Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: abrasion

80 The Quantitative Analysis of the Influence of the Superficial Abrasion on the Lifetime of the Frog Rail

Authors: Dong Jiang


Turnout is the essential equipment on the railway, which also belongs to one of the strongest demanded infrastructural facilities of railway on account of the more seriously frog rail failures. In cooperation with Germany Company (DB Systemtechnik AG), our research team focuses on the quantitative analysis about the frog rails to predict their lifetimes. Moreover, the suggestions for the timely and effective maintenances are made to improve the economy of the frog rails. The lifetime of the frog rail depends strongly on the internal damage of the running surface until the breakages occur. On the basis of Hertzian theory of the contact mechanics, the dynamic loads of the running surface are calculated in form of the contact pressures on the running surface and the equivalent tensile stress inside the running surface. According to material mechanics, the strength of the frog rail is determined quantitatively in form of the Stress-cycle (S-N) curve. Under the interaction between the dynamic loads and the strength, the internal damage of the running surface is calculated by means of the linear damage hypothesis of the Miner’s rule. The emergence of the first Breakage on the running surface is to be defined as the failure criterion that the damage degree equals 1.0. From the microscopic perspective, the running surface of the frog rail is divided into numerous segments for the detailed analysis. The internal damage of the segment grows slowly in the beginning and disproportionately quickly in the end until the emergence of the breakage. From the macroscopic perspective, the internal damage of the running surface develops simply always linear along the lifetime. With this linear growth of the internal damages, the lifetime of the frog rail could be predicted simply through the immediate introduction of the slope of the linearity. However, the superficial abrasion plays an essential role in the results of the internal damages from the both perspectives. The influences of the superficial abrasion on the lifetime are described in form of the abrasion rate. It has two contradictory effects. On the one hand, the insufficient abrasion rate causes the concentration of the damage accumulation on the same position below the running surface to accelerate the rail failure. On the other hand, the excessive abrasion rate advances the disappearance of the head hardened surface of the frog rail to result in the untimely breakage on the surface. Thus, the relationship between the abrasion rate and the lifetime is subdivided into an initial phase of the increased lifetime and a subsequent phase of the more rapid decreasing lifetime with the continuous growth of the abrasion rate. Through the compensation of these two effects, the critical abrasion rate is discussed to reach the optimal lifetime.

Keywords: breakage, critical abrasion rate, frog rail, internal damage, optimal lifetime

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
79 Filler Elastomers Abrasion at Steady State: Optimal Use Conditions

Authors: Djeridi Rachid, Ould Ouali Mohand


The search of a mechanism for the elastomer abrasive wear study is an open issue. The practice difficulties are complex due to the complexity of deformation mechanism, to the complex mechanism of the material tearing and to the marked interactions between the tribological parameters. In this work, we present an experimental technique to study the elastomers abrasive wear. The interaction 'elastomer/indenter' implicate dependant ant temporary of different tribological parameters. Consequently, the phenomenon that governs this interaction is not easy to explain. An optimal elastomers compounding and an adequate utilization conditions of these materials that define its resistance at the abrasion is discussed. The results are confronted to theoretical models: the weight loss variation in function of blade angle or in function of cycle number is in agreement with rupture models and with the mechanism of fissures propagation during the material tearing in abrasive wear of filler elastomers. The weight loss in function of the sliding velocity shows the existence of a critical velocity that corresponds to the maximal wear. The adding of silica or black carbon influences in a different manner on wear abrasive behavior of filler elastomers.

Keywords: abrasion wear, filler elastomer, tribology, hyperelastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
78 Preparation and Properties of NR Based Ebonite Rubber Suitable for Use as Engineering Material

Authors: Dosu Malomo, O. E. Edeh, P. O. Okolo, F. C. Ibeh


The preparation of various samples of ebonite vulcanizates and their physico-mechanical properties have been investigated using standard methods. This work explores the production of ebonite dust, production of ebonite vulcanizates and investigation of the characterisation of the ebonite. Five different ebonite materials – labelled A, B, C, D, and E with sulphur content in parts per hundred grams of rubber (Phr) of 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 respectively were produced. The physico-mechanical properties carried out were tensile strength, hardness and abrasion resistance. The tensile strength (MPa) for sample A, B, C, D and E were 5.6, 3.5, 4.7, 1.7 and 2.0 respectively while the abrasion(%mass loss) were 8.49, 4.24, 2.59, 1.08 and 1.05 respectively and the hardness (IRHD) being 63, 64, 65, 70 and 82. The results show that the preparation of ebonite from natural rubber as a base polymer is feasible considering the results of characterisation obtained.

