Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: pyrite

21 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim


Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

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20 Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Using Silane and Phosphate Coatings

Authors: M. Chiliza, H. P. Mbukwane, P Masita, H. Rutto


Acid mine drainage (AMD) one of the main pollutants of water in many countries that have mining activities. AMD results from the oxidation of pyrite and other metal sulfides. When these metals gets exposed to moisture and oxygen, leaching takes place releasing sulphate and Iron. Acid drainage is often noted by 'yellow boy,' an orange-yellow substance that occurs when the pH of acidic mine-influenced water raises above pH 3, so that the previously dissolved iron precipitates out. The possibility of using environmentally friendly silane and phosphate based coatings on pyrite to remediate acid mine drainage and prevention at source was investigated. The results showed that both coatings reduced chemical oxidation of pyrite based on Fe and sulphate release. Furthermore, it was found that silane based coating performs better when coating synthesis take place in a basic hydrolysis than in an acidic state.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, pyrite, silane, phosphate

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19 Growth Patterns of Pyrite Crystals Studied by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD)

Authors: Kirsten Techmer, Jan-Erik Rybak, Simon Rudolph


Natural formed pyrites (FeS2) are frequent sulfides in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Growth textures of idiomorphic pyrite assemblages reflect the conditions during their formation in the geologic sequence, furtheron the local texture analyses of the growth patterns of pyrite assemblages by EBSD reveal the possibility to resolve the growth conditions during the formation of pyrite at the micron scale. The spatial resolution of local texture measurements in the Scanning Electron Microscope used can be in the nanomete scale. Orientation contrasts resulting from domains of smaller misorientations within larger pyrite crystals can be resolved as well. The electron optical studies have been carried out in a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FEI Quanta 200) equipped with a CCD camera to study the orientation contrasts along the surfaces of pyrite. Idiomorphic cubic single crystals of pyrite, polycrystalline assemblages of pyrite, spherically grown spheres of pyrite as well as pyrite-bearing ammonites have been studied by EBSD in the Scanning Electron Microscope. Samples were chosen to show no or minor secondary deformation and an idiomorphic 3D crystal habit, so the local textures of pyrite result mainly from growth and minor from deformation. The samples studied derived from Navajun (Spain), Chalchidiki (Greece), Thüringen (Germany) and Unterkliem (Austria). Chemical analyses by EDAX show pyrite with minor inhomogeneities e.g., single crystals of galena and chalcopyrite along the grain boundaries of larger pyrite crystals. Intergrowth between marcasite and pyrite can be detected in one sample. Pyrite may form intense growth twinning lamellae on {011}. Twinning, e.g., contact twinning is abundant within the crystals studied and the individual twinning lamellaes can be resolved by EBSD. The ammonites studied show a replacement of the shale by newly formed pyrite resulting in an intense intergrowth of calcite and pyrite. EBSD measurements indicate a polycrystalline microfabric of both minerals, still reflecting primary surface structures of the ammonites e.g, the Septen. Discs of pyrite (“pyrite dollar”) as well as pyrite framboids show growth patterns comprising a typical microfabric. EBSD studies reveal an equigranular matrix in the inner part of the discs of pyrite and a fiber growth with larger misorientations in the outer regions between the individual segments. This typical microfabric derived from a formation of pyrite crystals starting at a higher nucleation rate and followed by directional crystal growth. EBSD studies show, that the growth texture of pyrite in the samples studied reveals a correlation between nucleation rate and following growth rate of the pyrites, thus leading to the characteristic crystal habits. Preferential directional growth at lower nucleation rates may lead to the formation of 3D framboids of pyrite. Crystallographic misorientations between the individual fibers are similar. In ammonites studied, primary anisotropies of the substrates like e.g., ammonitic sutures, influence the nucleation, crystal growth and habit of the newly formed pyrites along the surfaces.

