceh Province

Authors: Muhadam Labolo, Mughny Ibtisyam Mukhlis, Zulkarnaen, Safira Maulida Rahman Soulisa

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This research is motivated by one of the functions of government is a regulatory function. Aceh Province, especially in Banda Aceh City has special autonomy, one of them is in the application of Islamic law, but when the law implemented to the citizen, there are many problems happens. One of the problems faced by the Government and people of Banda Aceh was Seclusion. Seclusion/nasty silent act between two people mukallafor more of the opposite sex who is not mahram or without marriage. This study aims to determine and analyze how the effectiveness of the policy as well as enabling and inhibiting factors of Qanun Number 14 of 2003 On Khalwat (nasty) in sharia Islam Islamic law in the city of Banda Aceh. This type of research is qualitative research method is a descriptive and inductive approach. The source of data used is People, Problem, Phenomenon, and programs, while the data collection through field studies and literature such as interviews, observation, and documentation. The results of this study were analyzed by using data reduction, display data, conclusions, and verification. The results showed that the Qanun Number 14 of 2003 on Khalwat (nasty) in the establishment of Islamic law in Banda Aceh is still not effective. It is seen from the high number of violations seclusion committed by Banda Aceh citizen, especially among teenagers, lack of socialization, as well as a lack of budgetary support for the implementation of Islamic Law in Banda Aceh. The supporting factors are 1) Coordination and communication among agencies had been walking steadily. 2) Facilities and infrastructure Syar'iah Court of Banda Aceh and the Office of Sharia Islam Banda Aceh that very good. 3) The Cultural majority of the people of Banda Aceh that support. Inhibiting factors: 1) There are no written duties of each institution for the prosecution case Seclusion. 2) The lack of socialization programs. 3) Lack of facilities and infrastructure Municipal Police Unit and the WH less. 4) Lack of control by the family. 5) The absence of training for officials Municipal Police Units and the Wilayatul Hisbah Banda Aceh.

Keywords: effectiveness, Islamic Sharia, Khalwat, Qanun

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89 Adolescents’ Role in Family Buying Decision Making

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Deepika Jindal Singla

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Buying decision making is a complicated process, in which consumer’s decision is under the impact of others. The buying decision making is directed in a way that they have to act as customers in the society. Media and family are key socialising agents for adolescents’. Moreover, changes in the socio-cultural environment in India necessitate that adolescents’ influence in family’s buying decision-making should be investigated. In comparison to Western society, Indian is quite different, when compared in terms of family composition and structure, behaviour, values and norms which effect adolescents’ buying decision-making.

Keywords: adolescents, buying behavior, Indian urban families, consumer socialization

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88 Structural Equation Modeling Exploration for the Multiple College Admission Criteria in Taiwan

Authors: Tzu-Ling Hsieh

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When the Taiwan Ministry of Education implemented a new university multiple entrance policy in 2002, most colleges and universities still use testing scores as mainly admission criteria. With forthcoming 12 basic-year education curriculum, the Ministry of Education provides a new college admission policy, which will be implemented in 2021. The new college admission policy will highlight the importance of holistic education by more emphases on the learning process of senior high school, except only on the outcome of academic testing. However, the development of college admission criteria doesn’t have a thoughtful process. Universities and colleges don’t have an idea about how to make suitable multi-admission criteria. Although there are lots of studies in other countries which have implemented multi-college admission criteria for years, these studies still cannot represent Taiwanese students. Also, these studies are limited without the comparison of two different academic fields. Therefore, this study investigated multiple admission criteria and its relationship with college success. This study analyzed the Taiwan Higher Education Database with 12,747 samples from 156 universities and tested a conceptual framework that examines factors by structural equation model (SEM). The conceptual framework of this study was adapted from Pascarella's general causal model and focused on how different admission criteria predict students’ college success. It discussed the relationship between admission criteria and college success, also the relationship how motivation (one of admission standard) influence college success through engagement behaviors of student effort and interactions with agents of socialization. After processing missing value, reliability and validity analysis, the study found three indicators can significantly predict students’ college success which was defined as average grade of last semester. These three indicators are the Chinese language scores at college entrance exam, high school class rank, and quality of student academic engagement. In addition, motivation can significantly predict quality of student academic engagement and interactions with agents of socialization. However, the multi-group SEM analysis showed that there is no difference to predict college success between the students from liberal arts and science. Finally, this study provided some suggestions for universities and colleges to develop multi-admission criteria through the empirical research of Taiwanese higher education students.