Keywords: compounding, ebonite dust, natural rubber, vulcanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
77 Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia

Authors: David Robert Irvine


In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.

Keywords: abrasive wear, cemented carbide, pre-sintered zirconia, tool wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
76 A Full Factorial Analysis of Microhardness Variation in Bead Welds Deposited by the Process Cold Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding (CW-GMAW)

Authors: R. A. Ribeiro, P. D. Angelo Assunção, E. M. Braga


The microhardness in weld beads is a function of the microstructure obtained in the welding process, and this by its time is dependent of the input variables established at the outset of the process. In this study the influence of angle between the plate and the cold wire, the position in which the cold wire is introduced and the rate in which this introduction is made are assessed as input parameters in CW-GMAW process. This paper looks to show that ordinary changes in the frame of CW-GMAW can improve microhardness, which is expected to vary as the input parameters change. To properly correlate the changes in the input parameters to consequent changes in microhardness of the weld bead, a full factorial design was employed. In fact, changes in the operational parameters improved the overall microhardness of the weld bead, which in turns can be an indication of improvement in the resistance to abrasive wear, constituting a cheap way to augment the abrasion wear resistance of welds used for cladding.

Keywords: abrasion, CW-GMAW, full factorial design, microhardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
75 Study on The Model of Microscopic Contact Parameters for Grinding M300 Using Elastic Abrasive Tool

Authors: Wu Xiaojun, Liu Ruiping, Yu Xingzhan, Wu Qian


In precision grinding, utilizing the elastic matrix ball has higher processing efficiency and better superficial quality than traditional grinding. The diversity of characteristics which elastic abrasive tool contact with bend surface results in irregular wear abrasion,and abrasive tool machining status get complicated. There is no theoretical interpretation that parameters affect the grinding accuracy.Aiming at corrosion resistance, wear resistance and other characteristics of M 300 material, it is often used as a material on aerospace precision components. The paper carried out grinding and polishing experiments by using material of M 300,to theoretically show the relationship between stress magnitude and grinding efficiency,and predict the optimal combination of grinding parameter for effective grinding, just for the high abrasion resistance features of M 300, analyzing the micro-contact of elastic ball abrasive tool (Whetstone), using mathematical methods deduce the functional relationship between residual peak removal rate and the main parameters which impact the grinding accuracy on the plane case.Thus laying the foundation for the study of elastic abrasive prediction and compensation.

Keywords: flexible abrasive tool, polishing parameters, Hertz theory, removal rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
74 Evaluation of Microstructure, Mechanical and Abrasive Wear Response of in situ TiC Particles Reinforced Zinc Aluminum Matrix Alloy Composites