Keywords: Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD), growth pattern, Fe-sulfides (pyrite), texture analyses

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18 Micro-Analytical Data of Au Mineralization at Atud Gold Deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral, B. Zoheir, P. Weihed, M. Budakoglu, L. Gumus


Atud gold deposits located at the central part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert of Egypt. It represents the vein-type gold mineralization at the Arabian-Nubian Shield in North Africa. Furthermore, this Au mineralization was closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration haloes along the NW-SE brittle-ductile shear zone at the mined area. This study reports new data about the mineral chemistry of the hydrothermal and metamorphic minerals as well as the geothermobarometry of the metamorphism and determines the paragenetic interrelationship between Au-bearing sulfides and gangue minerals in Atud gold mine by using the electron microprobe analyses (EMPA). These analyses revealed that the ore minerals associated with gold mineralization are arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, tetrahedrite and gersdorffite-cobaltite. Also, the gold is highly associated with arsenopyrite and As-bearing pyrite as well as sphalerite with an average ~70 wt.% Au (+26 wt.% Ag) whereas it occurred either as disseminated grains or along microfractures of arsenopyrite and pyrite in altered wallrocks and mineralized quartz veins. Arsenopyrite occurs as individual rhombic or prismatic zoned grains disseminated in the quartz veins and wallrock and is intergrown with euhedral arsenian pyrite (with ~2 atom % As). Pyrite is As-bearing pyrite that occurs as disseminated subhedral or anhedral zoned grains replacing by chalcopyrite in some samples. Inclusions of sphalerite and pyrrhotite are common in the large pyrite grains. Secondary minerals such as sericite, calcite, chlorite and albite are disseminated either in altered wallrocks or in quartz veins. Sericite is the main secondary and alteration mineral associated with Au-bearing sulfides and calcite. Electron microprobe data of the sericite show that its muscovite component is high in all analyzed flakes (XMs= an average 0.89) and the phengite content (Mg+Fe a.p.f.u.) varies from 0.10 to 0.55 and from 0.13 to 0.29 in wallrocks and mineralized veins respectively. Carbonate occurs either as thin veinlets or disseminated grains in the mineralized quartz vein and/or the wallrocks. It has higher amount of calcite (CaCO3) and low amount of MgCO3 as well as FeCO3 in the wallrocks relative to the quartz veins. Chlorite flakes are associated with arsenopyrite and their electron probe data revealed that they are generally Fe-rich composition (FeOt 20.64–20.10 wt.%) and their composition is clinochlore either pycnochlorite or ripidolite with Al (iv) = 2.30-2.36 pfu and 2.41-2.51 pfu and with narrow range of estimated formation temperatures are (289–295°C) and (301-312°C) for pycnochlorite and ripidolite respectively. Albite is accompanied with chlorite with an Ab content is high in all analyzed samples (Ab= 95.08-99.20).

Keywords: micro-analytical data, mineral chemistry, EMPA, Atud gold deposit, Egypt

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17 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe


It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

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16 Hidrothermal Alteration Study of Tangkuban Perahu Craters, and Its Implication to Geothermal Conceptual Model

Authors: Afy Syahidan Achmad


Tangkuban Perahu is located in West Java, Indonesia. It is active stratovolcano type and still showing hidrothermal activity. The main purpose of this study is to find correlation between subsurface structure and hidrothermal activity on the surface. Using topographic map, SRTM images, and field observation, geological condition and alteration area was mapped. Alteration sample analyzed trough petrographic analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Altered rock in study area showing white-yellowish white colour, and texture changing variation from softening to hardening because of alteration by sillica and sulphur. Alteration mineral which can be observed in petrographic analysis and XRD analysis consist of crystobalite, anatase, alunite, and pyrite. This mineral assemblage showing advanced argillic alteration type with West-East alteration area orientation. Alteration area have correlation with manifestation occurance such as steam vents, solfatara, and warm to hot pools. Most of manifestation occured in main crater like Ratu Crater and Upas crater, and parasitic crater like Domas Crater and Jarian Crater. This manifestation indicates permeability in subsurface which can be created trough structural process with same orientation. For further study geophysics method such as Magneto Telluric (MT) and resistivity can be required to find permeability zone pattern in Tangkuban Perahu subsurface.

