Search results for: vegetation
500 Effects of Soil Erosion on Vegetation Development
Authors: Josephine Wanja Nyatia
Abstract:The relationship between vegetation and soil erosion deserves attention due to its scientific importance and practical applications. A great deal of information is available about the mechanisms and benefits of vegetation in the control of soil erosion, but the effects of soil erosion on vegetation development and succession is poorly documented. Research shows that soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil erosion interferes with the process of plant community development and vegetation succession, commencing with seed formation and impacting throughout the whole growth phase and affecting seed availability, dispersal, germination and establishment, plant community structure and spatial distribution. There have been almost no studies on the effects of soil erosion on seed development and availability, of surface flows on seed movement and redistribution, and their influences on soil seed bank and on vegetation establishment and distribution. However, these effects may be the main cause of low vegetation cover in regions of high soil erosion activity, and these issues need to be investigated. Moreover, soil erosion is not only a negative influence on vegetation succession and restoration but also a driving force of plant adaptation and evolution. Consequently, we need to study the effects of soil erosion on ecological processes and on development and regulation of vegetation succession from the points of view of pedology and vegetation, plant and seed ecology, and to establish an integrated theory and technology for deriving practical solutions to soil erosion problems
Keywords: soil erosion, vegetation, development, seed availabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 3
499 Greenland Monitoring Using Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Lal Suhanra National Park
Authors: Rabia Munsaf Khan, Eshrat Fatima
Abstract:The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. Pakistan, being an agricultural country depends on this resource as it makes 70% of the GDP. The case study is of Lal Suhanra National Park, which is not only the biggest forest reserve of Pakistan but also of Asia. The study is performed using different temporal images of Landsat. Also, the results of Landsat are cross-checked by using Sentinel-2 imagery as it has both higher spectral and spatial resolution. Vegetation can easily be detected using NDVI which is a common and widely used index. It is an important vegetation index, widely applied in research on global environmental and climatic change. The images are then classified to observe the change occurred over 15 years. Vegetation cover maps of 2000 and 2016 are used to generate the map of vegetation change detection for the respective years and to find out the changing pattern of vegetation cover. Also, the NDVI values aided in the detection of percentage decrease in vegetation cover. The study reveals that vegetation cover of the area has decreased significantly during the year 2000 and 2016.
Keywords: Landsat, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sentinel 2, Greenland monitoringProcedia PDF Downloads 209
498 Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Vegetation
Authors: Mabrouka Morri, Amel Soualmia, Philippe Belleudy
Abstract:Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.
Keywords: analytic models, comparison, mean velocity, vegetationProcedia PDF Downloads 214
497 Analyzing Impacts of Road Network on Vegetation Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques
Authors: Elizabeth Malebogo Mosepele
Abstract:Road transport has become increasingly common in the world; people rely on road networks for transportation purpose on a daily basis. However, environmental impact of roads on surrounding landscapes extends their potential effects even further. This study investigates the impact of road network on natural vegetation. The study will provide baseline knowledge regarding roadside vegetation and would be helpful in future for conservation of biodiversity along the road verges and improvements of road verges. The general hypothesis of this study is that the amount and condition of road side vegetation could be explained by road network conditions. Remote sensing techniques were used to analyze vegetation conditions. Landsat 8 OLI image was used to assess vegetation cover condition. NDVI image was generated and used as a base from which land cover classes were extracted, comprising four categories viz. healthy vegetation, degraded vegetation, bare surface, and water. The classification of the image was achieved using the supervised classification technique. Road networks were digitized from Google Earth. For observed data, transect based quadrats of 50*50 m were conducted next to road segments for vegetation assessment. Vegetation condition was related to road network, with the multinomial logistic regression confirming a significant relationship between vegetation condition and road network. The null hypothesis formulated was that 'there is no variation in vegetation condition as we move away from the road.' Analysis of vegetation condition revealed degraded vegetation within close proximity of a road segment and healthy vegetation as the distance increase away from the road. The Chi Squared value was compared with critical value of 3.84, at the significance level of 0.05 to determine the significance of relationship. Given that the Chi squared value was 395, 5004, the null hypothesis was therefore rejected; there is significant variation in vegetation the distance increases away from the road. The conclusion is that the road network plays an important role in the condition of vegetation.