Authors: Mohammad M. Khan, Pankaj Agarwal


The present investigation deals with the microstructures, mechanical and detailed wear characteristics of in situ TiC particles reinforced zinc aluminum-based metal matrix composites. The composites have been synthesized by liquid metallurgy route using vortex technique. The composite was found to be harder than the matrix alloy due to high hardness of the dispersoid particles therein. The former was also lower in ultimate tensile strength and ductility as compared to the matrix alloy. This could be explained to be due to the use of coarser size dispersoid and larger interparticle spacing. Reasonably uniform distribution of the dispersoid phase in the alloy matrix and good interfacial bonding between the dispersoid and matrix was observed. The composite exhibited predominantly brittle mode of fracture with microcracking in the dispersoid phase indicating effective easy transfer of load from matrix to the dispersoid particles. To study the wear behavior of the samples three different types of tests were performed namely: (i) sliding wear tests using a pin on disc machine under dry condition, (ii) high stress (two-body) abrasive wear tests using different combinations of abrasive media and specimen surfaces under the conditions of varying abrasive size, traversal distance and load, and (iii) low-stress (three-body) abrasion tests using a rubber wheel abrasion tester at various loads and traversal distances using different abrasive media. In sliding wear test, significantly lower wear rates were observed in the case of base alloy over that of the composites. This has been attributed to the poor room temperature strength as a result of increased microcracking tendency of the composite over the matrix alloy. Wear surfaces of the composite revealed the presence of fragmented dispersoid particles and microcracking whereas the wear surface of matrix alloy was observed to be smooth with shallow grooves. During high-stress abrasion, the presence of the reinforcement offered increased resistance to the destructive action of the abrasive particles. Microcracking tendency was also enhanced because of the reinforcement in the matrix. The negative effect of the microcracking tendency was predominant by the abrasion resistance of the dispersoid. As a result, the composite attained improved wear resistance than the matrix alloy. The wear rate increased with load and abrasive size due to a larger depth of cut made by the abrasive medium. The wear surfaces revealed fine grooves, and damaged reinforcement particles while subsurface regions revealed limited plastic deformation and microcracking and fracturing of the dispersoid phase. During low-stress abrasion, the composite experienced significantly less wear rate than the matrix alloy irrespective of the test conditions. This could be explained to be due to wear resistance offered by the hard dispersoid phase thereby protecting the softer matrix against the destructive action of the abrasive medium. Abraded surfaces of the composite showed protrusion of dispersoid phase. The subsurface regions of the composites exhibited decohesion of the dispersoid phase along with its microcracking and limited plastic deformation in the vicinity of the abraded surfaces.

Keywords: abrasive wear, liquid metallurgy, metal martix composite, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
73 Optical and Surface Characteristics of Direct Composite, Polished and Glazed Ceramic Materials After Exposure to Tooth Brush Abrasion and Staining Solution

Authors: Maryam Firouzmandi, Moosa Miri


Aim and background: esthetic and structural reconstruction of anterior teeth may require the application of different restoration material. In this regard combination of direct composite veneer and ceramic crown is a common treatment option. Despite the initial matching, their long term harmony in term of optical and surface characteristics is a matter of concern. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare optical and surface characteristic of direct composite polished and glazed ceramic materials after exposure to tooth brush abrasion and staining solution. Materials and Methods: ten 2 mm thick disk shape specimens were prepared from IPS empress direct composite and twenty specimens from IPS e.max CAD blocks. Composite specimens and ten ceramic specimens were polished by using D&Z composite and ceramic polishing kit. The other ten specimens of ceramic were glazed with glazing liquid. Baseline measurement of roughness, CIElab coordinate, and luminance were recorded. Then the specimens underwent thermocycling, tooth brushing, and coffee staining. Afterword, the final measurements were recorded. Color coordinate were used to calculate ΔE76, ΔE00, translucency parameter, and contrast ratio. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and post hoc LSD test. Results: baseline and final roughness of the study group were not different. At baseline, the order of roughness for the study group were as follows: composite < glazed ceramic < polished ceramic, but after aging, no difference. Between ceramic groups was not detected. The comparison of baseline and final luminance was similar to roughness but in reverse order. Unlike differential roughness which was comparable between the groups, changes in luminance of the glazed ceramic group was higher than other groups. ΔE76 and ΔE00 in the composite group were 18.35 and 12.84, in the glazed ceramic group were 1.3 and 0.79, and in polished ceramic were 1.26 and 0.85. These values for the composite group were significantly different from ceramic groups. Translucency of composite at baseline was significantly higher than final, but there was no significant difference between these values in ceramic groups. Composite was more translucency than ceramic at baseline and final measurement. Conclusion: Glazed ceramic surface was smoother than polished ceramic. Aging did not change the roughness. Optical properties (color and translucency) of the composite were influenced by aging. Luminance of composite, glazed ceramic, and polished ceramic decreased after aging, but the reduction in glazed ceramic was more pronounced.