Keywords: alteration, advanced argillic, Tangkuban Perahu, XRD, crystobalite, anatase, alunite, pyrite

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15 Porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au) Mineralization at Paraga Area, Nakhchivan District, Azerbaijan: Evidence from Mineral Paragenesis, Hyrothermal Alteration and Geochemical Studies

Authors: M. Kumral, A. Abdelnasser, M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, D. K. Yildirim, Z. Doner, A. Bostanci


The Paraga area is located at the extreme eastern part of Nakhchivan district at the boundary with Armenia. The field study is situated at Ordubad region placed in 9 km from Paraga village and stays at 2300-2800 m height over sea level. It lies within a region of low-grade metamorphic porphyritic volcanic and plutonic rocks. The detailed field studies revealed that this area composed mainly of metagabbro-diorite intrusive rocks with porphyritic character emplaced into meta-andesitic rocks. This complex is later intruded by unmapped olivine gabbroic rocks. The Cu-Mo-(Au) mineralization at Paraga deposit is vein-type mineralization that is essentially related to quartz veins stockwork which cut the dioritic rocks and concentrated at the eastern and northeastern parts of the area with different directions N80W, N25W, N70E and N45E. Also, this mineralization is associated with two shearing zones directed N75W and N15E. The host porphyritic rocks were affected by intense sulfidation, carbonatization, sericitization and silicification with pervasive hematitic alterations accompanied with mineralized quartz veins and quartz-carbonate veins. Sulfide minerals which are chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite occurred in two cases either inside these mineralized quartz veins or disseminated in the highly altered rocks as well as molybdenite and also at the peripheries between the altered host rock and veins. Gold found as inclusion disseminated in arsenopyrite and pyrite as well as in their cracks.

Keywords: porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au), Paraga area, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, paragenesis, hyrothermal alteration

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14 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim


Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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13 Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) of Ertsberg East Skarn System, Papua; Correlation between Structure and Mineralization to Determined Characteristic Orebody of DMLZ Mine

Authors: Bambang Antoro, Lasito Soebari, Geoffrey de Jong, Fernandy Meiriyanto, Michael Siahaan, Eko Wibowo, Pormando Silalahi, Ruswanto, Adi Budirumantyo


The Ertsberg East Skarn System (EESS) is located in the Ertsberg Mining District, Papua, Indonesia. EESS is a sub-vertical zone of copper-gold mineralization hosted in both diorite (vein-style mineralization) and skarn (disseminated and vein style mineralization). Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) is a mining zone in the lower part of East Ertsberg Skarn System (EESS) that product copper and gold. The Deep Mill Level Zone deposit is located below the Deep Ore Zone deposit between the 3125m to 2590m elevation, measures roughly 1,200m in length and is between 350 and 500m in width. DMLZ planned start mined on Q2-2015, being mined at an ore extraction rate about 60,000 tpd by the block cave mine method (the block cave contain 516 Mt). Mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration in the DMLZ is hosted and enclosed by a large stock (The Main Ertsberg Intrusion) that is barren on all sides and above the DMLZ. Late porphyry dikes that cut through the Main Ertsberg Intrusion are spatially associated with the center of the DMLZ hydrothermal system. DMLZ orebody hosted in diorite and skarn, both dominantly by vein style mineralization. Percentage Material Mined at DMLZ compare with current Reserves are diorite 46% (with 0.46% Cu; 0.56 ppm Au; and 0.83% EqCu); Skarn is 39% (with 1.4% Cu; 0.95 ppm Au; and 2.05% EqCu); Hornfels is 8% (with 0.84% Cu; 0.82 ppm Au; and 1.39% EqCu); and Marble 7 % possible mined waste. Correlation between Ertsberg intrusion, major structure, and vein style mineralization is important to determine characteristic orebody in DMLZ Mine. Generally Deep Mill Level Zone has 2 type of vein filling mineralization from both hosted (diorite and skarn), in diorite hosted the vein system filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-quartz and pyrite, in skarn hosted the vein filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-pyrite and magnetite without quartz. Based on orientation the stockwork vein at diorite hosted and shallow vein in skarn hosted was generally NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with shallow-moderate dipping. Deep Mill Level Zone control by two main major faults, geologist founded and verified local structure between major structure with NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with characteristics slickenside, shearing, gauge, water-gas channel, and some has been re-healed.