Keywords: Chi squared, geographic information system, multinomial logistic regression, remote sensing, road side vegetationProcedia PDF Downloads 360
496 Remote Assessment and Change Detection of GreenLAI of Cotton Crop Using Different Vegetation Indices
Authors: Ganesh B. Shinde, Vijaya B. Musande
Abstract:Cotton crop identification based on the timely information has significant advantage to the different implications of food, economic and environment. Due to the significant advantages, the accurate detection of cotton crop regions using supervised learning procedure is challenging problem in remote sensing. Here, classifiers on the direct image are played a major role but the results are not much satisfactorily. In order to further improve the effectiveness, variety of vegetation indices are proposed in the literature. But, recently, the major challenge is to find the better vegetation indices for the cotton crop identification through the proposed methodology. Accordingly, fuzzy c-means clustering is combined with neural network algorithm, trained by Levenberg-Marquardt for cotton crop classification. To experiment the proposed method, five LISS-III satellite images was taken and the experimentation was done with six vegetation indices such as Simple Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, Green Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, Wide-Dynamic Range Vegetation Index, Green Chlorophyll Index. Along with these indices, Green Leaf Area Index is also considered for investigation. From the research outcome, Green Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index outperformed with all other indices by reaching the average accuracy value of 95.21%.
Keywords: Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM), neural network, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm, vegetation indicesProcedia PDF Downloads 251
495 The Relationship between Ruins and Vegetation: Different Approaches during the Centuries and within the Various Disciplinary Fields, Investigation of Writings and Projects
Authors: Rossana Mancini
Abstract:The charm of a ruin colonised by wild plants and flowers is part of Western culture. The relationship between ruins and vegetation involves a wide range of different fields of research. During the first phase of the research the most important writings and projects about this argument were investigated, to understand how the perception of the co-existence of ruins and vegetation has changed over time and to investigate the various different approaches that these different fields have adopted when tackling this issue. The paper presents some practical examples of projects carried out from the early 1900s on. The major result is that specifically regards conservation, the best attitude is the management of change, an inevitable process when it comes to the co-existence of ruins and nature and, particularly, ruins and vegetation. Limiting ourselves to adopting measures designed to stop, or rather slow down, the increasing level of entropy (and therefore disorder) may not be enough.
Keywords: ruins, vegetation, conservation, archaeology, architectureProcedia PDF Downloads 84
494 Modeling Vegetation Phenological Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Authors: Zongyao Sha
Abstract:Green vegetation plays a vital role in energy flows and matter cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, and vegetation phenology may not only be influenced by but also impose active feedback on climate changes. The phenological events of vegetation, such as the start of the season (SOS), end of the season (EOS), and length of the season (LOS), can respond to climate changes and affect gross primary productivity (GPP). Here we coupled satellite remote sensing imagery with FLUXNET observations to systematically map the shift of SOS, EOS, and LOS in global vegetated areas and explored their response to climate fluctuations and feedback on GPP during the last two decades. Results indicated that SOS advanced significantly, at an average rate of 0.19 days/year at a global scale, particularly in the northern hemisphere above the middle latitude (≥30°N) and that EOS was slightly delayed during the past two decades, resulting in prolonged LOS in 72.5% of the vegetated area. The climate factors, including seasonal temperature and precipitation, are attributed to the shifts in vegetation phenology but with a high spatial and temporal difference. The study revealed interactions between vegetation phenology and climate changes. Both temperature and precipitation affect vegetation phenology. Higher temperature as a direct consequence of global warming advanced vegetation green-up date. On the other hand, 75.9% and 20.2% of the vegetated area showed a positive correlation and significant positive correlation between annual GPP and length of vegetation growing season (LOS), likely indicating an enhancing effect on vegetation productivity and thus increased carbon uptake from the shifted vegetation phenology. Our study highlights a comprehensive view of the vegetation phenology changes of the global terrestrial ecosystems during the last two decades. The interactions between the shifted vegetation phenology and climate changes may provide useful information for better understanding the future trajectory of global climate changes. The feedback on GPP from the shifted vegetation phenology may serve as an adaptation mechanism for terrestrial ecosystems to mitigate global warming through improved carbon uptake from the atmosphere.
Keywords: vegetation phenology, growing season, NPP, correlation analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 16
493 Vegetation Index-Deduced Crop Coefficient of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Using Remote Sensing: Case Study on Four Basins of Golestan Province, Iran
Authors: Hoda Zolfagharnejad, Behnam Kamkar, Omid Abdi
Abstract:Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.
