Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 420

Search results for: settlement

420 The Quantitative Analysis of the Traditional Rural Settlement Plane Boundary

Authors: Yifan Dong, Xincheng Pu

Abstract:

Rural settlements originate from the accumulation of residential building elements, and their agglomeration forms the settlement pattern and defines the relationship between the settlement and the inside and outside. The settlement boundary is an important part of the settlement pattern. Compared with the simplification of the urban settlement boundary, the settlement of the country is more complex, fuzzy and uncertain, and then presents a rich and diverse boundary morphological phenomenon. In this paper, China traditional rural settlements plane boundary as the research object, using fractal theory and fractal dimension method, quantitative analysis of planar shape boundary settlement, and expounds the research for the architectural design, ancient architecture protection and renewal and development and the significance of the protection of settlements.

Keywords: rural settlement, border, fractal, quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
419 Study on the Model Predicting Post-Construction Settlement of Soft Ground

Authors: Pingshan Chen, Zhiliang Dong

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In order to estimate the post-construction settlement more objectively, the power-polynomial model is proposed, which can reflect the trend of settlement development based on the observed settlement data. It was demonstrated by an actual case history of an embankment, and during the prediction. Compared with the other three prediction models, the power-polynomial model can estimate the post-construction settlement more accurately with more simple calculation.

Keywords: prediction, model, post-construction settlement, soft ground

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
418 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi

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The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: heterogeneous, settlement, foundation, seismic, technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
417 Effect of Adjacent Footings on Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundations

Authors: Mustafa Aytekin

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In this study, impact of adjacent footings is considered on the estimation of elastic settlement of shallow foundations. In the estimation of elastic settlement, the Schmertmann’s method that is a very popular method in the elastic settlement estimation of shallow foundations is employed. In order to consider affect of neighboring footings on elastic settlement of main footing in different configurations, a MATLAB script has been generated. Elastic settlements of the various configurations are estimated by the script and several conclusions have been reached.

Keywords: elastic (immediate) settlement, Schmertman Method, adjacent footings, shallow foundations

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
416 Dynamic Study on the Evaluation of the Settlement of Soil under Sea Dam

Authors: Faroudja Meziani, Amar Kahil

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In order to study the variation in settlement of soil under a dyke dam, the modelisation in our study consists of applying an imposed displacement at the base of the mass of soil (consisting of a saturated sand). The imposed displacement follows the evolution of acceleration of the earthquake of Boumerdes 2003 in Algeria. Moreover, the gravity load is taken into consideration by taking account the specific weight of the materials constituting the dyke. The results obtained show that the gravity loads have a direct influence on the evolution of settlement, especially at the center of the dyke where these loads are higher.

Keywords: settlement, dynamic analysis, rockfill dam, effect of earthquake, soil dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
415 Positivism Legal Controversy: Dilemma Carok as Madura’s Culture through Indigenous Dispute Settlement in Indonesia

Authors: M. Yasin Al-Arif, Mohammad Faisol Soleh

Abstract:

The Indonesia’s Constitution in Article 18b explained that the state recognizes and respects indigenous peoples and their traditional rights that are guaranteed by the law. Despite already guaranteed its existence; in practice such indigenous law is often considered contrary to positive law by legal experts. It is because of legal positivism paradigm which requires the written law as the main reference for the settlement of legal disputes. Carok’s culture is one of the indigenous cultures of Madura to resolve legal disputes that still thrives until today. Carok’s culture is in outside the legal process, and through a fight between the disputing parties until one dies. On the other hand, the legal positivism does not give place to accommodate Carok as indigenous dispute settlement, until it must be solved through trial. This way of settlement has not been successfully satisfying the indigenous people, thus although it has been done through its verdict in the trial, but Carok still be used by them. From the explanation above, Carok’s culture must be accommodated as the main settlement process and legal process of law as the alternative to the effectiveness of dispute resolution in Madura Indonesia.