Keywords: ceramic, tooth-brush abrasion, staining solution, composite resin

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72 Water-Repellent Coating Based on Thermoplastic Polyurethane, Silica Nanoparticles and Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: S. Naderizadeh, A. Athanassiou, I. S. Bayer


This work describes a layer-by-layer spraying method to produce a non-wetting coating, based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and silica nanoparticles (Si-NPs). The main purpose of this work was to transform a hydrophilic polymer to superhydrophobic coating. The contact angle of pure TPU was measured about 77˚ ± 2, and water droplets did not roll away upon tilting even at 90°. But after applying a layer of Si-NPs on top of this, not only the contact angle increased to 165˚ ± 2, but also water droplets can roll away even below 5˚ tilting. The most important restriction in this study was the weak interfacial adhesion between polymer and nanoparticles, which had a bad effect on durability of the coatings. To overcome this problem, we used a very thin layer of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as an interlayer between TPU and Si-NPs layers, followed by thermal treatment at 150˚C. The sample’s morphology and topography were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was observed that Si-NPs embedded into the polymer phase in the presence of GNPs layer. It is probably because of the high surface area and considerable thermal conductivity of the graphene platelets. The contact angle value for the sample containing graphene decreased a little bit respected to the coating without graphene and reached to 156.4˚ ± 2, due to the depletion of the surface roughness. The durability of the coatings against abrasion was evaluated by Taber® abrasion test, and it was observed that superhydrophobicity of the coatings remains for a longer time, in the presence of GNPs layer. Due to the simple fabrication method and good durability of the coating, this coating can be used as a durable superhydrophobic coating for metals and can be produced in large scale.

Keywords: graphene, silica nanoparticles, superhydrophobicity, thermoplastic polyurethane

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71 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste


There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

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70 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Farid Yuristiawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Detty Iryani, Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, surface hardness, Vickers hardness tester

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
69 Utilization of Pozzolonic Material for the Enhancement of the Concrete Strength: A Comprehensive Review Paper

Authors: M. Parvez Alam, M. Bilal Khan


Concrete is the material of choice where strength, performance, durability, impermeability, fire resistance, and abrasion resistance are required. The hunger for the higher strength leads to other materials to achieve the desired results and thus, emerged the contribution of cementitious material for the strength of concrete In present day constructions, concrete is chosen as one of the best choices by civil engineers in construction materials. The concept of sustainability is touching new heights and many pozzolonic materials are tried and tested as partial replacement for the cement. In this paper, comprehensive review of available literatures are studied to evaluate the performance of pozzolonic materials such as ceramic waste powder, copper slag, silica fume on the strength of concrete by the partial replacement of ordinary materials such as cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate at different percentage of composition. From the study, we conclude that ceramic wastes are suitable to be used in the construction industry, and more significantly on the making of concrete. Ceramic wastes are found to be suitable for usage as substitution for fine and coarse aggregates and partial substitution in cement production. They were found to be performing better than normal concrete, in properties such as density, durability, permeability, and compressive strength. Copper slag is the waste material of matte smelting and refining of copper such that each ton of copper generates approximately 2.5 tons of copper slag. Copper slag is one of the materials that is considered as a waste which could have a promising future in construction Industry as partial or full substitute of aggregates. Silica fume, also known as micro silica or condensed silica fume, is a relatively new material compared to fly ash, It is another material that is used as an artificial pozzolonic admixture. High strength concrete made with silica fume provides high abrasion/corrosion resistance.

Keywords: concrete, pozzolonic materials, ceramic waste powder, copper slag

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68 Minimization of the Abrasion Effect of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix on Stainless Steel Injection Nozzle through the Application of Laser Hardening Technique

Authors: Amessalu Atenafu Gelaw, Nele Rath


Currently, laser hardening process is becoming among the most efficient and effective hardening technique due to its significant advantages. The source where heat is generated, the absence of cooling media, self-quenching property, less distortion nature due to localized heat input, environmental friendly behavior and less time to finish the operation are among the main benefits to adopt this technology. This day, a variety of injection machines are used in plastic, textile, electrical and mechanical industries. Due to the fast growing of composite technology, fiber reinforced polymer matrix becoming optional solution to use in these industries. Due, to the abrasion nature of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite on the injection components, many parts are outdated before the design period. Niko, a company specialized in injection molded products, suffers from the short lifetime of the injection nozzles of the molds, due to the use of fiber reinforced and, therefore, more abrasive polymer matrix. To prolong the lifetime of these molds, hardening the susceptible component like the injecting nozzles was a must. In this paper, the laser hardening process is investigated on Unimax, a type of stainless steel. The investigation to get optimal results for the nozzle-case was performed in three steps. First, the optimal parameters for maximum possible hardenability for the investigated nozzle material is investigated on a flat sample, using experimental testing as well as thermal simulation. Next, the effect of an inclination on the maximum temperature is analyzed both by experimental testing and validation through simulation. Finally, the data combined and applied for the nozzle. This paper describes possible strategies and methods for laser hardening of the nozzle to reach hardness of at least 720 HV for the material investigated. It has been proven, that the nozzle can be laser hardened to over 900 HV with the option of even higher results when more precise positioning of the laser can be assured.