Keywords: crop coefficient, remote sensing, vegetation indices, wheatProcedia PDF Downloads 338
492 Robust Method for Evaluation of Catchment Response to Rainfall Variations Using Vegetation Indices and Surface Temperature
Authors: Revalin Herdianto
Abstract:Recent climate changes increase uncertainties in vegetation conditions such as health and biomass globally and locally. The detection is, however, difficult due to the spatial and temporal scale of vegetation coverage. Due to unique vegetation response to its environmental conditions such as water availability, the interplay between vegetation dynamics and hydrologic conditions leave a signature in their feedback relationship. Vegetation indices (VI) depict vegetation biomass and photosynthetic capacity that indicate vegetation dynamics as a response to variables including hydrologic conditions and microclimate factors such as rainfall characteristics and land surface temperature (LST). It is hypothesized that the signature may be depicted by VI in its relationship with other variables. To study this signature, several catchments in Asia, Australia, and Indonesia were analysed to assess the variations in hydrologic characteristics with vegetation types. Methods used in this study includes geographic identification and pixel marking for studied catchments, analysing time series of VI and LST of the marked pixels, smoothing technique using Savitzky-Golay filter, which is effective for large area and extensive data. Time series of VI, LST, and rainfall from satellite and ground stations coupled with digital elevation models were analysed and presented. This study found that the hydrologic response of vegetation to rainfall variations may be shown in one hydrologic year, in which a drought event can be detected a year later as a suppressed growth. However, an annual rainfall of above average do not promote growth above average as shown by VI. This technique is found to be a robust and tractable approach for assessing catchment dynamics in changing climates.
Keywords: vegetation indices, land surface temperature, vegetation dynamics, catchmentProcedia PDF Downloads 225
491 Construction of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Index through Global Sensitivity Analysis of Radiative Transfer Model
Authors: Guanhua Zhou, Zhongqi Ma
Abstract:Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in wetlands can absorb nitrogen and phosphorus effectively to prevent the eutrophication of water. It is feasible to monitor the distribution of SAV through remote sensing, but for the reason of weak vegetation signals affected by water body, traditional terrestrial vegetation indices are not applicable. This paper aims at constructing SAV index to enhance the vegetation signals and distinguish SAV from water body. The methodology is as follows: (1) select the bands sensitive to the vegetation parameters based on global sensitivity analysis of SAV canopy radiative transfer model; (2) take the soil line concept as reference, analyze the distribution of SAV and water reflectance simulated by SAV canopy model and semi-analytical water model in the two-dimensional space built by different sensitive bands; (3)select the band combinations which have better separation performance between SAV and water, and use them to build the SAVI indices in the form of normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI); (4)analyze the sensitivity of indices to the water and vegetation parameters, choose the one more sensitive to vegetation parameters. It is proved that index formed of the bands with central wavelengths in 705nm and 842nm has high sensitivity to chlorophyll content in leaves while it is less affected by water constituents. The model simulation shows a general negative, little correlation of SAV index with increasing water depth. Moreover, the index enhances capabilities in separating SAV from water compared to NDVI. The SAV index is expected to have potential in parameter inversion of wetland remote sensing.
Keywords: global sensitivity analysis, radiative transfer model, submerged aquatic vegetation, vegetation indicesProcedia PDF Downloads 189
490 Hazardous Vegetation Detection in Right-Of-Way Power Transmission Lines in Brazil Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Light Detection and Ranging
Authors: Mauricio George Miguel Jardini, Jose Antonio Jardini
Abstract:Transmission power utilities participate with kilometers of circuits, many with particularities in terms of vegetation growth. To control these rights-of-way, maintenance teams perform ground, and air inspections, and the identification method is subjective (indirect). On a ground inspection, when identifying an irregularity, for example, high vegetation threatening contact with the conductor cable, pruning or suppression is performed immediately. In an aerial inspection, the suppression team is mobilized to the identified point. This work investigates the use of 3D modeling of a transmission line segment using RGB (red, blue, and green) images and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensor data. Both sensors are coupled to unmanned aerial vehicle. The goal is the accurate and timely detection of vegetation along the right-of-way that can cause shutdowns.
Keywords: 3D modeling, LiDAR, right-of-way, transmission lines, vegetationProcedia PDF Downloads 56
489 Application of Rapid Eye Imagery in Crop Type Classification Using Vegetation Indices
Authors: Sunita Singh, Rajani Srivastava
Abstract:For natural resource management and in other applications about earth observation revolutionary remote sensing technology plays a significant role. One of such application in monitoring and classification of crop types at spatial and temporal scale, as it provides latest, most precise and cost-effective information. Present study emphasizes the use of three different vegetation indices of Rapid Eye imagery on crop type classification. It also analyzed the effect of each indices on classification accuracy. Rapid Eye imagery is highly demanded and preferred for agricultural and forestry sectors as it has red-edge and NIR bands. The three indices used in this study were: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) and all of these incorporated the Red Edge band. The study area is Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India and Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used here for the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classification. Classification was performed with these three vegetation indices. The contribution of each indices on image classification accuracy was also tested with single band classification. Highest classification accuracy of 85% was obtained using three vegetation indices. The study concluded that NDRE has the highest contribution on classification accuracy compared to the other vegetation indices and the Rapid Eye imagery can get satisfactory results of classification accuracy without original bands.
