Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6599

Search results for: ownership structure

6599 Ownership Structure and Portfolio Performance: Pre- and Post-Crisis Evidence from the Amman Stock Exchange

Authors: Mohammad Q. M. Momani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine whether the value relevance of ownership structure changed as the Amman Stock Exchange market conditions changed. Using data from 2005 to 2014, the study finds that the performance of portfolios that contain firms with concentrated ownership structure declines significantly during the post-crisis period. These portfolios exhibit poor performance relative to portfolios that contain firms with dispersed ownership structure during the post-crisis period. The results argue that uninspired performance of the Amman Stock Exchange during the post-crisis period, increased the incentives for controlling shareholders to expropriate. Investors recognized these incentives and discounted firms that were more likely to expropriate.

Keywords: value relevance, ownership structure, portfolio performance, Jordan, ASE

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
6598 Effect of Ownership Structure and Financial Leverage on Corporate Investment Behavior in Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Shamshiri Mitra, Abedi Rahim

Abstract:

This paper investigates corporate investment behavior and its relationship with ownership structure and financial leverage for the listed company of Tehran stock exchange during 2008-2012. The results show that the concentration of ownership has s significant positive effect on corporate investment. The results for the kind of major owners show that institutional ownership had a positive significant effect and state and individual ownership had negative significant effects on the corporate investment but the effect of corporate ownership was not significant. Furthermore the effect of financial leverage was negative and significant.

Keywords: corporate investment behavior, financial leverage, ownership structure corporate investment behavior

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6597 Effects of Family Ownership and Institutional Ownership on Cash Dividend Policy in Companies Listed at Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Mahdi Azizzadeh, Ali Nabizadeh

Abstract:

This paper investigates whether ownership structure has significant effects on dividend policy and the percentage of cash dividend payout ratio in Iranian companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. We use a sample of 300 firm-years for 2010-2014. Results indicate that there is no significant relationship between family ownership and/or institutional ownership and dividend policy. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between dividend policies in family-owned firms with high or low institutional ownership. However, our empirical test shows that family firms with a low level of institutional investors distribute more cash dividends on average than family firms with a high level of institutional ownership.

Keywords: family ownership, institutional ownership, dividend policy, dividend payout ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
6596 Beneficial Ownership in Islamic Finance: The Need for Shari'ah Parameters

Authors: Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Mat Noor Mat Zain, Ahmad Dahlan Salleh

Abstract:

Ownership of asset is an important aspect in ensuring the validity of sale contract. Nevertheless, in Islamic finance, the issue of beneficial ownership as practiced in the current system is seriously debated among Shariah scholars. It has been argued as violating the real concept of ownership (milkiyyah) in Shariah law. This article aims at studying the status of beneficial ownership from the Shariah perspective. This study begins with examining the meaning of ownership and its attributes from the Islamic point of view and followed by the discussion on the origin of beneficial ownership from the legal perspective. The approach that is applied to clarify the concept of beneficial ownership is content analysis. Subsequently, this study explains some current applications of beneficial ownership in Islamic finance to be analyzed further from the Shariah aspect. The research finding suggests that beneficial ownership should be recognized as a real ownership due to the fact that Shariah allows the transfer of ownership after the execution of offer (ijab) and acceptance (qabul).

Keywords: beneficial ownership, ownership, Islamic finance, parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
6595 Dividend Payout and Capital Structure: A Family Firm Perspective

Authors: Abhinav Kumar Rajverma, Arun Kumar Misra, Abhijeet Chandra

Abstract:

Family involvement in business is universal across countries, with varying characteristics. Firms of developed economies have diffused ownership structure; however, that of emerging markets have concentrated ownership structure, having resemblance with that of family firms. Optimization of dividend payout and leverage are very crucial for firm’s valuation. This paper studies dividend paying behavior of National Stock Exchange listed Indian firms from financial year 2007 to 2016. The final sample consists of 422 firms and of these more than 49% (207) are family firms. Results reveal that family firms pay lower dividend and are more leveraged compared to non-family firms. This unique data set helps to understand dividend behavior and capital structure of sample firms over a long-time period and across varying family ownership concentration. Using panel regression models, this paper examines factors affecting dividend payout and capital structure and establishes a link between the two using Two-stage Least Squares regression model. Profitability shows a positive impact on dividend and negative impact on leverage, confirming signaling and pecking order theory. Further, findings support bankruptcy theory as firm size has a positive relation with dividend and leverage and volatility shows a negative relation with both dividend and leverage. Findings are also consistent with agency theory, family ownership concentration has negative relation with both dividend payments and leverage. Further, the impact of family ownership control confirms the similar finding. The study further reveals that firms with high family ownership concentration (family control) do have an impact on determining the level of private benefits. Institutional ownership is not significant for dividend payments. However, it shows significant negative relation with leverage for both family and non-family firms. Dividend payout and leverage show mixed association with each other. This paper provides evidence of how varying level of family ownership concentration and ownership control influences the dividend policy and capital structure of firms in an emerging market like India and it can have significant contribution towards understanding and formulating corporate dividend policy decisions and capital structure for emerging economies, where majority of firms exhibit behavior of family firm.

Keywords: dividend, family firms, leverage, ownership structure

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6594 The Effect of the Cultural Constraint on the Reform of Corporate Governance: The Observation of Taiwan's Efforts to Transform Its Corporate Governance

Authors: Yuanyi (Richard) Fang

Abstract:

Under the theory of La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, and Vishny, if a country can increase its legal protections for minority shareholders, the country can develop an ideal securities market that only arises under the dispersed ownership corporate governance. However, the path-dependence scholarship, such as Lucian Arye Bebchuk and Mark J. Roe, presented a different view with LLS&V. They pointed out that the initial framework of the ownership structure and traditional culture will prevent the change of the corporate governance structure through legal reform. This paper contends that traditional culture factors as an important aspect when forming the corporate governance structure. However, it is not impossible for the government to change its traditional corporate governance structure and traditional culture because the culture does not remain intact. Culture evolves with time. The occurrence of the important events will affect the people’s psychological process. The psychological process affects the evolution of culture. The new cultural norms can help defeat the force of the traditional culture and the resistance from the initial corporate ownership structure. Using Taiwan as an example, through analyzing the historical background, related corporate rules and the reactions of adoption new rules from the media, this paper try to show that Taiwan’s culture norms do not remain intact and have changed with time. It further provides that the culture is not always the hurdle for the adoption of the dispersed ownership corporate governance structure as the culture can change. A new culture can provide strong support for the adoption of the new corporate governance structure.

Keywords: LLS&V theory, corporate governance, culture, path–dependent theory

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6593 The Impact of Corporate Governance, Ownership Structure, and Cash Holdings on Firm Value with Profitability as Intervening Variable

Authors: Lucy Novianti

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of corporate governance, ownership structure, and cash holdings on firm value, either direct or indirect through profitability as an intervening variable for non-financial companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2014. Samples of 176 firms are chosen based on purposive sampling method. The results of this study conclude that profitability, the size of Audit Committee, audit quality, and cash flow have positive effects on firm value. This study also shows that the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and free cash flow have negative effects on firm value. In addition, this study finds that the size of the Board of Directors, Independent Commissioner, and ownership structure do not have significant effects on firm value. In this study, the function of profitability as an intervening variable can only be done on the impact of the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and cash flow on firm value. This study provides a reference for management in decision making concerning the application of corporate governance, cash holdings, and financial performance. Moreover, it can be used as additional information for investors in assessing the feasibility of an investment. Finally, it provides a suggestion for the government regarding the regulation of corporate governance.

Keywords: cash holdings, corporate governance, firm value, ownership structure, profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
6592 Derivative Usage, Ownership Structure, and Bank Value in European Countries

Authors: Chuang-Chang Chang, Keng-Yu Ho, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Hsin-Ni Yang

Abstract:

Using a sample of detailed ownership data of 1,032 listed commercial bank observations in 30 European countries from 2004 to 2010, we explore what categories of shareholder are more likely to use derivatives and how different types of owners affect the bank value. We find that a shift in equity from bank investors to either non-financial companies or institutional investors have increase incentives to use derivatives. Moreover, we have significant evidence that a shift in equity from bank investors to either family or manager shareholders who attend derivative activities will decrease bank value. However, a shift in equity from bank investors to non-financial companies who use derivative instrument will increase the bank value. Our results are also robustness to address for the potential endogeneity problems.