Keywords: carok, dispute settlement, legal positivism, madura’s culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
414 The Effect of Foundation on the Earth Fill Dam Settlement

Authors: Masoud Ghaemi, Mohammadjafar Hedayati, Faezeh Yousefzadeh, Hoseinali Heydarzadeh

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Careful monitoring in the earth dams to measure deformation caused by settlement and movement has always been a concern for engineers in the field. In order to measure settlement and deformation of earth dams, usually, the precision instruments of settlement set and combined Inclinometer that is commonly referred to IS instrument will be used. In some dams, because the thickness of alluvium is high and there is no possibility of alluvium removal (technically and economically and in terms of performance), there is no possibility of placing the end of IS instrument (precision instruments of Inclinometer-settlement set) in the rock foundation. Inevitably, have to accept installing pipes in the weak and deformable alluvial foundation that leads to errors in the calculation of the actual settlement (absolute settlement) in different parts of the dam body. The purpose of this paper is to present new and refine criteria for predicting settlement and deformation in earth dams. The study is based on conditions in three dams with a deformation quite alluvial (Agh Chai, Narmashir and Gilan-e Gharb) to provide settlement criteria affected by the alluvial foundation. To achieve this goal, the settlement of dams was simulated by using the finite difference method with FLAC3D software, and then the modeling results were compared with the reading IS instrument. In the end, the caliber of the model and validate the results, by using regression analysis techniques and scrutinized modeling parameters with real situations and then by using MATLAB software and CURVE FITTING toolbox, new criteria for the settlement based on elasticity modulus, cohesion, friction angle, the density of earth dam and the alluvial foundation was obtained. The results of these studies show that, by using the new criteria measures, the amount of settlement and deformation for the dams with alluvial foundation can be corrected after instrument readings, and the error rate in reading IS instrument can be greatly reduced.

Keywords: earth-fill dam, foundation, settlement, finite difference, MATLAB, curve fitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
413 A Review of Deformation and Settlement Monitoring on the Field: Types and Applications

Authors: Hassan Ali, Abdulrahman Hamid

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This paper discusses using of instruments to monitor deformation and settlement. Specifically, it concentrates on field instruments such as inclinometer and plate load test and their applications in the field. Inclinometer has been used effectively to monitor lateral earth movements and settlement in landslide areas, embankments and foundations. They are also used to monitor the deflection of retaining walls and piles under load. This paper is reviewing types of inclinometer systems, comparison between systems, applications, field accuracy and correction. The paper also will present a case study of using inclinometer to monitor the creep movements within the ancient landslide on The Washington Park Station. Furthermore, the application of deformation and settlement instruments in Saudi Arabia will be discussed in this manuscript.

Keywords: inclinometer, plate load test, backfills, sand, deformation and settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
412 Settlement Performance of Soft Clay Reinforced with Granular Columns

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin, V. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Numerous laboratory-based research studies on the behavior of ground improved with granular columns with respect to bearing capacity have been well-documented. However, information on its settlement performance is still scarce. Laboratory model study on the settlement behavior of soft clay reinforced with granular columns was conducted and results are presented. The investigation uses a soft kaolin clay sample of 300 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The clay samples were reinforced with single and multiple granular columns of various lengths using the displacement and replacement installation method. The results indicated that that no settlement reduction was achieved for a short single floating column. The settlement reduction factors reported for L/d ratios of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 are in the range of 1 to 2. The findings obtained in this research showed that the reduction factors are considerably less and that load-sharing mechanism between columns and surrounding clay is complex, particularly for column groups and is affected by other factors such as negative skin friction.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
411 Settlement Analysis of Axially Loaded Bored Piles: A Case History

Authors: M. Mert, M. T. Ozkan

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Pile load tests should be applied to check the bearing capacity calculations and to determine the settlement of the pile corresponding to test load. Strain gauges can be installed into pile in order to determine the shaft resistance of the piles for every soil layer respectively. Detailed results can be obtained by means of strain gauges placed at certain levels into test piles. In the scope of this study, pile load test data obtained from two different projects are examined.  Instrumented static pile load tests were applied on totally 7 test bored piles of different diameters (80 cm, 150 cm, and 200 cm) and different lengths (between 30-76 m) in two different project site. Settlement analysis of test piles is done by using some of load transfer methods and finite element method. Plaxis 3D which is a three-dimensional finite element program is also used for settlement analysis of the test piles. In this study, firstly bearing capacity of test piles are determined and compared with strain gauge data which is required for settlement analysis. Then, settlement values of the test piles are estimated by using load transfer methods developed in recent years and finite element method. The aim of this study is to show similarities and differences between the results obtained from settlement analysis methods and instrumented pile load tests.