Keywords: GNDVI, NDRE, NDVI, rapid eye, vegetation indicesProcedia PDF Downloads 256
488 Image Processing and Calculation of NGRDI Embedded System in Raspberry
Authors: Efren Lopez Jimenez, Maria Isabel Cajero, J. Irving-Vasqueza
Abstract:The use and processing of digital images have opened up new opportunities for the resolution of problems of various kinds, such as the calculation of different vegetation indexes, among other things, differentiating healthy vegetation from humid vegetation. However, obtaining images from which these indexes are calculated is still the exclusive subject of active research. In the present work, we propose to obtain these images using a low cost embedded system (Raspberry Pi) and its processing, using a set of libraries of open code called OpenCV, in order to obtain the Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI).
Keywords: Raspberry Pi, vegetation index, Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI), OpenCVProcedia PDF Downloads 220
487 2D Surface Flow Model in The Biebrza Floodplain
Authors: Dorota Miroslaw-Swiatek, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sylwia Szporak
Abstract:We applied a two-dimensional surface water flow model with irregular wet boundaries. In this model, flow equations are in the form of a 2-D, non-linear diffusion equations which allows to account spatial variations in flow resistance and topography. Calculation domain to simulate the flow pattern in the floodplain is congruent with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid. The rate and direction of sheet flow in wetlands is affected by vegetation type and density, therefore the developed model take into account spatial distribution vegetation resistance to the water flow. The model was tested in a part of the Biebrza Valley, of an outstanding heterogeneity in the elevation and flow resistance distributions due to various ecohydrological conditions and management measures. In our approach we used the highest-possible quality of the DEM in order to obtain hydraulic slopes and vegetation distribution parameters for the modelling. The DEM was created from the cloud of points measured in the LiDAR technology. The LiDAR reflects both the land surface as well as all objects on top of it such as vegetation. Depending on the density of vegetation cover the ability of laser penetration is variable. Therefore to obtain accurate land surface model the “vegetation effect” was corrected using data collected in the field (mostly the vegetation height) and satellite imagery such as Ikonos (to distinguish different vegetation types of the floodplain and represent them spatially). Model simulation was performed for the spring thaw flood in 2009.
Keywords: floodplain flow, Biebrza valley, model simulation, 2D surface flow modelProcedia PDF Downloads 411
486 An Assessment of Floodplain Vegetation Response to Groundwater Changes Using the Soil & Water Assessment Tool Hydrological Model, Geographic Information System, and Machine Learning in the Southeast Australian River Basin
Authors: Newton Muhury, Armando A. Apan, Tek N. Marasani, Gebiaw T. Ayele
Abstract:The changing climate has degraded freshwater availability in Australia that influencing vegetation growth to a great extent. This study assessed the vegetation responses to groundwater using Terra’s moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and soil water content (SWC). A hydrological model, SWAT, has been set up in a southeast Australian river catchment for groundwater analysis. The model was calibrated and validated against monthly streamflow from 2001 to 2006 and 2007 to 2010, respectively. The SWAT simulated soil water content for 43 sub-basins and monthly MODIS NDVI data for three different types of vegetation (forest, shrub, and grass) were applied in the machine learning tool, Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA), using two supervised machine learning algorithms, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The assessment shows that different types of vegetation response and soil water content vary in the dry and wet seasons. The WEKA model generated high positive relationships (r = 0.76, 0.73, and 0.81) between NDVI values of all vegetation in the sub-basins against soil water content (SWC), the groundwater flow (GW), and the combination of these two variables, respectively, during the dry season. However, these responses were reduced by 36.8% (r = 0.48) and 13.6% (r = 0.63) against GW and SWC, respectively, in the wet season. Although the rainfall pattern is highly variable in the study area, the summer rainfall is very effective for the growth of the grass vegetation type. This study has enriched our knowledge of vegetation responses to groundwater in each season, which will facilitate better floodplain vegetation management.