Keywords: derivative usage, ownership structure, bank value

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6591 Ownership, Management Responsibility and Corporate Performance of the Listed Firms in Kazakhstan

Authors: Gulnara Moldasheva

Abstract:

The research explores the relationship between management responsibility and corporate governance of listed companies in Kazakhstan. This research employs firm level data of randomly selected listed non-financial firms and firm level data “operational” financial sector, consisted from banking sector, insurance companies and accumulated pension funds using multivariate regression analysis under fixed effect model approach. Ownership structure includes institutional ownership, managerial ownership and private investor’s ownership. Management responsibility of the firm is expressed by the decision of the firm on amount of leverage. Results of the cross sectional panel study for non-financial firms showed that only institutional shareholding is significantly negatively correlated with debt to equity ratio. Findings from “operational” financial sector show that leverage is significantly affected only by the CEO/Chair duality and the size of financial institutions, and insignificantly affected by ownership structure. Also, the findings show, that there is a significant negative relationship between profitability and the debt to equity ratio for non-financial firms, which is consistent with pecking order theory. Generally, the found results suggest that corporate governance and a management responsibility play important role in corporate performance of listed firms in Kazakhstan.

Keywords: ownership, corporate governance, debt to equity ratio, corporate performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6590 The Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Earnings Management Practices: Evidence from Jordan

Authors: Lara Al-Haddad, Mark Whittington

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the impact of two influential internal corporate governance mechanisms, namely board characteristics and ownership structure on the use of real activities-based and accrual-based earnings management by Jordanian public firms. Using panel data from Jordanian public firms after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code (JCGC) in 2009, the study finds both institutional ownership and managerial ownership constrain the use of real and accrual earnings manipulations. On the other side, both independent directors and largest shareholders are found to exaggerate the incidence of using real and accrual earnings management. The study also examines the trade-off between real and accrual earnings management and found that Jordanian firms use a combination of real and accrual-based earnings management to obtain the greatest effect on earnings reporting strategies. For the purpose of this study, three types of real earnings management are considered: sales manipulation, overproduction, and the abnormal reduction of discretionary expenditures. The abnormal discretionary accrual is considered for accruals management. While for the internal corporate governance mechanisms; board characteristics are examined by using board independence, board size, and CEO-duality; and ownership structure is examined by using managerial ownership, institutional ownership, foreign ownership and largest shareholder ownership. To the best knowledge of the researchers, this study is the first to examine the relationship between board characteristics and real earnings management in Jordan. Further, it is the first to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and discretionary accruals after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code in 2009. Thus, the findings of this study have important policy implications for policymakers, regulators, standard setters, audit professional, and investors in their attempts to constrain the practice of earnings management, whether real or accrual, and to improve the financial reporting quality in Jordan.

Keywords: board characteristics, Jordan, ownership structure, real earnings management

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
6589 Exploring Corporate Governance Structure in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

Authors: Zahra A. Al Nasser, Domenico Campa

Abstract:

This paper investigates board of directors and firms’ ownership structure on non-financial companies listed in Gulf Cooperation council (GCC) countries using data from 2009 to 2013. The overall result of the study is that board size and board meeting have increased over years. Additionally, all combined committee variables have improved as well as audit committee size, audit committee meeting and audit committee experience have improved over the years. Furthermore, Oman is the only country that has not shown any statistically significant change in value of its associated variables.