Keywords: college admission, admission criteria, structural equation modeling, higher education, education policy

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87 Intensive Neurophysiological Rehabilitation System: New Approach for Treatment of Children with Autism

Authors: V. I. Kozyavkin, L. F. Shestopalova, T. B. Voloshyn

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Introduction: Rehabilitation of children with Autism is the issue of the day in psychiatry and neurology. It is attributed to constantly increasing quantity of autistic children - Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Existing rehabilitation approaches in treatment of children with Autism improve their medico- social and social- psychological adjustment. Experience of treatment for different kinds of Autistic disorders in International Clinic of Rehabilitation (ICR) reveals the necessity of complex intensive approach for healing this malady and wider implementation of a Kozyavkin method for treatment of children with ASD. Methods: 19 children aged from 3 to 14 years were examined. They were diagnosed ‘Autism’ (F84.0) with comorbid neurological pathology (from pyramidal insufficiency to para- and tetraplegia). All patients underwent rehabilitation in ICR during two weeks, where INRS approach was used. INRS included methods like biomechanical correction of the spine, massage, physical therapy, joint mobilization, wax-paraffin applications. They were supplemented by art- therapy, ergotherapy, rhythmical group exercises, computer game therapy, team Olympic games and other methods for improvement of motivation and social integration of the child. Estimation of efficacy was conducted using parent’s questioning and done twice- on the onset of INRS rehabilitation course and two weeks afterward. For efficacy assessment of rehabilitation of autistic children in ICR standardized tool was used, namely Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). This scale was selected because any rehabilitation approaches for the child with Autism can be assessed using it. Results: Before the onset of INRS treatment mean score according to ATEC scale was 64,75±9,23, it reveals occurrence in examined children severe communication, speech, socialization and behavioral impairments. After the end of the rehabilitation course, the mean score was 56,5±6,7, what indicates positive dynamics in comparison to the onset of rehabilitation. Generally, improvement of psychoemotional state occurred in 90% of cases. Most significant changes occurred in the scope of speech (16,5 before and 14,5 after the treatment), socialization (15.1 before and 12,5 after) and behavior (20,1 before and 17.4 after). Conclusion: As a result of INRS rehabilitation course reduction of autistic symptoms was noted. Particularly improvements in speech were observed (children began to spell out new syllables, words), there was some decrease in signs of destructiveness, quality of contact with the surrounding people improved, new skills of self-service appeared. The prospect of the study is further, according to evidence- based medicine standards, deeper examination of INRS and assessment of its usefulness in treatment for Autism and ASD.

Keywords: intensive neurophysiological rehabilitation system (INRS), international clinic od rehabilitation, ASD, rehabilitation

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86 The Functions of Spatial Structure in Supporting Socialization in Urban Parks

Authors: Navid Nasrolah Mazandarani, Faezeh Mohammadi Tahrodi, Jr., Norshida Ujang, Richard Jan Pech

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Human evolution has designed us to be dependent on social and natural settings, but designed of our modern cities often ignore this fact. It is evident that high-rise buildings dominate most metropolitan city centers. As a result urban parks are very limited and in many cases are not socially responsive to our social needs in these urban ‘jungles’. This paper emphasizes the functions of urban morphology in supporting socialization in Lake Garden, one of the main urban parks in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It discusses two relevant theories; first the concept of users’ experience coined by Kevin Lynch (1960) which states that way-finding is related to the process of forming mental maps of environmental surroundings. Second, the concept of social activity coined by Jan Gehl (1987) which holds that urban public spaces can be more attractive when they provide welcoming places in which people can walk around and spend time. Until recently, research on socio-spatial behavior mainly focused on social ties, place attachment and human well-being; with less focus on the spatial dimension of social behavior. This paper examines the socio-spatial behavior within the spatial structure of the urban park by exploring the relationship between way-finding and social activity. The urban structures defined by the paths and nodes were analyzed as the fundamental topological structure of space to understand their effects on the social engagement pattern. The study uses a photo questionnaire survey to inspect the spatial dimension in relation to the social activities within paths and nodes. To understand the legibility of the park, spatial cognition was evaluated using sketch maps produced by 30 participants who visited the park. The results of the sketch mapping indicated that a spatial image has a strong interrelation with socio-spatial behavior. Moreover, an integrated spatial structure of the park generated integrated use and social activity. It was found that people recognized and remembered the spaces where they engaged in social activities. They could experience the park more thoroughly, when they found their way continuously through an integrated park structure. Therefore, the benefits of both perceptual and social dimensions of planning and design happened simultaneously. The findings can assist urban planners and designers to redevelop urban parks by considering the social quality design that contributes to clear mental images of these places.