Keywords: ArcSWAT, machine learning, floodplain vegetation, MODIS NDVI, groundwaterProcedia PDF Downloads 10
485 An Examination of Changes on Natural Vegetation due to Charcoal Production Using Multi Temporal Land SAT Data
Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. Isah, A. K. Muktari, R. Y. Abdullahi
Abstract:The increased in demand of fuel wood for heating, cooking and sometimes bakery has continued to exert appreciable impact on natural vegetation. This study focus on the use of multi-temporal data from land sat TM of 1986, land sat EMT of 1999 and lands sat ETM of 2006 to investigate the changes of Natural Vegetation resulting from charcoal production activities. The three images were classified based on bare soil, built up areas, cultivated land, and natural vegetation, Rock out crop and water bodies. From the classified images Land sat TM of 1986 it shows natural vegetation of the study area to be 308,941.48 hectares equivalent to 50% of the area it then reduces to 278,061.21 which is 42.92% in 1999 it again depreciated to 199,647.81 in 2006 equivalent to 30.83% of the area. Consequently cultivated continue increasing from 259,346.80 hectares (42%) in 1986 to 312,966.27 hectares (48.3%) in 1999 and then to 341.719.92 hectares (52.78%). These show that within the span of 20 years (1986 to 2006) the natural vegetation is depreciated by 119,293.81 hectares. This implies that if the menace is not control the natural might likely be lost in another twenty years. This is because forest cleared for charcoal production is normally converted to farmland. The study therefore concluded that there is the need for alternatives source of domestic energy such as the use of biomass which can easily be accessible and affordable to people. In addition, the study recommended that there should be strong policies enforcement for the protection forest reserved.
Keywords: charcoal, classification, data, images, land use, natural vegetationProcedia PDF Downloads 314
484 Trees in Different Vegetation Types of Mt. Hamiguitan Range, Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Authors: Janece Jean A. Polizon, Victor B. Amoroso
Abstract:Mt. Hamiguitan Range in Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines is the only protected area with pygmy forest and a priority site for protection and conservation. This range harbors different vegetation types such as agroecosystem, dipterocarp forest, montane forest and mossy forest. This study was conducted to determine the diversity of trees and shrubs in different vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan Range. Transect walk and 16 sampling plots of 20 x 20 m were established in the different vegetation types. Specimens collected were classified and identified using the Flora Malesiana and type images. Assessment of status was determined based on International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). There were 223 species of trees, 141 genera and 71 families. Of the vegetation types, the pygmy forest obtained a comparatively high diversity value of H=1.348 followed by montane forest with H=1.284. The high species importance value (SIV) of Diospyros philippinensis for trees indicates that these species have an important role in regulating the stability of the ecosystem. The tree profile of the pygmy forest is different due to the ultramafic substrate causing the dwarfness of the trees. These forest types should be given high priority for protection and conservation.
Keywords: diversity, Mt Hamiguitan, vegetation, trees, shrubsProcedia PDF Downloads 324
483 Habitat Use by Persian Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) in Bydoye Protected Area, Iran
Authors: S. Aghanajafizadeh, M. Poursina
Abstract:We studied the selection of winter habitat by Persian Gazelle (Gazella subguttrosa) in Bydoyeh protected area. Habitat variables such as plant species number, vegetation percent, distance to the nearest water sources and plant patch of present sites were compared with randomly selected non- used sites. The results showed that the most important factors influencing habitat selection were number and vegetation percent of Artemisia sieberi. Vegetation percent of plants. vegetation percent and number of Artemisia sieberi were significantly higher compared with the control area.
Keywords: Persian gazelle, habitat use, Bydoyeh protected area, Kerman, IranProcedia PDF Downloads 319
482 Assessment of Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Remote Sensing
Authors: R. Vidhya, M. Navamuniyammal M. Sivakumar, S. Reeta
Abstract:The unplanned urbanization affects the environment due to pollution, conditions of the atmosphere, decreased vegetation and the pervious and impervious soil surface. Considered to be a cumulative effect of all these impacts is the Urban Heat Island. In this paper, the urban heat island effect is studied for the Chennai city, TamilNadu, South India using satellite remote sensing data. LANDSAT 8 OLI and TIRS DATA acquired on 9th September 2014 were used to Land Surface Temperature (LST) map, vegetation fraction map, Impervious surface fraction, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Building Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map. The relationship among LST, Vegetation fraction, NDBI, NDWI, and NDVI was calculated. The Chennai city’s Urban Heat Island effect is significant, and the results indicate LST has strong negative correlation with the vegetation present and positive correlation with NDBI. The vegetation is the main factor to control urban heat island effect issues in urban area like Chennai City. This study will help in developing measures to land use planning to reduce the heat effects in urban area based on remote sensing derivatives.