Keywords: corporate governance, GCC countries, board of directors, ownership structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
6588 Funding Innovative Activities in Firms: The Ownership Structure and Governance Linkage - Evidence from Mongolia

Authors: Ernest Nweke, Enkhtuya Bavuudorj

Abstract:

The harsh realities of the scandalous failure of several notable corporations in the past two decades have inextricably resulted in a surge in corporate governance studies. Nevertheless, little or no attention has been paid to corporate governance studies in Mongolian firms and much less to the comprehension of the correlation among ownership structure, corporate governance mechanisms and trend of innovative activities. Innovation is the bed rock of enterprise success. However, the funding and support for innovative activities in many firms are to a great extent determined by the incentives provided by the firm’s internal and external governance mechanisms. Mongolia is an East Asian country currently undergoing a fast-paced transition from socialist to democratic system and it is a widely held view that private ownership as against public ownership fosters innovation. Hence, following the privatization policy of Mongolian Government which has led to the transfer of the ownership of hitherto state controlled and state directed firms to private individuals and organizations, expectations are high that sufficient motivation would be provided for firm managers to engage in innovative activities. This research focuses on the relationship between ownership structure, corporate governance on one hand and the level of innovation on the hand. The paper is empirical in nature and derives data from both reliable secondary and primary sources. Secondary data for the study was in respect of ownership structure of Mongolian listed firms and innovation trend in Mongolia generally. These were analyzed using tables, charts, bars and percentages. Personal interviews and surveys were held to collect primary data. Primary data was in respect of corporate governance practices in Mongolian firms and were collected using structured questionnaire. Out of a population of three hundred and twenty (320) companies listed on the Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE), a sample size of thirty (30) randomly selected companies was utilized for the study. Five (5) management level employees were surveyed in each selected firm giving a total of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents. Data collected were analyzed and research hypotheses tested using Chi-Square test statistic. Research results showed that corporate governance mechanisms were better and have significantly improved overtime in privately held as opposed to publicly owned firms. Consequently, the levels of innovation in privately held firms were considerably higher. It was concluded that a significant and positive relationship exists between private ownership and good corporate governance on one hand and the level of funding provided for innovative activities in Mongolian firms on the other hand.

Keywords: corporate governance, innovation, ownership structure, stock exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
6587 Factors Influencing Capital Structure: Evidence from the Oil and Gas Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Tahir, Mushtaq Muhammad

Abstract:

Capital structure is one of the key decisions taken by the financial managers. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing capital structure decision in Oil and Gas industry of Pakistan using secondary data from published annual reports of listed Oil and Gas Companies of Pakistan. This study covers the time-period from 2008-2014. Capital structure can be affected by profitability, firm size, growth opportunities, dividend payout, liquidity, business risk, and ownership structure. Panel data technique with Ordinary least square (OLS) regression model has been used to find the impact of set of explanatory variables on the capital structure using the Stata. OLS regression results suggest that dividend payout, firm size and government ownership have the most significant impact on financial leverage. Dividend payout and government ownership are found to have significant negative association with financial leverage however firm size indicated positive relationship with financial leverage. Other variables having significant link with financial leverage includes growth opportunities, liquidity and business risk. Results reveal significant positive association between growth opportunities and financial leverage whereas liquidity and business risk are negatively correlated with financial leverage. Profitability and managerial ownership exhibited insignificant relationship with financial leverage. This study contributes to existing Managerial Finance literature with certain managerial implications. Academically, this research study describes the factors affecting capital structure decision of Oil and Gas Companies in Pakistan and adds latest empirical evidence to existing financial literature in Pakistan. Researchers have studies capital structure in Pakistan in general and industry at specific, nevertheless still there is limited literature on this issue. This study will be an attempt to fill this gap in the academic literature. This study has practical implication on both firm level and individual investor/ lenders level. Results of this study can be useful for investors/ lenders in making investment and lending decisions. Further, results of this study can be useful for financial managers to frame optimal capital structure keeping in consideration the factors that can affect capital structure decision as revealed by this study. These results will help financial managers to decide whether to issue stock or issue debt for future investment projects.