Keywords: absorptivity, fiber reinforced matrix, laser hardening, Nd:YAG laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
67 Effect of Three Desensitizers on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion and Bond Strength of Dentin Adhesives

Authors: Zou Xuan, Liu Hongchen


The ideal dentin desensitizing agent should not only have good biological safety, simple clinical operation mode, the superior treatment effect, but also should have a durable effect to resist the oral environmental temperature change and oral mechanical abrasion, so as to achieve a persistent desensitization effect. Also, when using desensitizing agent to prevent the post-operative hypersensitivity, we should not only prevent it from affecting crowns’ retention, but must understand its effects on bond strength of dentin adhesives. There are various of desensitizers and dentin adhesives in clinical treatment. They have different chemical or physical properties. Whether the use of desensitizing agent would affect the bond strength of dentin adhesives still need further research. In this in vitro study, we built the hypersensitive dentin model and post-operative dentin model, to evaluate the sealing effects and durability on exposed tubule by three different dentin desensitizers and to evaluate the sealing effects and the bond strength of dentin adhesives after using three different dentin desensitizers on post-operative dentin. The result of this study could provide some important references for clinical use of dentin desensitizing agent. 1. As to the three desensitizers, the hypersensitive dentin model was built to evaluate their sealing effects on exposed tubule by SEM observation and dentin permeability analysis. All of them could significantly reduce the dentin permeability. 2. Test specimens of three groups treated by desensitizers were subjected to aging treatment with 5000 times thermal cycling and toothbrush abrasion, and then dentin permeability was measured to evaluate the sealing durability of these three desensitizers on exposed tubule. The sealing durability of three groups were different. 3. The post-operative dentin model was built to evaluate the sealing effects of the three desensitizers on post-operative dentin by SEM and methylene blue. All of three desensitizers could reduce the dentin permeability significantly. 4. The influences of three desensitizers on the bonding efficiency of total-etch and self-etch adhesives were evaluated with the micro-tensile bond strength study and bond interface morphology observation. The dentin bond strength for Green or group was significantly lower than the other two groups (P<0.05).

Keywords: dentin, desensitizer, dentin permeability, thermal cycling, micro-tensile bond strength

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66 Hot Forging Process Simulation of Outer Tie Rod to Reduce Forming Load

Authors: Kyo Jin An, Bukyo Seo, Young-Chul Park


The current trend in car market is increase of parts of automobile and weight in vehicle. It comes from improvement of vehicle performance. Outer tie rod is a part of component of steering system and it is lighter than the others. But, weight lightening is still required for improvement of car mileage. So, we have presented a model of aluminized outer tie rod, but the process of fabrication has to be checked to manufacture the product. Therefore, we have anticipated forming load, die stress and abrasion to use the program of forging interpretation in the part of hot forging process of outer tie rod in this study. Also, we have implemented the experiments design to use the table of orthogonal arrays to reduce the forming load.

Keywords: forming load, hot forging, orthogonal array, outer tie rod (OTR), multi–step forging

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65 Optimization of Human Hair Concentration for a Natural Rubber Based Composite

Authors: Richu J. Babu, Sony Mathew, Sharon Rony Jacob, Soney C. George, Jibin C. Jacob


Human hair is a non-biodegradable waste available in plenty throughout the world but is rarely explored for applications in engineering fields. Tensile strength of human hair ranges from 170 to 220 MPa. This property of human hair can be made use in the field of making bio-composites[1]. The composite is prepared by commixing the human hair and natural rubber in a two roll mill along with additives followed by vulcanization. Here the concentration of the human hair is varied by fine-tuning the fiber length as 20 mm and sundry tests like tensile, abrasion, tear and hardness were conducted. While incrementing the fiber length up to a certain range the mechanical properties shows superior amendments.