Keywords: spatial structure, social activities, sketch map, urban park, way-finding

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85 Voices of Youth: Contributing to Healthy Teens

Authors: Christa Beyers

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Investing in the health of youth is essential for the well-being of society. If youth do not live a healthy life, the future of the global workforce and overall development of adolescents looks bleak given the challenges posed in this developmental stage. The idea of sexuality education at home and in our schools is a controversial and contentious subject, as many parents and teachers do not hold the same beliefs as to what content should be taught. Despite high incidence of HIV and STD infections, early school dropout and teen pregnancies, sexuality education has still not been given the recognition or importance it deserves. By giving youth a voice can lead to both behavioural and policy changes. This article is based on a literature review of sex and sexuality education from a social studies approach. This article argues that adults tend to teach from their own perspective, which does not meet the needs of youth, thereby ignoring the social aspects of sexual behaviour.

Keywords: sexuality education, adolescents, communication, cycle of socialization

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84 Religion, Education, and Nation: Anticlerical Principle of France and Private School Law of South Korea

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

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The education plays an important role of political socialization in politics. In Korean and in France, religion in education is situated in an important place, but religious education in school is dealt differently in two countries. In this article, the author tries to reveal the reason why in France private Catholic schools can keep their religious discipline, but in Korea, private Christian schools cannot insist Christianism to their students. This is because of the different situation of their budget. In Korea, even though private schools are named ‘private’, they cannot be managed without government subsidy but in France, private Catholic schools are owned by private foundation and their budget is based on their own resource. That’s why French private schools do not need to follow governmental guidance but not in Korean case.

Keywords: religion, politics, South Korea, France

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83 Fluctuations in Radical Approaches to State Ownership of the Means of Production Over the Twentieth Century

Authors: Tom Turner

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The recent financial crisis in 2008 and the growing inequality in developed industrial societies would appear to present significant challenges to capitalism and the free market. Yet there have been few substantial mainstream political or economic challenges to the dominant capitalist and market paradigm to-date. There is no dearth of critical and theoretical (academic) analyses regarding the prevailing systems failures. Yet despite the growing inequality in the developed industrial societies and the financial crisis in 2008 few commentators have advocated the comprehensive socialization or state ownership of the means of production to our knowledge – a core principle of radical Marxism in the 19th and early part of the 20th century. Undoubtedly the experience in the Soviet Union and satellite countries in the 20th century has cast a dark shadow over the notion of centrally controlled economies and state ownership of the means of production. In this paper, we explore the history of a doctrine advocating the socialization or state ownership of the means of production that was central to Marxism and socialism generally. Indeed this doctrine provoked an intense and often acrimonious debate especially for left-wing parties throughout the 20th century. The debate within the political economy tradition has historically tended to divide into a radical and a revisionist approach to changing or reforming capitalism. The radical perspective views the conflict of interest between capital and labor as a persistent and insoluble feature of a capitalist society and advocates the public or state ownership of the means of production. Alternatively, the revisionist perspective focuses on issues of distribution rather than production and emphasizes the possibility of compromise between capital and labor in capitalist societies. Over the 20th century, the radical perspective has faded and even the social democratic revisionist tradition has declined in recent years. We conclude with the major challenges that confront both the radical and revisionist perspectives in the development of viable policy agendas in mature developed democratic societies. Additionally, we consider whether state ownership of the means of production still has relevance in the 21st century and to what extent state ownership is off the agenda as a political issue in the political mainstream in developed industrial societies. A central argument in the paper is that state ownership of the means of production is unlikely to feature as either a practical or theoretical solution to the problems of capitalism post the financial crisis among mainstream political parties of the left. Although the focus here is solely on the shifting views of the radical and revisionist socialist perspectives in the western European tradition the analysis has relevance for the wider socialist movement.

Keywords: sate ownership, ownership means of production, radicals, revisionists

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82 Criminal Liability for Criminal Tax

Authors: Theresia Simatupang dan Rahmayanti

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Tax Law is a legal product and therefore should be subject to the legal norms, both about this actions, implementation, and about the material. Law has always aimed at providing justice, and besides that the law as a tool used to organize the order or rule of law. tax classification of a crime in this is very necessary, because the crime of taxation is very detrimental to the country and is still very high in society and socialization associated with punishment in sentencing that would have to provide a deterrent for the perpetrators, so refer to the this, these criminal offenses can endanger the stability of the nation's economy and the country that require special snacks. The application of legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime of taxation already has a strong legal basis, namely UU KUP. UU KUP have loaded threat (sanctions) severe punishment for tax payers who commit offenses and crimes in the field of taxation, which is contained in Article 38, and Article 39, Article 41, Article 41 A, and 41 B as well as Article 43 of Law and Law No. 12 KUP about 1985 Land Tax and Building. Criminal sanctions against violators of the tax provision are important because tax payers sanctions for violating tax laws.

Keywords: accountability, tax crime, criminal liability, taxation

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