Keywords: capital structure, multicollinearity, ordinary least square (OLS), panel data

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6586 A Family Development Approach to Understanding the Transfer of Family Business Ownership

Authors: Susan Lanz, Gary T. Burke, Omid Omidvar

Abstract:

The intention to transfer ownership control across family generations is acknowledged to be central to developing a theoretical understanding of how family businesses differ and are distinct as a business group. However, in practice, most business-owning families face challenges to transfer their business ownership from one family generation to the next. To date, researchers have paid little attention to how and when ownership is passed across family generations and what the dynamics of such transitions are. This is primarily due to the prevailing assumption that ownership transfer is an unimportant and legalistic issue that occurs within a wider family management succession process. Yet, the limited evidence available suggests that family ownership transfer occurs inside and outside of the management succession process and is a difficult process for business-owning families to navigate. As a result, many otherwise viable family businesses are closing, leading to unnecessary loss of jobs and knowledge. This qualitative paper examines how family members understand and navigate the ownership transfer process. This study uses an inductive qualitative research design, conducted through in-depth interviews within eight business-owning families. It draws on family development theory and shows how a wide range of family-related events and dynamics outside of family business involvement underlie and shape the ownership transfer process. The findings extend the theory on how these events trigger ownership transfer and how they shape the ownership meanings held within business-owning families. This study found that ownership transfer meanings extend beyond that of transferring the legal control and financial appropriation rights of shareholders. The study concludes there are three different stages in the process of ownership transfer -symbolic, re-balancing, and protectionist. Each stage creates distinct family social constructions of the rights of family members to hold business ownership, and each stage occurs within a specific family development phase.

Keywords: business-owning family, family development theory, ownership transfer, process

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6585 Board Structure, Composition, and Firm Performance: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

Authors: Suleiman Ahmed Badayi

Abstract:

Corporate governance literature is very wide and involves several empirical studies conducted on the relationship between board structure, composition and firm performance. The separation of ownership and control in organizations were aimed at reducing the losses suffered by the investors in the event of financial scandals. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between board composition and its impact on firm performance. The findings from the studies provide different results while some are of the view that board structure is related to firm performance, many empirical studies indicates no relationship. However, others found a U-shape relationship between firm performance and board structure. Therefore, this study argued that board structure is not much significant to determine the financial performance of a firm.

Keywords: board structure, composition, firm performance, corporate governance

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6584 The Role of Authority's Testimony in Preschoolers' Ownership Judgment: A Study with Conflicting Cues Method

Authors: Zhanxing Li, Liqi Zhu

Abstract:

Authorities often intervene in children’s property conflicts, which may affect young children’s ownership understanding. First possession is a typical rule of ownership judgment. We recruited Chinese preschoolers as subjects and investigated their ownership reasoning regarding first possession, by setting three conditions via a conflicting cues method, in which a third party (mother or peer friend)’s testimony was always opposite to the cue of first possession (authority/non-authority testimony condition), or only the cue of first possession was present (no testimony condition). In Study A, we examined forty-two 3- and 5-year olds’ attribution and justification of ownership. The results showed while 5-year olds gave more support for the first possessor as the owner across three conditions, 3-year olds’ choice for the first possessor had no difference from the non-first possessor in the authority testimony condition. Moreover, 3-year olds tended to justify by reference to what mother said in the authority testimony condition, 5-year olds consistently referred to the first possession in three conditions. In Study B, we added two ownership questions to quantify children’s ability of ownership reasoning with four age groups (n = 32 for the 3-year-olds, n = 33 for the 4-year-olds, n = 27 for the 5-year olds and n = 30 for the adults) to explore the developmental trajectory further. It revealed that while 5-year olds’ performances were similar to the adults’ and always judged the first possessor as owner in three conditions, 3- and 4-year olds’ performed at chance level in the authority testimony condition. The results imply that Chinese young preschooler’s ownership reasoning was susceptible to authority’s testimony. Family authority may play an important role in diluting children’s adherence to ownership principles, which will be helpful for children to learn to share with others.

Keywords: authority, ownership judgment, preschoolers, testimony

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
6583 Racial Diversity in Founding Ownership Teams and Business Performance in New Firms

Authors: Cedric Herring, Loren Henderson, Hayward Derrick Horton, Melvin Thomas

Abstract:

This paper asks whether business startups benefit from having racially diverse founding ownership teams. Using nationally representative data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, the analysis examines the relationship between the racial diversity of the founding ownership teams of business startups and their net worth, revenue, debt, and profits. The analysis shows that, net of firm characteristics and human capital characteristics, startups with racially diverse founding teams have higher net worth, lower debt, and greater profits than their non-diverse counterparts. The racial diversity of ownership teams is not, however, related to startup firms’ revenues, net of other factors. The implications of these findings are explored.