Keywords: human hair, natural rubber, composite, vulcanization, fiber loading

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64 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova


For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

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63 Superhydrophobic Coatings Based On Waterborne Polyolefin And Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Kyuwon Lee, Young-Wook Chang


Superhydrophobic surfaces have been paid great attentions over the years due to their various applications. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings based on the hybrids of hydrophobically modified silica nanoparticles and waterborne polyolefin were fabricated onto a cotton fabric by spraying a mixture of surface dodecylated silica nanoparticles with aqueous dispersion of polyolefin onto the fabric and a subsequent drying at 80℃. The coated fabrics were characterized using water-contact angle measurement, SEM, and AFM analysis. The coated fabrics exhibit superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 155° along with excellent self-cleaning and water/oil separation ability. It was also revealed that such superhydrophobicity was maintained after repeated mechanical abrasion using a sandpaper.

Keywords: superhydrophobic coating, waterborne polyolefin, dodecylated silica nanoparticle, durability

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62 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee


Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

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61 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
60 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin


A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

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59 The Engineering Properties of Jordanian Marble

Authors: Mousa Bani Baker, Raed Abendeh, Zaidoon Abu Salem, Hesham Ahmad


This research paper was commissioned to discuss the Jordanian marble, which is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphised limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The marble has many uses; one of them is using the white marble that has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Another use of it is the construction marble which is “a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish” Marble Institute of America. This report focuses most about the marble in Jordan and its properties: rock definition, physical properties, the marble occurrences in Jordan, types of Jordanian marble and their prices and test done on this marble.

Keywords: marble, metamorphic, non-foliated, compressive strength, recrystallized, Moh’s hardness, abrasion, absorption, modulus of rupture, porosity

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58 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra


The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

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57 Multipass Scratch Characterization of TiNbVN Thin Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Hikmet Cicek


Transition metal nitrides are widely used as protective coatings on machine parts and cutting tools to protect the surfaces from abrasion and corrosion for decades. In this study, the ternary TiNbVN thin coatings were produced with closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system and their structural, mechanical and fatigue-like (multi-pass scratch test) properties were investigated. Two different substrates (M2 and H13 steels) were used to explore substrates effects. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical analysis of the coatings. Nanohardness tests were proceed for mechanical properties. The fatigue-like properties of the coatings obtained from the multi-scratch test under three different cycle passes. The results showed that TiNbVN films have excellent fatigue resistance and the coatings deposited on M2 steel substrate have higher hardness and better fatigue resistance.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition, fatigue, metal nitride, multipass scratch test

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56 User Satisfaction in Rama-Chest Mouthpiece for Flexible Bronchoscopy in Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Chariya Laohavich


Background: Some limitations and complications have been found associated with commercial mouthpiece in bronchoscopic procedure. Therefore, we invented the Rama-chest mouthpiece from plastic normal saline bottle. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare user satisfaction in Rama-chest mouthpiece with the commercial mouthpiece. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial between commercial mouthpiece and Rama-chest mouthpiece was conducted on patients who were underwent bronchoscopy and required mouthpiece insertion from May to June 2014. The questionnaire about satisfaction was completed by the bronchoscopists, assistant nurses, and patients. Results: Thirty procedures in both groups were investigated. Mean satisfaction scores filled by the bronchoscopists and assistant nurses were not different between both groups. However, higher satisfaction score filled by the patients was found in Rama-chest mouthpiece than the comparator (p=0.011). Complications such as abrasion, pain, and itching were observed in commercial mouthpiece but not found in Rama-chest mouthpiece. Conclusion: We have introduced Rama-chest mouthpiece and proved its usefulness comparable to the commercial mouthpiece.