Keywords: copper-gold, DMLZ, skarn, structure

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12 Mineral Chemistry of Extraordinary Ilmenite from the Gabbroic Rocks of Abu Ghalaga Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidence to Metamorphic Modification

Authors: Yaser Maher Abdel Aziz Hawa


An assemblage of Mn-bearing ilmenite, titanomagnetite (4-17 vol.%) and subordinate chalcopyrite, pyrrhptite and pyrite is present as dissiminations in gabbroic rocks of Abu Ghalaga area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The neoproterozoic gabbroic rocks encompasses these opaques are emplaced during oceanic island arc stage which represents the Nubian shield of Egypt. However, some textural features of these opaques suggest a relict igneous. The high Mn (up to 5.8 MnO%, 1282% MnTiO3) and very low Mg contents (0.21 MgO%, 0.82 MgTiO3) are dissimilar to those of any igneous ilmenite of tholeiitic rocks. Most of these ilmenites are associated mostly with metamorphic hornblende. Hornblende thermometry estimate crystallization of about 560°C. the present study suggests that the ilmenite under consideration has been greatly metamorphically modified, having lost Mg and gained Mn by diffusion.

Keywords: titanomagnetite, Ghalaga, ilmenite, chemistry

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11 The EAO2 in Essouabaa, Tebessa, Algeria: An Example of Facies to Organic Matter

Authors: Sihem Salmi Laouar, Khoudair Chabane, Rabah Laouar, Adrian J. Boyce et Anthony E. Fallick


The solid mass of Essouabaa belongs paléogéography to the field téthysian and belonged to the area of the Mounts of Mellègue. This area was not saved by the oceanic-2 event anoxic (EAO-2) which was announced, over one short period, around the limit cénomanian-turonian. In the solid mass of Essouabba, the dominant sediments, pertaining to this period, are generally fine, dark, laminated and sometimes rolled deposits. They contain a rather rich planktonic microfaune, pyrite, and grains of phosphate, thus translating an environment rather deep and reducing rather deep and reducing. For targeting well the passage Cénomanian-Turonian (C-T) in the solid mass of Essouabaa, of the studies lithological and biostratigraphic were combined with the data of the isotopic analyses carbon and oxygen like with the contents of CaCO3. The got results indicate that this passage is marked by a biological event translated by the appearance of the "filaments" like by a positive excursion of the δ13C and δ18O. The cénomanian-turonian passage in the solid mass of Essouabaa represents a good example where during the oceanic event anoxic a facies with organic matter with contents of COT which can reach 1.36%. C E massive presents biostratigraphic and isotopic similarities with those obtained as well in the areas bordering (ex: Tunisia and Morocco) that throughout the world.

Keywords: limit cénomanian-turonian (C-T), COT, filaments, event anoxic 2 (EAO-2), stable isotopes, mounts of Mellègue, Algeria

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10 Occurrence and Geological Setting of the Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia

Authors: Hassan M. Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa


Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: black shales, energy, mineralization, Malaysia

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9 Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Carbonate Bearing-Argillites on the Southeastern Flank of Mount Cameroon, Likomba

