Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Alexei Tyryshkin

11 De Novo Design of a Minimal Catalytic Di-Nickel Peptide Capable of Sustained Hydrogen Evolution

Authors: Saroj Poudel, Joshua Mancini, Douglas Pike, Jennifer Timm, Alexei Tyryshkin, Vikas Nanda, Paul Falkowski

Abstract:

On the early Earth, protein-metal complexes likely harvested energy from a reduced environment. These complexes would have been precursors to the metabolic enzymes of ancient organisms. Hydrogenase is an essential enzyme in most anaerobic organisms for the reduction and oxidation of hydrogen in the environment and is likely one of the earliest evolved enzymes. To attempt to reinvent a precursor to modern hydrogenase, we computationally designed a short thirteen amino acid peptide that binds the often-required catalytic transition metal Nickel in hydrogenase. This simple complex can achieve hundreds of hydrogen evolution cycles using light energy in a broad range of temperature and pH. Biophysical and structural investigations strongly indicate the peptide forms a di-nickel active site analogous to Acetyl-CoA synthase, an ancient protein central to carbon reduction in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and capable of hydrogen evolution. This work demonstrates that prior to the complex evolution of multidomain enzymes, early peptide-metal complexes could have catalyzed energy transfer from the environment on the early Earth and enabled the evolution of modern metabolism

Keywords: hydrogenase, prebiotic enzyme, metalloenzyme, computational design

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10 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov

Abstract:

We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

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9 Method of False Alarm Rate Control for Cyclic Redundancy Check-Aided List Decoding of Polar Codes

Authors: Dmitry Dikarev, Ajit Nimbalker, Alexei Davydov

Abstract:

Polar coding is a novel example of error correcting codes, which can achieve Shannon limit at block length N→∞ with log-linear complexity. Active research is being carried to adopt this theoretical concept for using in practical applications such as 5th generation wireless communication systems. Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error detection code is broadly used in conjunction with successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding algorithm to improve finite-length polar code performance. However, there are two issues: increase of code block payload overhead by CRC bits and decrease of CRC error-detection capability. This paper proposes a method to control CRC overhead and false alarm rate of polar decoding. As shown in the computer simulations results, the proposed method provides the ability to use any set of CRC polynomials with any list size while maintaining the desired level of false alarm rate. This level of flexibility allows using polar codes in 5G New Radio standard.

Keywords: 5G New Radio, channel coding, cyclic redundancy check, list decoding, polar codes

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8 Nanoderma: Ecofriendly Nano Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam, Alexei R. Khokhlov

Abstract:

Studies on bioefficacy (in vitro and in vivo) and mode of action of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt and Russia might assist in the goal of sustainable agriculture. To our knowledge, few researchers have evaluated the combined antimicrobial effect of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with bioorganic pesticides for controlling plant pathogens in the greenhouse and open field, decontrol investigated synergistic effect. In the current project, we will develop eco-friendly alternative management strategies including the use of heavy nanometal-tolerant Trichoderma strains and the main effective material in conventional fungicides (curpic, sulfur, phosphorus and zinc) for controlling plant diseases. Studies on bioefficacy and the mechanism of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt were evaluated. There is a growing need to establish mechanisms of action for nano bio and/or fungicides to assist the design of new compounds or combinations of compounds, in order to understand resistance mechanisms and to provide a focus for toxicological attention. Nanofungicides represent an emerging technological development that could offer a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used.

Keywords: biohybrids, biocides, bioagent, plant pathogenic fungi

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7 Combination Rule for Homonuclear Dipole Dispersion Coefficients

Authors: Giorgio Visentin, Inna S. Kalinina, Alexei A. Buchachenko

Abstract:

In the ambit of intermolecular interactions, a combination rule is defined as a relation linking a potential parameter for the interaction of two unlike species with the same parameters for interaction pairs of like species. Some of their most exemplificative applications cover the construction of molecular dynamics force fields and dispersion-corrected density functionals. Here, an extended combination rule is proposed, relating the dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients for the interaction of like target species to the same coefficients for the interaction of the target and a set of partner species. The rule can be devised in two different ways, either by uniform discretization of the Casimir-Polder integral on a Gauss-Legendre quadrature or by relating the dynamic polarizabilities of the target and the partner species. Both methods return the same system of linear equations, which requires the knowledge of the dispersion coefficients for interaction between the partner species to be solved. The test examples show a high accuracy for dispersion coefficients (better than 1% in the pristine test for the interaction of Yb atom with rare gases and alkaline-earth metal atoms). In contrast, the rule does not ensure correct monotonic behavior of the dynamic polarizability of the target species. Acknowledgment: The work is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant # 17-13-01466.