Keywords: racial diversity, business startups, founding ownership teams, diversity and business performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
6582 Dividend Policy in Family Controlling Firms from a Governance Perspective: Empirical Evidence in Thailand

Authors: Tanapond S.

Abstract:

Typically, most of the controlling firms are relate to family firms which are widespread and important for economic growth particularly in Asian Pacific region. The unique characteristics of the controlling families tend to play an important role in determining the corporate policies such as dividend policy. Given the complexity of the family business phenomenon, the empirical evidence has been unclear on how the families behind business groups influence dividend policy in Asian markets with the prevalent existence of cross-shareholdings and pyramidal structure. Dividend policy as one of an important determinant of firm value could also be implemented in order to examine the effect of the controlling families behind business groups on strategic decisions-making in terms of a governance perspective and agency problems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of ownership structure and concentration which are influential internal corporate governance mechanisms in family firms on dividend decision-making. Using panel data and constructing a unique dataset of family ownership and control through hand-collecting information from the nonfinancial companies listed in Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) between 2000 and 2015, the study finds that family firms with large stakes distribute higher dividends than family firms with small stakes. Family ownership can mitigate the agency problems and the expropriation of minority investors in family firms. To provide insight into the distinguish between ownership rights and control rights, this study examines specific firm characteristics including the degrees of concentration of controlling shareholders by classifying family ownership in different categories. The results show that controlling families with large deviation between voting rights and cash flow rights have more power and affect lower dividend payment. These situations become worse when second blockholders are families. To the best knowledge of the researcher, this study is the first to examine the association between family firms’ characteristics and dividend policy from the corporate governance perspectives in Thailand with weak investor protection environment and high ownership concentration. This research also underscores the importance of family control especially in a context in which family business groups and pyramidal structure are prevalent. As a result, academics and policy makers can develop markets and corporate policies to eliminate agency problem.

Keywords: agency theory, dividend policy, family control, Thailand

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6581 How Markets React to Corporate Disclosure: An Analysis Using a SEM Model

Authors: Helena Susana Afonso Alves, Natália Maria Rafael Canadas, Ana Maria Rodrigues

Abstract:

We examined the impact of governance rules on information asymmetry, using the turnover ratio and the bid-ask spread as proxies for the information asymmetry. We used a SEM model and analyzed the indirect relations through the voluntary disclosure of information and the organizational performance. We built a voluntary disclosure index based on the information firms provided in their annual reports and divided the governance characteristics in two constructs: directors’ and supervisors’ structures and ownership structure. We concluded that the ownership structure exerts a direct influence on share price and share liquidity, Otherwise, the directors’ and supervisors’ structures exert an indirect influence, through the organizational performance and the voluntary disclosure of information. The results also show that for firms with high levels of disclosure the bid-ask spread is lower. However, in firms with a high ownership concentration investors tend to increase the bid-ask spreads and trade less, which, in this case, reduces the liquidity of the stock. The failure to find the relationship between voluntary disclosure of information and the turnover ratio shows us that the liquidity of shares is more related to the greater or lesser concentration of shareholders, with the performance of their companies than with the access to information. Moreover, it is clear that the role that information disclosure plays is mainly at the level of price formation.

Keywords: corporate governance, information asymmetry, voluntary disclosure, structural equation modelling, SEM

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6580 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from India

Authors: G. C. Surya Bahadur, Ranjana Kothari

Abstract:

The paper attempts to analyze linkages between corporate governance and firm performance in India. The study employs a panel data of 50 Nifty companies from 2008 to 2012. Using LSDV panel data model and 2SLS model the study reveals that that good corporate governance practices adopted by companies is positively related with financial performance. Board independence, number of board committees and executive compensation are found to have positive relationship while ownership by promoters and financial leverage have negative relationship with performance. There is existence of bi-directional relationship between corporate governance and financial performance. Companies with sound financial performance are more likely to conform to corporate governance norms and standards and implement sound corporate governance system. The findings indicate that companies can enhance business performance and sustainability by embracing sound corporate governance practices.