Authors: Chongwain G. Mbzighaa, Christopher M. Agyingi, Josepha-Forba-Tendo


Background and aim: Sedimentological, geochemical and petrographic studies were carried out on carbonate-bearing argillites outcropping at the southeastern flank of Mount Cameroon (Likomba) to determine the lithofacies and their associations, major element geochemistry and mineralogy. Methods: Major elements of the rocks were analyzed using XRF technique. Thermal analysis and thin section studies were carried out accompanied with the determination of insoluble components of the carbonates. Results: The carbonates are classed as biomicrites with siderite being the major carbonate mineral. Clay, quartz and pyrite constitute the major insoluble components of these rocks. Geochemical results depict a broad variation in their concentrations with silica and iron showing the highest concentrations and sodium and manganese with the least concentrations. Two factors were revealed with the following elemental associations, Fe2O3-MgO-Mn2O3 (72.56 %) and TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O (23.20%) indicating both Fe-enrichment, the subsequent formation of the siderite and the contribution of the sediments to the formation of these rocks. Conclusion: The rocks consist of cyclic iron-rich carbonates alternating with sideritic-shales and might have been formed as a result of variations in the sea conditions as well as variation in sediment influx resulting from transgression and regression sequences occurring in a shallow to slightly deep marine environments.

Keywords: sedimentology, geochemistry, petrography, iron carbonates, Likomba

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8 Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia: Occurrence and Geological Setting

Authors: Hassan Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa, Mohd Nawawi, Mohammad Noor Akmal Anuar


Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: black shales, energy, mineralization, Malaysia

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7 Risk Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Gymea Bay, NSW, Australia

Authors: Yasir M. Alyazichi, Brian G. Jones, Errol McLean, Hamd N. Altalyan, Ali K. M. Al-Nasrawi


The main purpose of this study is to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risk in marine sediments in Gymea Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. A total of 32 surface sediment samples were collected from the bay. Current track trajectories and velocities have also been measured in the bay. The resultant trace elements were compared with the adverse biological effect values Effect Range Low (ERL) and Effect Range Median (ERM) classifications. The results indicate that the average values of chromium, arsenic, copper, zinc, and lead in surface sediments all reveal low pollution levels and are below ERL and ERM values. The highest concentrations of trace elements were found close to discharge points and in the inner bay, and were linked with high percentages of clay minerals, pyrite and organic matter, which can play a significant role in trapping and accumulating these elements. The lowest concentrations of trace elements were found to be on the shoreline of the bay, which contained high percentages of sand fractions. It is postulated that the fine particles and trace elements are disturbed by currents and tides, then transported and deposited in deeper areas. The current track velocities recorded in Gymea Bay had the capability to transport fine particles and trace element pollution within the bay. As a result, hydrodynamic measurements were able to provide useful information and to help explain the distribution of sedimentary particles and geochemical properties. This may lead to knowledge transfer to other bay systems, including those in remote areas. These activities can be conducted at a low cost, and are therefore also transferrable to developing countries. The advent of portable instruments to measure trace elements in the field has also contributed to the development of these lower cost and easily applied methodologies available for use in remote locations and low-cost economies.

Keywords: current track velocities, gymea bay, surface sediments, trace elements

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6 Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization of Cisarua, Nanggung District, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Asaga, N. I. Basuki


The research area is located in Cisarua, Bogor Regency, West Java, with 12,8 km2 wide. This area belongs to mining region of PT Aneka Tambang Tbk. The purpose of this research is to study geological condition, alteration type and pattern, and type of mineralization. Geomorphology of the research area is at young to mature stage, which can be divided into Ciparigi’s Parasite Volcanic Cone Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Valley Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Rim Hill Unit, and Pongkor Volcanic Hill. Stratigraphy of the research area consist of five units, they are Laharic Breccia (Pliocene), Pyroclastic Breccia, Lapilli Tuff, Flow Tuff, Fall Tuff, and Andesite Lava (Pleistocene). Based on mineral composition, it is interpreted that there is magma composition changing from rhyolite to andesitic. Geological structures in the research area are caused by NE-SW and N-S stress direction; they are Ciparay Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pliocene), Cisarua Right Strike-Slip Fault, G. Singa Left Strike-Slip Fault, and Cinyuncung Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pleistocene). Weak to strong hydrothermal alteration can be found in the research area.They are Chlorite ± Smectite ± Halloysite Zone, Smectite - Illite - Quartz Zone, Smectite - Kaolinite - Illite - Chlorite Zone, and Smectite - Chlorite - Calcite - Quartz Zone. The distribution and assemblage of alteration minerals is controlled by lithology and geological structures in Pleistocene. Mineralization produce ore minerals, those are pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcocite. There are calcite and quartz veins that show colloform, comb, and crystalline textures. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages, ore minerals, and cavity filling textures suggest that mineralization type in research area is epithermal low sulphidation.