Keywords: land surface temperature, brightness temperature, emissivity, vegetation indexProcedia PDF Downloads 191
481 Variation of Manning’s Coefficient in a Meandering Channel with Emergent Vegetation Cover
Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua
Abstract:Vegetation plays a major role in deciding the flow parameters in an open channel. It enhances the aesthetic view of the revetments. The major types of vegetation in river typically comprises of herbs, grasses, weeds, trees, etc. The vegetation in an open channel usually consists of aquatic plants with complete submergence, partial submergence, floating plants. The presence of vegetative plants can have both benefits and problems. The major benefits of aquatic plants are they reduce the soil erosion, which provides the water with a free surface to move on without hindrance. The obvious problems are they retard the flow of water and reduce the hydraulic capacity of the channel. The degree to which the flow parameters are affected depends upon the density of the vegetation, degree of submergence, pattern of vegetation, vegetation species. Vegetation in open channel tends to provide resistance to flow, which in turn provides a background to study the varying trends in flow parameters having vegetative growth in the channel surface. In this paper, an experiment has been conducted on a meandering channel having sinuosity of 1.33 with rigid vegetation cover to investigate the effect on flow parameters, variation of manning’s n with degree of the denseness of vegetation, vegetation pattern and submergence criteria. The measurements have been carried out in four different cross-sections two on trough portion of the meanders, two on the crest portion. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress have been taken into account. Dimensionless eddy viscosity and bed friction have been incorporated to modify the SKM to provide more accurate results. A mathematical model has been formulated to have a comparative analysis with the results obtained from Shiono-Knight Method.
Keywords: bed friction, depth averaged velocity, eddy viscosity, SKMProcedia PDF Downloads 78
480 Analyzing the Changing Pattern of Nigerian Vegetation Zones and Its Ecological and Socio-Economic Implications Using Spot-Vegetation Sensor
Authors: B. L. Gadiga
Abstract:This study assesses the major ecological zones in Nigeria with the view to understanding the spatial pattern of vegetation zones and the implications on conservation within the period of sixteen (16) years. Satellite images used for this study were acquired from the SPOT-VEGETATION between 1998 and 2013. The annual NDVI images selected for this study were derived from SPOT-4 sensor and were acquired within the same season (November) in order to reduce differences in spectral reflectance due to seasonal variations. The images were sliced into five classes based on literatures and knowledge of the area (i.e. <0.16 Non-Vegetated areas; 0.16-0.22 Sahel Savannah; 0.22-0.40 Sudan Savannah, 0.40-0.47 Guinea Savannah and >0.47 Forest Zone). Classification of the 1998 and 2013 images into forested and non forested areas showed that forested area decrease from 511,691 km2 in 1998 to 478,360 km2 in 2013. Differencing change detection method was performed on 1998 and 2013 NDVI images to identify areas of ecological concern. The result shows that areas undergoing vegetation degradation covers an area of 73,062 km2 while areas witnessing some form restoration cover an area of 86,315 km2. The result also shows that there is a weak correlation between rainfall and the vegetation zones. The non-vegetated areas have a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.0088, Sahel Savannah belt 0.1988, Sudan Savannah belt -0.3343, Guinea Savannah belt 0.0328 and Forest belt 0.2635. The low correlation can be associated with the encroachment of the Sudan Savannah belt into the forest belt of South-eastern part of the country as revealed by the image analysis. The degradation of the forest vegetation is therefore responsible for the serious erosion problems witnessed in the South-east. The study recommends constant monitoring of vegetation and strict enforcement of environmental laws in the country.
Keywords: vegetation, NDVI, SPOT-vegetation, ecology, degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 97
479 Rapid Assessment the Ability of Forest Vegetation in Kulonprogo to Store Carbon Using Multispectral Satellite Imagery and Vegetation Index
Authors: Ima Rahmawati, Nur Hafizul Kalam
Abstract:Development of industrial and economic sectors in various countries very rapidly caused raising the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gases are dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere that make the surface temperature of the earth always increase. The increasing gases caused by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum and coals and also high rate of deforestation. Yogyakarta Special Province which every year always become tourist destination, has a great potency in increasing of greenhouse gas emissions mainly from the incomplete combustion. One of effort to reduce the concentration of gases in the atmosphere is keeping and empowering the existing forests in the Province of Yogyakarta, especially forest in Kulonprogro is to be maintained the greenness so that it can absorb and store carbon maximally. Remote sensing technology can be used to determine the ability of forests to absorb carbon and it is connected to the density of vegetation. The purpose of this study is to determine the density of the biomass of forest vegetation and determine the ability of forests to store carbon through Photo-interpretation and Geographic Information System approach. Remote sensing imagery that used in this study is LANDSAT 8 OLI year 2015 recording. LANDSAT 8 OLI imagery has 30 meters spatial resolution for multispectral bands and it can give general overview the condition of the carbon stored from every density of existing vegetation. The method is the transformation of vegetation index combined with allometric calculation of field data then doing regression analysis. The results are model maps of density and capability level of forest vegetation in Kulonprogro, Yogyakarta in storing carbon.