Keywords: failure, finite element method, monitoring and instrumentation, pile, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
410 Effect of Preloading on Long-Term Settlement of Closed Landfills: A Numerical Analysis

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hajar Share Isfahani, Hadi Khabbaz

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In recent years, by developing cities and increasing population, reconstructing on closed landfill sites in some regions is unavoidable. Long-term settlement is one of the major concerns associated with reconstruction on landfills after closure. The purpose of this research is evaluating the effect of preloading in various patterns of height and time on long-term settlements of closed landfills. In this regard, five scenarios of surcharge from 1 to 3 m high within 3, 4.5 and 6 months of preloading time have been modeled using PLAXIS 2D software. Moreover, the numerical results have been compared to those obtained from analytical methods, and a good agreement has been achieved. The findings indicate that there is a linear relationship between settlement and surcharge height. Although, long-term settlement decreased by applying a longer and higher preloading, the time of preloading was found to be a more effective factor compared to preloading height.

Keywords: preloading, long-term settlement, landfill, PLAXIS 2D

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
409 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Adel Hanna, Tahar Ayadat, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros

Abstract:

A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: stone columns, group, soft soil, settlement, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
408 Experimental Stress Analysis on Pipeline in Condition of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement

Authors: Zhiqiang Cheng, Qingliang He, Lu Li, Jie Ren

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The safety of pipelines in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement is necessarily evaluated. A full-scale experiment pipe with the typical structure configuration in station pipeline is constructed, the residual stress is tested with X-ray residual stress device, and the residual stress field of pipe is analyzed. The evolution of pipe strain with pressure in the scope of maximum allowable operation pressure (MAOP) is investigated by both strain gauge and X-ray methods. Load caused by frost heave or thaw settlement is simulated by two ways of lifting jack. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and clearances between supporter and pipe is studied in case of frost heave. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and maximum deformation of pipe on the ground is studied in case of thaw settlement. The study methods and results are valuable for safety assessment of station pipeline according to clearances or deformation in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement.

Keywords: frost heave, pipeline, stress analysis, thaw settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
407 Settlement Prediction for Tehran Subway Line-3 via FLAC3D and ANFIS

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Nowadays, tunnels with different applications are developed, and most of them are related to subway tunnels. The excavation of shallow tunnels that pass under municipal utilities is very important, and the surface settlement control is an important factor in the design. The study sought to analyze the settlement and also to find an appropriate model in order to predict the behavior of the tunnel in Tehran subway line-3. The displacement in these sections is also determined by using numerical analyses and numerical modeling. In addition, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method is utilized by Hybrid training algorithm. The database pertinent to the optimum network was obtained from 46 subway tunnels in Iran and Turkey which have been constructed by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) with similar parameters based on type of their soil. The surface settlement was measured, and the acquired results were compared to the predicted values. The results disclosed that computing intelligence is a good substitute for numerical modeling.

Keywords: settlement, Subway Line, FLAC3D, ANFIS Method

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
406 Investigation of the Effect of Excavation Step in NATM on Surface Settlement by Finite Element Method

Authors: Seyed Mehrdad Gholami

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Nowadays, using rail transport system (Metro) is increased in most cities of The world, so the need for safe and economical way of building tunnels and subway stations is felt more and more. One of the most commonly used methods for constructing underground structures in urban areas is NATM (New Austrian tunneling method). In this method, there are some key parameters such as excavation steps and cross-sectional area that have a significant effect on the surface settlement. Settlement is a very important control factor related to safe excavation. In this paper, Finite Element Method is used by Abaqus. R6 station of Tehran Metro Line 6 is built by NATM and the construction of that is studied and analyzed. Considering the outcomes obtained from numerical modeling and comparison with the results of the instrumentation and monitoring of field, finally, the excavation step of 1 meter and longitudinal distance of 14 meters between side drifts is suggested to achieve safe tunneling with allowable settlement.