Keywords: mouthpiece, bronchoscopist, bronchology, pulmonology and respiratory diseases

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55 Effects of Temperature and Mechanical Abrasion on Microplastics

Authors: N. Singh, G. K. Darbha


Since the last decade, a wave of research has begun to study the prevalence and impact of ever-increasing plastic pollution in the environment. The wide application and ubiquitous distribution of plastic have become a global concern due to its persistent nature. The disposal of plastics has emerged as one of the major challenges for waste management landfills. Microplastics (MPs) have found its existence in almost every environment, from the high altitude mountain lake to the deep sea sediments, polar icebergs, coral reefs, estuaries, beaches, and river, etc. Microplastics are fragments of plastics with size less than 5 mm. Microplastics can be classified as primary microplastics and secondary microplastics. Primary microplastics includes purposefully introduced microplastics into the end products for consumers (microbeads used in facial cleansers, personal care product, etc.), pellets (used in manufacturing industries) or fibres (from textile industries) which finally enters into the environment. Secondary microplastics are formed by disintegration of larger fragments under the exposure of sunlight, mechanical abrasive forces by rain, waves, wind and/or water. A number of factors affect the quantity of microplastic present in freshwater environments. In addition to physical forces, human population density proximal to the water body, proximity to urban centres, water residence time, and size of the water body also affects plastic properties. With time, other complex processes in nature such as physical, chemical and biological break down plastics by interfering with its structural integrity. Several studies demonstrate that microplastics found in wastewater sludge being used as manure for agricultural fields, thus having the tendency to alter the soil environment condition influencing the microbial population as well. Inadequate data are available on the fate and transport of microplastics under varying environmental conditions that are required to supplement important information for further research. In addition, microplastics have the tendency to absorb heavy metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants such as PAHs and PCBs from its surroundings and thus acting as carriers for these contaminants in the environment system. In this study, three kinds of microplastics (polyethylene, polypropylene and expanded polystyrene) of different densities were chosen. Plastic samples were placed in sand with different aqueous media (distilled water, surface water, groundwater and marine water). It was incubated at varying temperatures (25, 35 and 40 °C) and agitation levels (rpm). The results show that the number of plastic fragments enhanced with increase in temperature and agitation speed. Moreover, the rate of disintegration of expanded polystyrene is high compared to other plastics. These results demonstrate that temperature, salinity, and mechanical abrasion plays a major role in degradation of plastics. Since weathered microplastics are more harmful as compared to the virgin microplastics, long-term studies involving other environmental factors are needed to have a better understanding of degradation of plastics.

Keywords: environmental contamination, fragmentation, microplastics, temperature, weathering

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54 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando


Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, fluidized bed

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53 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers


Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels

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52 Effect of Sewing Speed on the Physical Properties of Firefighter Sewing Threads

Authors: Adnan Mazari, Engin Akcagun, Antonin Havelka, Funda Buyuk Mazari, Pavel Kejzlar


This article experimentally investigates various physical properties of special fire retardant sewing threads under different sewing speeds. The aramid threads are common for sewing the fire-fighter clothing due to high strength and high melting temperature. 3 types of aramid threads with different linear densities are used for sewing at different speed of 2000 to 4000 r/min. The needle temperature is measured at different speeds of sewing and tensile properties of threads are measured before and after the sewing process respectively. The results shows that the friction and abrasion during the sewing process causes a significant loss to the tensile properties of the threads and needle temperature rises to nearly 300oC at 4000 r/min of machine speed. The Scanning electron microscope images are taken before and after the sewing process and shows no melting spots but significant damage to the yarn. It is also found that machine speed of 2000r/min is ideal for sewing firefighter clothing for higher tensile properties and production.

Keywords: Kevlar, needle temperautre, nomex, sewing

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51 Development of Swing Valve for Gasoline Turbocharger Using Hybrid Metal Injection Molding

Authors: B. S. So, Y. H. Yoon, J. O. Jung, K. S. Bae


Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a technology that combines powder metallurgy and injection molding. Particularly, it is widely applied to the manufacture of precision mobile parts and automobile turbocharger parts because compact precision parts with complicated three-dimensional shapes that are difficult to machining are formed into a large number of finished products. The swing valve is a valve that adjusts the boost pressure of the turbocharger. Since the head portion is exposed to the harsh temperature condition of about 900 degrees in the gasoline GDI engine, it is necessary to use Inconel material with excellent heat resistance and abrasion resistance, resulting in high manufacturing cost. In this study, we developed a swing valve using a metal powder injection molding based hybrid material (Inconel 713C material with heat resistance is applied to the head part, and HK30 material with low price is applied to the rest of the body part). For this purpose, the process conditions of the metal injection molding were optimized to minimize the internal defects, and the effectiveness was confirmed by the fracture strength and fatigue test.

Keywords: hybrid metal injection molding, swing valve, turbocharger, double injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 62