Keywords: remote sensing, carbon, kulonprogo, forest vegetation, vegetation indexProcedia PDF Downloads 330
478 Modeling Floodplain Vegetation Response to Groundwater Variability Using ArcSWAT Hydrological Model, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalised Difference Vegetation Index Data, and Machine Learning
Authors: Newton Muhury, Armando A. Apan, Tek Maraseni
Abstract:This study modelled the relationships between vegetation response and available water below the soil surface using the Terra’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) generated Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and soil water content (SWC) data. The Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interface known as ArcSWAT was used in ArcGIS for the groundwater analysis. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated in SWAT-CUP software using 10 years (2001-2010) of monthly streamflow data. The average Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency during the calibration and validation was 0.54 and 0.51, respectively, indicating that the model performances were good. Twenty years (2001-2020) of monthly MODIS NDVI data for three different types of vegetation (forest, shrub, and grass) and soil water content for 43 sub-basins were analysed using the WEKA, machine learning tool with a selection of two supervised machine learning algorithms, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The modelling results show that different types of vegetation response and soil water content vary in the dry and wet season. For example, the model generated high positive relationships (r=0.76, 0.73, and 0.81) between the measured and predicted NDVI values of all vegetation in the study area against the groundwater flow (GW), soil water content (SWC), and the combination of these two variables, respectively, during the dry season. However, these relationships were reduced by 36.8% (r=0.48) and 13.6% (r=0.63) against GW and SWC, respectively, in the wet season. On the other hand, the model predicted a moderate positive relationship (r=0.63) between shrub vegetation type and soil water content during the dry season, which was reduced by 31.7% (r=0.43) during the wet season. Our models also predicted that vegetation in the top location (upper part) of the sub-basin is highly responsive to GW and SWC (r=0.78, and 0.70) during the dry season. The results of this study indicate the study region is suitable for seasonal crop production in dry season. Moreover, the results predicted that the growth of vegetation in the top-point location is highly dependent on groundwater flow in both dry and wet seasons, and any instability or long-term drought can negatively affect these floodplain vegetation communities. This study has enriched our knowledge of vegetation responses to groundwater in each season, which will facilitate better floodplain vegetation management.
Keywords: ArcSWAT, machine learning, floodplain vegetation, MODIS NDVI, groundwaterProcedia PDF Downloads 43
477 The Use of Remote Sensing in the Study of Vegetation Jebel Boutaleb, Setif, Algeria
Authors: Khaled Missaoui, Amina Beldjazia, Rachid Gharzouli, Yamna Djellouli
Abstract:Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Different materials reflect and absorb differently at different wavelengths. Thus, the targets can be differentiated by their spectral reflectance signatures in the remotely sensed images. In this work, we are interested to study the distribution of vegetation in the massif forest of Boutaleb (North East of Algeria) which suffered between 1998 and 1999 very large fires. In this case, we use remote sensing with Landsat images from two dates (1984 and 2000) to see the results of these fires. Vegetation has a unique spectral signature which enables it to be distinguished readily from other types of land cover in an optical/near-infrared image. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated with ENVI 4.7 from Band 3 and 4. The results showed a very important floristic diversity in this forest. The comparison of NDVI from the two dates confirms that there is a decrease of the density of vegetation in this area due to repeated fires.
Keywords: remote sensing, boutaleb, diversity, forestProcedia PDF Downloads 306
476 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover of Desertification Vulnerable Areas in Nigeria
Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Sabo A. Babanyara, K. G. Ilellah, A. K. Mutari
Abstract:This study used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and maps compiled from the classification of Landsat TM and Landsat ETM images of 1986 and 1999 respectively and Nigeria sat 1 images of 2007 to quantify changes in land use and land cover in selected areas of Nigeria covering 143,609 hectares that are threatened by the encroaching Sahara desert. The results of this investigation revealed a decrease in natural vegetation over the three time slices (1986, 1999 and 2007) which was characterised by an increase in high positive pixel values from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 and 0.32 in 1999 and 2007 respectively and, a decrease in natural vegetation from 74,411.60ha in 1986 to 28,591.93ha and 21,819.19ha in 1999 and 2007 respectively. The same results also revealed a periodic trend in which there was progressive increase in the cultivated area from 60,191.87ha in 1986 to 104,376.07ha in 1999 and a terminal decrease to 88,868.31ha in 2007. These findings point to expansion of vegetated and cultivated areas in in the initial period between 1988 and 1996 and reversal of these increases in the terminal period between 1988 and 1996. The study also revealed progressive expansion of built-up areas from 1, 681.68ha in 1986 to 2,661.82ha in 1999 and to 3,765.35ha in 2007. These results argue for the urgent need to protect and conserve the depleting natural vegetation by adopting sustainable human resource use practices i.e. intensive farming in order to minimize persistent depletion of natural vegetation.