Keywords: excavation step, NATM, numerical modeling, settlement.

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405 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

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The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
404 Seismic Resistant Columns of Buildings against the Differential Settlement of the Foundation

Authors: Romaric Desbrousses, Lan Lin

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The objective of this study is to determine how Canadian seismic design provisions affect the column axial load resistance of moment-resisting frame reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the differential settlement of their foundation. To do so, two four-storey buildings are designed in accordance with the seismic design provisions of the Canadian Concrete Design Standards. One building is located in Toronto, which is situated in a moderate seismic hazard zone in Canada, and the other in Vancouver, which is in Canada’s highest seismic hazard zone. A finite element model of each building is developed using SAP 2000. A 100 mm settlement is assigned to the base of the building’s center column. The axial load resistance of the column is represented by the demand capacity ratio. The analysis results show that settlement-induced tensile axial forces have a particularly detrimental effect on the conventional settling columns of the Toronto buildings which fail at a much smaller settlement that those in the Vancouver buildings. The results also demonstrate that particular care should be taken in the design of columns in short-span buildings.

Keywords: Columns, Demand, Foundation differential settlement, Seismic design, Non-linear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
403 Evaluation of Settlement of Coastal Embankments Using Finite Elements Method

Authors: Sina Fadaie, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

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Coastal embankments play an important role in coastal structures by reducing the effect of the wave forces and controlling the movement of sediments. Many coastal areas are underlain by weak and compressible soils. Estimation of during construction settlement of coastal embankments is highly important in design and safety control of embankments and appurtenant structures. Accordingly, selecting and establishing of an appropriate model with a reasonable level of complication is one of the challenges for engineers. Although there are advanced models in the literature regarding design of embankments, there is not enough information on the prediction of their associated settlement, particularly in coastal areas having considerable soft soils. Marine engineering study in Iran is important due to the existence of two important coastal areas located in the northern and southern parts of the country. In the present study, the validity of Terzaghi’s consolidation theory has been investigated. In addition, the settlement of these coastal embankments during construction is predicted by using special methods in PLAXIS software by the help of appropriate boundary conditions and soil layers. The results indicate that, for the existing soil condition at the site, some parameters are important to be considered in analysis. Consequently, a model is introduced to estimate the settlement of the embankments in such geotechnical conditions.

Keywords: consolidation, settlement, coastal embankments, numerical methods, finite elements method

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
402 Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment

Authors: Safitri W. Nur, Prathisto Panuntun L. Unggul, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, R. Dary Wira Mahadika

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On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.

Keywords: differential settlement, embankment, influence area, slope, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
401 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

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Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
400 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

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Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: finite element analysis, harmonic loading, settlement, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
399 Constitutive Model for Analysis of Long-Term Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Settlement

Authors: Irena Basaric Ikodinovic, Dragoslav Rakic, Mirjana Vukicevic, Sanja Jockovic, Jovana Jankovic Pantic

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Large long-term settlement occurs at the municipal solid waste landfills over an extended period of time which may lead to breakage of the geomembrane, damage of the cover systems, other protective systems or facilities constructed on top of a landfill. Also, municipal solid waste is an extremely heterogeneous material and its properties vary over location and time within a landfill. These material characteristics require the formulation of a new constitutive model to predict the long-term settlement of municipal solid waste. The paper presents a new constitutive model which is formulated to describe the mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste. Model is based on Modified Cam Clay model and the critical state soil mechanics framework incorporating time-dependent components: mechanical creep and biodegradation of municipal solid waste. The formulated constitutive model is optimized and defined with eight input parameters: five Modified Cam Clay parameters, one parameter for mechanical creep and two parameters for biodegradation of municipal solid waste. Thereafter, the constitutive model is implemented in the software suite for finite element analysis (ABAQUS) and numerical analysis of the experimental landfill settlement is performed. The proposed model predicts the total settlement which is in good agreement with field measured settlement at the experimental landfill.