Keywords: Pongkor, hydrothermal alteration, epithermal, geochemistry

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5 Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Brahmaputra River Basin: A Water Quality Assessment in Jorhat (Assam), India

Authors: Kruti Jaruriya


Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns. This is particularly so since millions worldwide are suffering from toxicity due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, formed by the Ganga– Padma–Meghna–Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As affected alluvial basin. However, some equally affected, if not more, areas are emerging in upper Brahmaputra plains. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination trends in the worst affected part of Assam, India. Arsenic (As) mobilization to the groundwater of Brahmaputra floodplains was investigated in Titabor, Jorhat District, located in the North Eastern part of India. The groundwater and the aquifer geochemistry were characterized. The groundwater is characterized by high dissolved Fe, Mn, and HCO-3 and low concentrations of NO-3 and SO2-4 indicating anoxic conditions prevailing in the groundwater. Fifty groundwater samples collected from shallow and deep tubewells of Titabor, Jorhat district (Assam) were examined. Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., pH, EC, Fe, Mn , Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, PO43- , HCO-3 , NO3- ,Cl - and SO42- was also carried out. In respect to the permissible guideline of World Health Organization (WHO: As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the range of As concentration in the groundwater varied from 0.014 to 0.604 mg/L with mean concentration 0.184 mg/L. The present study showed that out of the 50 groundwater samples,100%, 54%, and 42% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The results of hydrogeochemical study revealed that the reductive dissolution of MnOOH and FeOOH represents an important mechanism of arsenic release in the study area along with major cations playing an important role in leaching of As into the groundwater. Arsenic released by oxidation of pyrite, as water levels are drawn down and air enters the aquifer, contributes negligibly to the problem of As pollution. Identification of the mechanism of As release to groundwater helps to provide a framework to guide the placement of new water wells so that they will have acceptable concentrations of As.

Keywords: arsenic, assam, brahmaputra floodplain, groundwater, hydrogeochemistry

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4 Polygenetic Iron Mineralization in the Baba-Ali and Galali Deposits, Further Evidences from Stable (S, O, H) Isotope Data, NW Hamedan, Iran

Authors: Ghodratollah Rostami Paydar


The Baba-Ali and Galali iron deposits are located in northwest Hamedan and the Iranian Sanandaj-Sirjan geological structural zone. The host rocks of these deposits are metavolcanosedimentary successions of Songhor stratigraphic series with permo-trriassic age. Field investigation, ore geometry, textures and structures and paragenetic sequence of minerals, all indicate that the ore minerals are crystallized in four stages: primary volcanosedimentary stage, secondary regional metamorphism with formation of ductile shear zones, contact metamorphism and metasomatism stage and the finally late hydrothermal mineralization within uplift and exposure. Totally 29 samples of sulfide, oxide-silicate and carbonate minerals of iron orees and gangue has been purified for stable isotope analysis. The isotope ratio data assure that occurrence of dynamothermal metamorphism in these areas typically involves a lengthy period of time, which results in a tendency toward isotopic homogenization specifically in O and H stable isotopes and showing the role of metamorphic waters in mineralization process. Measurement of δ34S (CDT) in first generation of pyrite is higher than another ones, so it confirms the volcanogenic origin of primary iron mineralization. δ13C data measurements in Galali carbonate country rocks show a marine origin. δ18O in magnetite and skarn forming silicates, δ18O and δ13C in limestone and skarn calcite and δ34S in sulphides are all consistent with the interaction of a magmatic-equilibrated fluid with Galali limestone, and a dominantly magmatic source for S. All these data imply skarn formation and mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system that maintained high salinity to relatively late stages resulting in the formation of the regional Na metasomatic alteration halo. Late stage hydrothermal quartz-calcite veinlets are important for gold mineralization, but the economic evaluation is required to detailed geochemical studies.