Keywords: board structure, corporate governance, executive compensation, ownership structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
6579 Investigating the Relationship between Service Quality and Amount of Violations in Community Pharmacies with Their Type of Ownership

Authors: Afshin Azari, Farzad Peiravian, Nazila Yousefi

Abstract:

Introduction: Community pharmacies have been always played an important role in public health. Therefore, having a decent service provided by these pharmacies is of paramount importance for the healthcare system. The issue of pharmacy ownership and its possible impact on the quality of services and amount of violations has been argued for many years, and there are different opinions around this debate. Since, so far, no scientific research has been performed to investigate this issue in Iran, this study aimed to examine the differences between these two types of pharmacies ownership in terms of violations and service quality. Method: This study investigates the impact of two different kinds of pharmacy ownership (pharmacists and non-pharmacist’s ownership) on the pharmacies’ amount of violations and services quality. Pharmacies’ amount of violations was examined using “pharmacy inspection reports” between September 2018 and September 2019, in their distinguishable categories: minor, major and critical violations. Then, service quality was examined using a questionnaire from the perspective of pharmacy customers. Results: Considering violations, there was no evidence to prove a significant relationship between critical violations and major violations with the type of pharmacy ownership. However, in minor violations, the average of violations was higher in pharmacies owned by pharmacists in comparison to their non-pharmacist owned counterparts. Regarding service quality, the results showed that there is no significant relationship between the quality of service and the type of pharmacy ownership. Discussion and Conclusion: In this study, no significant relationship was found between the amount of violations and the type of pharmacy ownership. This could indicate that the pharmacy ownership would not influence the rate of violations. Considering that more inspections have been carried out in non-pharmacist owned pharmacies, it can be concluded that these pharmacies are more under control, and in fact, this monitoring has reduced violations in these pharmacies. The quality of services in the two types of pharmacies were not significantly different from each other, and this shows that non-pharmacist-owned pharmacies also try to maintain the desired level of service in competition with their competitors.

Keywords: pharmacy ownership, quality of service, violation, community pharmacy

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6578 Legal Arrangement on Media Ownership and the Case of Turkey

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

In this study, we will touch upon the legal arrangements issued in Turkey for prevention of condensation and for ensuring pluralism in the media. We will mention the legal arrangements concerning the regulatory and supervisory authority, namely the Radio and Television Supreme Council, for the visual and auditory media. In this context; the legal arrangements, which have been introduced by the Law No 6112 on the Establishment of Radio and Television Enterprises and Their Media Services in relation to the media ownership, will be reviewed through comparison with the Article 29 of the repealed Law No 3984.

Keywords: media ownership, legal arrangements, the case for Turkey, pluralism

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6577 Factors Influencing the Voluntary Disclosure of Vietnamese Listed Companies

Authors: Pham Duc Hieu, Do Thi Huong Lan

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting the extent of voluntary disclosure by examining the annual reports of 205 industrial and manufacturing companies listing on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HSX) and Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX) for the year end of 2012. Those factors include company size, profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, and foreign ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors. Evidence from this study suggests two main findings. (1) Companies with high foreign ownership have a high level of voluntary disclosure. (2) The company size is an important factor related to the increased level of voluntary disclosure in annual reports made by Vietnamese listed companies. The larger the company, the higher the information is disclosed. However, no significant associations are found between profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors as hypothesized in this study.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, Vietnamese listed companies, voluntary, duality

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6576 Ownership Concentration and Payout Policy: Evidence from France

Authors: Asma Bentaifa

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of ownership concentration and especially the presence of controlling shareholders on the firm’s payout decisions. Using a sample of 870 French companies during 2007 to 2012, we find that the share of dividends in total payout is negatively correlated with the size of cash flow held by controlling shareholder, and positively related to the divergence between voting rights and cash flow rights of largest shareholders. We also document that controlled firms tend to prefer dividends over repurchases to mitigate conflicts between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders related to the presence of control enhancing devices.