Keywords: constitutive model, finite element analysis, municipal solid waste, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
398 A Comparison between Russian and Western Approach for Deep Foundation Design

Authors: Saeed Delara, Kendra MacKay

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Varying methodologies are considered for pile design for both Russian and Western approaches. Although both approaches rely on toe and side frictional resistances, different calculation methods are proposed to estimate pile capacity. The Western approach relies on compactness (internal friction angle) of soil for cohesionless soils and undrained shear strength for cohesive soils. The Russian approach relies on grain size for cohesionless soils and liquidity index for cohesive soils. Though most recommended methods in the Western approaches are relatively simple methods to predict pile settlement, the Russian approach provides a detailed method to estimate single pile and pile group settlement. Details to calculate pile axial capacity and settlement using the Russian and Western approaches are discussed and compared against field test results.

Keywords: pile capacity, pile settlement, Russian approach, western approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
397 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

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Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
396 The Damage Assessment of Industrial Buildings Located on Clayey Soils Using in-Situ Tests

Authors: Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan

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Some of the industrially prefabricated buildings located on clayey soils were damaged due to soil conditions. The reasons of these damages are generally due to different settlement capacity, the different plasticity of soils and the level of ground water. The aim of this study is to determine the source of these building damages by conducting in situ tests. Therefore, pressuremeter test, which is one of the borehole loading test conducted to determine the properties of soils under the foundations and Standart Penetration Test (SPT). The results of these two field tests were then used to accurately obtain the consistency and firmness of soils. Pressuremeter Deformation Module (EM) and Net Limiting Pressure (PL) of soils were calculated after the pressuremeter tests. These values were then compared with the SPT (N30) and SPT (N60) results. An empirical equation was developed to obtain EM and PL values of such soils from SPT test results. These values were then used to calculate soil bearing capacity as well as the soil settlement. Finally, the relationship between the foundation settlement and the damage of these buildings were checked. It was found that calculated settlement values were almost the same as measured settlement values.

Keywords: damaged building, pressuremeter, standard penetration test, low and high plasticity clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
395 Settlement Performance of Granular Column Reinforced Soil

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin

Abstract:

The vibrated column has been widely used over the last three decades to improve the performance of soft ground and engineered compacted fill. The main reason for adopting this technique is that it is economically viable and environmental friendly. The performance of granular column with regards to bearing capacity has been well documented; however, information regarding the settlement behavior of granular columns is still limited. This paper aims to address the findings from a laboratory model study in terms of its settlement improvement. A 300 mm diameter and 400 mm high kaolin clay model was used in this investigation. Columns of various heights were installed in the clay bed using replacement method. The results in relation to load sharing mechanism between the column and surrounding clay just under the footing indicated that in short column, the available shaft resistance was not significant and introduces a potential for end braing failure as opposed to bulging failure in long columns. The settlement improvement factor corroborates well with field observations.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
394 Water Accessibility at Household Levels in Zambia: A Case Study of Fitobaula Settlement

Authors: Emmanuel Sachikumba, Micheal Msoni, Westone Mafuleka

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Zambia has a good climate with favourable rainfall pattern; this provides sufficient recharge for the surface and groundwater resources. In spite of the sufficient surface and ground water resources, accessibility to water at household levels is problematic both in quality and quantity. The study examined water accessibility as well as water quality at the household level. The research looked at the sources of water for the households and considered the complications of accessibility to water and the available opportunities therein. The investigation involved fifty households and the data was collected by the use of questionnaires (to assess accessibility) and laboratory tests (for ascertaining water quality). In addition to this, government departments such as the health, agriculture, forestry and education as well as the municipal council were interviewed on the topic under study. The study was descriptive in nature where clustered sampling procedures using simple random methods were utilised to select the households which were to participate in the study. The key findings were that; accessibility to water household levels is still a challenge in the settlement as most of the point sources (shallow wells, the stream and the river) were found to be contaminated. In addition to this, it was found that there was no direct relationship between the economic performance of a household and the accessibility to water. The study also observed that there were opportunities for the people in the settlement as they were increasingly getting into the education system, and adult literacy was being encouraged in the settlement. Furthermore, the settlement has groundwater resources which indicate that there can be sufficient water provision for the settlers.