Keywords: iron, polygenetic, stable isotope, BabaAli, Galali

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3 The Environmental Concerns in Coal Mining, and Utilization in Pakistan

Authors: S. R. H. Baqri, T. Shahina, M. T. Hasan


Pakistan is facing acute shortage of energy and looking for indigenous resources of the energy mix to meet the short fall. After the discovery of huge coal resources in Thar Desert of Sindh province, focus has shifted to coal power generation. The government of Pakistan has planned power generation of 20000 MW on coal by the year 2025. This target will be achieved by mining and power generation in Thar coal Field and on imported coal in different parts of Pakistan. Total indigenous coal production of around 3.0 million tons is being utilized in brick kilns, cement and sugar industry. Coal-based power generation is only limited to three units of 50 MW near Hyderabad from nearby Lakhra Coal field. The purpose of this presentation is to identify and redressal of issues of coal mining and utilization with reference to environmental hazards. Thar coal resource is estimated at 175 billion tons out of a total resource estimate of 184 billion tons in Pakistan. Coal of Pakistan is of Tertiary age (Palaeocene/Eocene) and classified from lignite to sub-bituminous category. Coal characterization has established three main pollutants such as Sulphur, Carbon dioxide and Methane besides some others associated with coal and rock types. The element Sulphur occurs in organic as well as inorganic forms associated with coals as free sulphur and as pyrite, gypsum, respectively. Carbon dioxide, methane and minerals are mostly associated with fractures, joints local faults, seatearth and roof rocks. The abandoned and working coal mines give kerosene odour due to escape of methane in the atmosphere. While the frozen methane/methane ices in organic matter rich sediments have also been reported from the Makran coastal and offshore areas. The Sulphur escapes into the atmosphere during mining and utilization of coal in industry. The natural erosional processes due to rivers, streams, lakes and coastal waves erode over lying sediments allowing pollutants to escape into air and water. Power plants emissions should be controlled through application of appropriate clean coal technology and need to be regularly monitored. Therefore, the systematic and scientific studies will be required to estimate the quantity of methane, carbon dioxide and sulphur at various sites such as abandoned and working coal mines, exploratory wells for coal, oil and gas. Pressure gauges on gas pipes connecting the coal-bearing horizons will be installed on surface to know the quantity of gas. The quality and quantity of gases will be examined according to the defined intervals of times. This will help to design and recommend the methods and procedures to stop the escape of gases into atmosphere. The element of Sulphur can be removed partially by gravity and chemical methods after grinding and before industrial utilization of coal.

Keywords: atmosphere, coal production, energy, pollutants

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2 Potential of Hyperion (EO-1) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping Mine-Iron Oxide Pollution

Authors: Abderrazak Bannari


Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from mine wastes and contaminations of soils and water with metals are considered as a major environmental problem in mining areas. It is produced by interactions of water, air, and sulphidic mine wastes. This environment problem results from a series of chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide minerals e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite. These reactions lead to acidity as well as the dissolution of toxic and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, etc.) from tailings waste rock piles, and open pits. Soil and aquatic ecosystems could be contaminated and, consequently, human health and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, secondary minerals, typically formed during weathering of mine waste storage areas when the concentration of soluble constituents exceeds the corresponding solubility product, are also important. The most common secondary mineral compositions are hydrous iron oxide (goethite, etc.) and hydrated iron sulfate (jarosite, etc.). The objectives of this study focus on the detection and mapping of MIOP in the soil using Hyperion EO-1 (Earth Observing - 1) hyperspectral data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) algorithm. The abandoned Kettara mine, located approximately 35 km northwest of Marrakech city (Morocco) was chosen as study area. During 44 years (from 1938 to 1981) this mine was exploited for iron oxide and iron sulphide minerals. Previous studies have shown that Kettara surrounding soils are contaminated by heavy metals (Fe, Cu, etc.) as well as by secondary minerals. To achieve our objectives, several soil samples representing different MIOP classes have been resampled and located using accurate GPS ( ≤ ± 30 cm). Then, endmembers spectra were acquired over each sample using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) covering the spectral domain from 350 to 2500 nm. Considering each soil sample separately, the average of forty spectra was resampled and convolved using Gaussian response profiles to match the bandwidths and the band centers of the Hyperion sensor. Moreover, the MIOP content in each sample was estimated by geochemical analyses in the laboratory, and a ground truth map was generated using simple Kriging in GIS environment for validation purposes. The acquired and used Hyperion data were corrected for a spatial shift between the VNIR and SWIR detectors, striping, dead column, noise, and gain and offset errors. Then, atmospherically corrected using the MODTRAN 4.2 radiative transfer code, and transformed to surface reflectance, corrected for sensor smile (1-3 nm shift in VNIR and SWIR), and post-processed to remove residual errors. Finally, geometric distortions and relief displacement effects were corrected using a digital elevation model. The MIOP fraction map was extracted using CLSMA considering the entire spectral range (427-2355 nm), and validated by reference to the ground truth map generated by Kriging. The obtained results show the promising potential of the proposed methodology for the detection and mapping of mine iron oxide pollution in the soil.