Keywords: changes, classification, desertification, vegetation changesProcedia PDF Downloads 317
475 Development of a Vegetation Searching System
Authors: Rattanathip Rattanachai, Kunyanuth Kularbphettong
Keywords: endemic species, vegetation, web-based system, black box testing, ThailandProcedia PDF Downloads 252
474 Reclamation of Mining Using Vegetation - A Comparative Study of Open Pit Mining
Authors: G. Surendra Babu
Abstract:We all know the importance of mineral wealth, which has been buried inside the layers of the earth for decades. These are the natural energy sources that are used in our day to day life like fuel, electricity, construction, etc. but the process of extraction causes damage to the nature that can’t be returned back and which are left over after completion of mining we can see these are barren from decades these remain unused degraded land. Most of them are covered with vegetation before the start during mining which damages the native vegetation of the region and disturbs the watershed boundary of the regions and it also disturbs the biodiversity of the reign. The major motto of the study is to understand the various issues that are found and to understand various methods of reclamations process that are suitable for revegetating and also variously practiced which are carried out in the different case studies and government guidelines procedure of lease licenses which includes the environmental clearances and also to study the vegetation pattern according to the major issues identified. And finally suggesting the new guidelines with respect to the old guidelines which helps in the revegetation of the mine-sites which helps in establishing of its own sustainable ecosystem in future.
Keywords: reclamation, open-pit mining, revegetation, reclamation methodsProcedia PDF Downloads 111
473 Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria
Authors: Nafaa Zaafour
Abstract:Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.
Keywords: Algeria, cartography, soil, vegetationProcedia PDF Downloads 316
472 The Influence of Different Green Roof Vegetation on Indoor Temperature in Semi-Arid Climate Cyprus
Authors: Sinem Yıldırım, Çimen Özburak, Özge Özden
Abstract:Cities are facing a growing environmental issue as a result of the combined effect of urbanization and climate change. Climate change is the most conspicuousimpact on environmental issues. Nowadays, energy conservation is a very important subject for planners. It is known that green roofs can provide environmental benefits, which include building insulation and mitigating urban heat island effect within the cities. Some of the studies shown that green roofs regulate roof temperature and they have an effect on indoor temperatures of buildings. This research looks at the experimental investigation of different type green roof vegetation with control of no vegetation and their effect on indoor temperatures. The research has been carried out at Near East University Campus with the duration of four months in Nicosia, Cyprus. The experiment was consisting of four green roof types; three of them covered with vegetation, and one of them was not vegetated for control of the experiment. Each hut had 2.7 m2 roof areas, and the soil depth was 8 cm. Mediterranean climate drought resistant ground covers and shrubs were planted on the roof of the three huts. Three different vegetation type was used: 1-Low growing ground cover succulents 2-Mixture of low growing succulents and low shrubs 3-Mixture of low growing succulents, low shrubs, and high growing foliage plantsElitech RC-5 temperature data loggers were used in order to measure indoor temperatures of the huts. Research results were shown that the hut with a highly vegetated roof had the lowest temperatures during hot summer period in Cyprus.
Keywords: green roofs, indoor temperature, vegetation, mediterranean, cyprusProcedia PDF Downloads 127
471 Vegetation Integrated with Architecture: A Comparative Study in Vijayawada
Authors: Clince Rodrigues
Abstract:Due to high dense areas, there is a continuous increase in the global warming and urban pollution, thus integrating green with the built environment is vital. The paper deals with the understanding of vegetation in architecture and how a proper design strategy can aim at improving not only the performances of buildings but also the outdoor climate. In the present scenario of cities, one cannot inhale pure air. Vegetations combat global warming by absorbing the carbon emitted by vehicles, lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants, and reducing the energy used for climate control in buildings by the use of plants which can reduce the carbon emission and thus, making the environment less polluted. A comparative study of areas, neighborhood and dwelling unit has been used as a scope for understanding different scenarios and scale. By comparing a system (area; building) with and without vegetation, and then finding out the difference. Understanding the Vijayawada city by taking its past and present conditions, and how these changes have affected the environment and people at a macro and micro level. Built environment and climactic performance at the building level and surrounding spaces are the areas that are covered in the study.
Keywords: climate, environment, neighborhood, pollution, vegetation, Vijayawada, urbanProcedia PDF Downloads 86