Keywords: accessibility, household, water, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
393 Ideological Framing in Television News: The Case of “Settlement Process”

Authors: Mete Kazaz, Birol Gülnar

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Television news has gained a new dimension in terms of ideological approaches as a result of such factors as globalization, cross monopolization, presence of international companies etc. and certain strategies have been developed at the production, presentation and distribution stages of news. In this study, television news about a process called “settlement process” was investigated. In this framework, news about the settlement process on TV channels of TRT 1, ATV, FOX TV, NTV, HABERTÜRK, TRT HABER and STV was investigated using the content analysis method in terms of the strategies the ideology construction, attitude towards the party in power, attitude towards parties in opposition and attitude towards BDP (Peace and Democracy Part) and Imrali (the island where Abdullah Ocalan, head of PKK, is kept). First, the aforementioned TV channels were selected randomly from 3 groups in order to be able to reveal the representational capacity of commercial, news and public channels. The study covers 557 news items broadcast in the main news bulletins between the dates of 15 March 2013 and 15 March 2013. While there was a positive attitude towards the government in a sizable portion of the news about the settlement process (63.6%), the attitude of 25.3% of the news was impartial towards the government and 11.3% had a negative attitude. On the other hand, there was a negative attitude towards the Opposition in a considerable portion of the news about the settlement process (56.1%). The attitude of 35.9% of the news towards the Opposition was impartial whereas 8.0% had a positive attitude. While 34.9% of the news about the settlement process used the legitimization strategy from among the ideology construction strategies, 22.8% used the unification strategy, 15.7% the reification strategy, 15.6% fractional and 11% concealment/mystification strategy.

Keywords: attitude, ideological framing, television news, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
392 Impacts of Human Settlement Development on Highland View Wetland in Bizana, South Africa

Authors: Fikile Xaki, Zendy Magayiyana

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The increasing population and urbanization, with the demand for land and development, has had adverse impacts on wetland areas which has resulted in changing the hydrology and water chemistry of wetlands, affecting the water supply and water quality in urban areas like the Highland View, a residential area in Mbizana, South Africa. The settlement development in Highland View has led to wetland degradation due to land uses like agriculture and conversion of wetland for settlement development. Interviews with the local community were conducted to show how settlement development on wetland affects them. The results indicated that the environmental rights of people as according to Section 24 of the South African Constitution are compromised, and sustainable development was not put into consideration during development. With the results from the survey - through questionnaires for the Mbizana Local Municipality and the community, it was clear that the community needs education and capacity building on wetland management and conservation. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to map physical properties of the Highland View wetland and houses built on the wetland. With all the information gathered from the research, it was clear that local municipality, together with hydrologists, needs to develop an environmental management framework to protect the wetlands.

Keywords: sustainable development, wetlands, human settlement, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
391 Understanding Informal Settlements: The Role of Geo-Information Tools

Authors: Musyimi Mbathi

Abstract:

Information regarding social, political, demographic, economic and other attributes of human settlement is important for decision makers at all levels of planning, as they have to grapple with dynamic environments often associated with settlements. At the local level, it is particularly important for both communities and urban managers to have accurate and reliable information regarding all planning attributes. Settlement mapping, in particular, informal settlements mapping in Kenya, has over the past few years been carried out using modern tools like Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing for spatial data analysis and planning. GIS tools offer a platform for integration of spatial and non-spatial data as well as visualisation of the settlements. The capabilities offered by these tools have enabled communities to participate especially in the planning and management of new infrastructure as well as settlement upgrading. Land tenure based projects within informal settlements have also relied on GIS and related tools with considerable success. Additionally, the adoption of participatory approaches and use of geo-information tools helped to provide a basis for all inclusive planning thus promoting accountability, transparency, legitimacy, and other dimensions of governance within human settlement planning. The paper examines the context and application of geo-information tools for planning within low-income settlements of Kenya. A case study of Kiambiu settlement will be used to demonstrate how the tools have been applied for planning and decision-making purposes.

Keywords: informal settlements, GIS, governance, modern tools

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