Keywords: hyperion eo-1, hyperspectral, mine iron oxide pollution, environmental impact, unmixing

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1 Optimizing Solids Control and Cuttings Dewatering for Water-Powered Percussive Drilling in Mineral Exploration

Authors: S. J. Addinell, A. F. Grabsch, P. D. Fawell, B. Evans


The Deep Exploration Technologies Cooperative Research Centre (DET CRC) is researching and developing a new coiled tubing based greenfields mineral exploration drilling system utilising down-hole water-powered percussive drill tooling. This new drilling system is aimed at significantly reducing the costs associated with identifying mineral resource deposits beneath deep, barren cover. This system has shown superior rates of penetration in water-rich, hard rock formations at depths exceeding 500 metres. With fluid flow rates of up to 120 litres per minute at 200 bar operating pressure to energise the bottom hole tooling, excessive quantities of high quality drilling fluid (water) would be required for a prolonged drilling campaign. As a result, drilling fluid recovery and recycling has been identified as a necessary option to minimise costs and logistical effort. While the majority of the cuttings report as coarse particles, a significant fines fraction will typically also be present. To maximise tool life longevity, the percussive bottom hole assembly requires high quality fluid with minimal solids loading and any recycled fluid needs to have a solids cut point below 40 microns and a concentration less than 400 ppm before it can be used to reenergise the system. This paper presents experimental results obtained from the research program during laboratory and field testing of the prototype drilling system. A study of the morphological aspects of the cuttings generated during the percussive drilling process shows a strong power law relationship for particle size distributions. This data is critical in optimising solids control strategies and cuttings dewatering techniques. Optimisation of deployable solids control equipment is discussed and how the required centrate clarity was achieved in the presence of pyrite-rich metasediment cuttings. Key results were the successful pre-aggregation of fines through the selection and use of high molecular weight anionic polyacrylamide flocculants and the techniques developed for optimal dosing prior to scroll decanter centrifugation, thus keeping sub 40 micron solids loading within prescribed limits. Experiments on maximising fines capture in the presence of thixotropic drilling fluid additives (e.g. Xanthan gum and other biopolymers) are also discussed. As no core is produced during the drilling process, it is intended that the particle laden returned drilling fluid is used for top-of-hole geochemical and mineralogical assessment. A discussion is therefore presented on the biasing and latency of cuttings representivity by dewatering techniques, as well as the resulting detrimental effects on depth fidelity and accuracy. Data pertaining to the sample biasing with respect to geochemical signatures due to particle size distributions is presented and shows that, depending on the solids control and dewatering techniques used, it can have unwanted influence on top-of-hole analysis. Strategies are proposed to overcome these effects, improving sample quality. Successful solids control and cuttings dewatering for water-powered percussive drilling is presented, contributing towards the successful advancement of coiled tubing based greenfields mineral exploration.

Keywords: cuttings, dewatering, flocculation, percussive drilling, solids control

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