Keywords: combination rule, dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient, Casimir-Polder integral, Gauss-Legendre quadrature

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6 Accurate Binding Energy of Ytterbium Dimer from Ab Initio Calculations and Ultracold Photoassociation Spectroscopy

Authors: Giorgio Visentin, Alexei A. Buchachenko

Abstract:

Recent proposals to use Yb dimer as an optical clock and as a sensor for non-Newtonian gravity imply the knowledge of its interaction potential. Here, the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer Yb₂ potential energy curve is represented by a semi-analytical function, consisting of short- and long-range contributions. For the former, the systematic ab initio all-electron exact 2-component scalar-relativistic CCSD(T) calculations are carried out. Special care is taken to saturate diffuse basis set component with the atom- and bond-centered primitives and reach the complete basis set limit through n = D, T, Q sequence of the correlation-consistent polarized n-zeta basis sets. Similar approaches are used to the long-range dipole and quadrupole dispersion terms by implementing the CCSD(3) polarization propagator method for dynamic polarizabilities. Dispersion coefficients are then computed through Casimir-Polder integration. The semiclassical constraint on the number of the bound vibrational levels known for the ¹⁷⁴Yb isotope is used to scale the potential function. The scaling, based on the most accurate ab initio results, bounds the interaction energy of two Yb atoms within the narrow 734 ± 4 cm⁻¹ range, in reasonable agreement with the previous ab initio-based estimations. The resulting potentials can be used as the reference for more sophisticated models that go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and provide the means of their uncertainty estimations. The work is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant # 17-13-01466.

Keywords: ab initio coupled cluster methods, interaction potential, semi-analytical function, ytterbium dimer

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5 The Suitability of Agile Practices in Healthcare Industry with Regard to Healthcare Regulations

Authors: Mahmood Alsaadi, Alexei Lisitsa

Abstract:

Nowadays, medical devices rely completely on software whether as whole software or as embedded software, therefore, the organization that develops medical device software can benefit from adopting agile practices. Using agile practices in healthcare software development industries would bring benefits such as producing a product of a high-quality with low cost and in short period. However, medical device software development companies faced challenges in adopting agile practices. These due to the gaps that exist between agile practices and the requirements of healthcare regulations such as documentation, traceability, and formality. This research paper will conduct a study to investigate the adoption rate of agile practice in medical device software development, and they will extract and outline the requirements of healthcare regulations such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and Medical Device Directive (MDD) that affect directly or indirectly on software development life cycle. Moreover, this research paper will evaluate the suitability of using agile practices in healthcare industries by analyzing the most popular agile practices such as eXtream Programming (XP), Scrum, and Feature-Driven Development (FDD) from healthcare industry point of view and in comparison with the requirements of healthcare regulations. Finally, the authors propose an agile mixture model that consists of different practices from different agile methods. As result, the adoption rate of agile practices in healthcare industries still low and agile practices should enhance with regard to requirements of the healthcare regulations in order to be used in healthcare software development organizations. Therefore, the proposed agile mixture model may assist in minimizing the gaps existing between healthcare regulations and agile practices and increase the adoption rate in the healthcare industry. As this research paper part of the ongoing project, an evaluation of agile mixture model will be conducted in the near future.

Keywords: adoption of agile, agile gaps, agile mixture model, agile practices, healthcare regulations

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4 Cyber-Social Networks in Preventing Terrorism: Topological Scope

Authors: Alessandra Rossodivita, Alexei Tikhomirov, Andrey Trufanov, Nikolay Kinash, Olga Berestneva, Svetlana Nikitina, Fabio Casati, Alessandro Visconti, Tommaso Saporito

Abstract:

It is well known that world and national societies are exposed to diverse threats: anthropogenic, technological, and natural. Anthropogenic ones are of greater risks and, thus, attract special interest to researchers within wide spectrum of disciplines in efforts to lower the pertinent risks. Some researchers showed by means of multilayered, complex network models how media promotes the prevention of disease spread. To go further, not only are mass-media sources included in scope the paper suggests but also personificated social bots (socbots) linked according to reflexive theory. The novel scope considers information spread over conscious and unconscious agents while counteracting both natural and man-made threats, i.e., infections and terrorist hazards. Contrary to numerous publications on misinformation disseminated by ‘bad’ bots within social networks, this study focuses on ‘good’ bots, which should be mobilized to counter the former ones. These social bots deployed mixture with real social actors that are engaged in concerted actions at spreading, receiving and analyzing information. All the contemporary complex network platforms (multiplexes, interdependent networks, combined stem networks et al.) are comprised to describe and test socbots activities within competing information sharing tools, namely mass-media hubs, social networks, messengers, and e-mail at all phases of disasters. The scope and concomitant techniques present evidence that embedding such socbots into information sharing process crucially change the network topology of actor interactions. The change might improve or impair robustness of social network environment: it depends on who and how controls the socbots. It is demonstrated that the topological approach elucidates techno-social processes within the field and outline the roadmap to a safer world.

Keywords: complex network platform, counterterrorism, information sharing topology, social bots

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3 Phenomena-Based Approach for Automated Generation of Process Options and Process Models

Authors: Parminder Kaur Heer, Alexei Lapkin

Abstract:

Due to global challenges of increased competition and demand for more sustainable products/processes, there is a rising pressure on the industry to develop innovative processes. Through Process Intensification (PI) the existing and new processes may be able to attain higher efficiency. However, very few PI options are generally considered. This is because processes are typically analysed at a unit operation level, thus limiting the search space for potential process options. PI performed at more detailed levels of a process can increase the size of the search space. The different levels at which PI can be achieved is unit operations, functional and phenomena level. Physical/chemical phenomena form the lowest level of aggregation and thus, are expected to give the highest impact because all the intensification options can be described by their enhancement. The objective of the current work is thus, generation of numerous process alternatives based on phenomena, and development of their corresponding computer aided models. The methodology comprises: a) automated generation of process options, and b) automated generation of process models. The process under investigation is disintegrated into functions viz. reaction, separation etc., and these functions are further broken down into the phenomena required to perform them. E.g., separation may be performed via vapour-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibrium. A list of phenomena for the process is formed and new phenomena, which can overcome the difficulties/drawbacks of the current process or can enhance the effectiveness of the process, are added to the list. For instance, catalyst separation issue can be handled by using solid catalysts; the corresponding phenomena are identified and added. The phenomena are then combined to generate all possible combinations. However, not all combinations make sense and, hence, screening is carried out to discard the combinations that are meaningless. For example, phase change phenomena need the co-presence of the energy transfer phenomena. Feasible combinations of phenomena are then assigned to the functions they execute. A combination may accomplish a single or multiple functions, i.e. it might perform reaction or reaction with separation. The combinations are then allotted to the functions needed for the process. This creates a series of options for carrying out each function. Combination of these options for different functions in the process leads to the generation of superstructure of process options. These process options, which are formed by a list of phenomena for each function, are passed to the model generation algorithm in the form of binaries (1, 0). The algorithm gathers the active phenomena and couples them to generate the model. A series of models is generated for the functions, which are combined to get the process model. The most promising process options are then chosen subjected to a performance criterion, for example purity of product, or via a multi-objective Pareto optimisation. The methodology was applied to a two-step process and the best route was determined based on the higher product yield. The current methodology can identify, produce and evaluate process intensification options from which the optimal process can be determined. It can be applied to any chemical/biochemical process because of its generic nature.

Keywords: Phenomena, Process intensification, Process models , Process options

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2 Decoding Kinematic Characteristics of Finger Movement from Electrocorticography Using Classical Methods and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Ksenia Volkova, Artur Petrosyan, Ignatii Dubyshkin, Alexei Ossadtchi

Abstract:

Brain-computer interfaces are a growing research field producing many implementations that find use in different fields and are used for research and practical purposes. Despite the popularity of the implementations using non-invasive neuroimaging methods, radical improvement of the state channel bandwidth and, thus, decoding accuracy is only possible by using invasive techniques. Electrocorticography (ECoG) is a minimally invasive neuroimaging method that provides highly informative brain activity signals, effective analysis of which requires the use of machine learning methods that are able to learn representations of complex patterns. Deep learning is a family of machine learning algorithms that allow learning representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. This study explores the potential of deep learning approaches for ECoG processing, decoding movement intentions and the perception of proprioceptive information. To obtain synchronous recording of kinematic movement characteristics and corresponding electrical brain activity, a series of experiments were carried out, during which subjects performed finger movements at their own pace. Finger movements were recorded with a three-axis accelerometer, while ECoG was synchronously registered from the electrode strips that were implanted over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. Then, multichannel ECoG signals were used to track finger movement trajectory characterized by accelerometer signal. This process was carried out both causally and non-causally, using different position of the ECoG data segment with respect to the accelerometer data stream. The recorded data was split into training and testing sets, containing continuous non-overlapping fragments of the multichannel ECoG. A deep convolutional neural network was implemented and trained, using 1-second segments of ECoG data from the training dataset as input. To assess the decoding accuracy, correlation coefficient r between the output of the model and the accelerometer readings was computed. After optimization of hyperparameters and training, the deep learning model allowed reasonably accurate causal decoding of finger movement with correlation coefficient r = 0.8. In contrast, the classical Wiener-filter like approach was able to achieve only 0.56 in the causal decoding mode. In the noncausal case, the traditional approach reached the accuracy of r = 0.69, which may be due to the presence of additional proprioceptive information. This result demonstrates that the deep neural network was able to effectively find a representation of the complex top-down information related to the actual movement rather than proprioception. The sensitivity analysis shows physiologically plausible pictures of the extent to which individual features (channel, wavelet subband) are utilized during the decoding procedure. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that a combination of a minimally invasive neuroimaging technique such as ECoG and advanced machine learning approaches allows decoding motion with high accuracy. Such setup provides means for control of devices with a large number of degrees of freedom as well as exploratory studies of the complex neural processes underlying movement execution.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, deep learning, ECoG, movement decoding, sensorimotor cortex

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1 Application of Flow Cytometry for Detection of Influence of Abiotic Stress on Plants

Authors: Dace Grauda, Inta Belogrudova, Alexei Katashev, Linda Lancere, Isaak Rashal

Abstract:

The goal of study was the elaboration of easy applicable flow cytometry method for detection of influence of abiotic stress factors on plants, which could be useful for detection of environmental stresses in urban areas. The lime tree Tillia vulgaris H. is a popular tree species used for urban landscaping in Europe and is one of the main species of street greenery in Riga, Latvia. Tree decline and low vitality has observed in the central part of Riga. For this reason lime trees were select as a model object for the investigation. During the period of end of June and beginning of July 12 samples from different urban environment locations as well as plant material from a greenhouse were collected. BD FACSJazz® cell sorter (BD Biosciences, USA) with flow cytometer function was used to test viability of plant cells. The method was based on changes of relative fluorescence intensity of cells in blue laser (488 nm) after influence of stress factors. SpheroTM rainbow calibration particles (3.0–3.4 μm, BD Biosciences, USA) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used for calibration of flow cytometer. BD PharmingenTM PBS (BD Biosciences, USA) was used for flow cytometry assays. The mean fluorescence intensity information from the purified cell suspension samples was recorded. Preliminary, multiple gate sizes and shapes were tested to find one with the lowest CV. It was found that low CV can be obtained if only the densest part of plant cells forward scatter/side scatter profile is analysed because in this case plant cells are most similar in size and shape. The young pollen cells in one nucleus stage were found as the best for detection of influence of abiotic stress. For experiments only fresh plant material was used– the buds of Tillia vulgaris with diameter 2 mm. For the cell suspension (in vitro culture) establishment modified protocol of microspore culture was applied. The cells were suspended in the MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium. For imitation of dust of urban area SiO2 nanoparticles with concentration 0.001 g/ml were dissolved in distilled water. Into 10 ml of cell suspension 1 ml of SiO2 nanoparticles suspension was added, then cells were incubated in speed shaking regime for 1 and 3 hours. As a stress factor the irradiation of cells for 20 min by UV was used (Hamamatsu light source L9566-02A, L10852 lamp, A10014-50-0110), maximum relative intensity (100%) at 365 nm and at ~310 nm (75%). Before UV irradiation the suspension of cells were placed onto a thin layer on a filter paper disk (diameter 45 mm) in a Petri dish with solid MS media. Cells without treatment were used as a control. Experiments were performed at room temperature (23-25 °C). Using flow cytometer BS FACS Software cells plot was created to determine the densest part, which was later gated using oval-shaped gate. Gate included from 95 to 99% of all cells. To determine relative fluorescence of cells logarithmic fluorescence scale in arbitrary fluorescence units were used. 3x103 gated cells were analysed from the each sample. The significant differences were found among relative fluorescence of cells from different trees after treatment with SiO2 nanoparticles and UV irradiation in comparison with the control.

Keywords: flow cytometry, fluorescence, SiO2 nanoparticles, UV irradiation

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