Keywords: ownership, payout policy, dividend, minority expropriation

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6575 Governance and Financial Constraints the Impact on Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation in Cooperatives

Authors: Wanlapha Phraibueng, Patrick Sentis, Geraldine Riviere-Giordano

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives have been widely discussed especially in investor-oriented firms. In contrast, cooperatives pay less attention to CSR because their activities have integrated the responsibility and the solidity of social, economic and environment. On the other hand, by adopting ownership theory and agency theory – cooperatives ignore CSR investment due to unclarified decision control in the governance and the limitation to acquire the capital financed. The unique governance and financial structures in cooperatives lead to the conflict among the stakeholders and long-term investment which have an impact on firm financial performance. As an illustration of cooperatives dilemmas, we address the question of Whether or not cooperatives in term of governance and financial structures are the constraints on implementing CSR policies. We find that the governance and financial structures in large cooperatives are the influence factors which predispose cooperatives to invest on CSR. In contrast, in the startup or small cooperatives, its governance and financial structures are the constraints on implementing CSR policies. We propose the alternative financial structure based on the trade-off between debt and equity which aims to relax the restrictions in cooperatives’ governance and allow cooperatives to acquire the capital financed either from its members or non-members. We suggest that engaging equity as a financial structure induces cooperatives to invest on CSR policies. Alternative financial structure eliminates not only cooperative ownership control problem but also the constraints in capital acquisition. By implementing CSR activities consistent with the alternative financial choice, cooperatives can increase firm’s value and reduce the conflict among their stakeholders.

Keywords: cooperatives, corporate social responsibility, financial, governance

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6574 The Correlation between Governance Mechanism and Changing Trends in the Ownership of Mongolian Companies

Authors: Ernest Nweke

Abstract:

This paper examines the changing trend in ownership of Mongolian companies and how this trend has influenced corporate governance mechanisms in Mongolian companies. A study of this magnitude is essential as it x-rays the systematic transformation of Mongolia’s corporate world from the public to private ownership and the tremendous impact it has had on firm governance mechanisms. Owing to Mongolia’s Soviet past, much of the companies in Mongolia were state-owned, state-directed and state-controlled resulting in serious inefficiencies in these companies. This scenario is antithetical to the economic growth and development of any nation as it is grossly at variance with the fundamental principles of good corporate governance that drive prosperity. Consequently, the Mongolian government has in the past decades fine-tuned government policy to prioritize private ownership, establishing various frameworks that will strengthen corporate governance structures in Mongolia. These efforts have paid off and gone a long way in changing the trend in the ownership of companies in Mongolia reversing the old order. The expectation locally and internationally is that companies in post-socialist Mongolia will be more closely aligned to generally accepted corporate governance mechanisms, generally improving company performance and ultimately returns to shareholders. To achieve the research objectives, the survey research method was employed utilizing a sample of seventy randomly selected listed companies representing 22% of Mongolian Stock Exchange listings. Research hypotheses formulated to guide the conduct of the study were tested using Chi-Square analysis, and results show that ownership trend has drastically changed in the post-socialist Mongolia leading to better corporate governance practices in Mongolian companies. This result has important policy implications.

Keywords: corporate disclosure, free market, private ownership, Mongolia

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6573 Infrastructure Problems in Indonesia: The Uncontrolled Increase of Motor Vehicle Usage in Indonesia

Authors: Tanda Soala Gogo Sirait

Abstract:

The existence of motor vehicle in Indonesia has a very essential role for daily mobility in urban areas. The motor vehicle market is growing tremendously particularly for the motorcycle. The growth of motorcycles ownership was 15 % annually from 2002 to 2012. It is predicted that the number of motorcycles still continue to grow in the future. The increase of motor vehicle has led to the creation of serious urban problems and Indonesian economy structure. Today, Indonesia's cities are well known as the jungle of motorcycle world. The volume of motor vehicle traffic in Indonesia cities is astounding, which more than 55% of motorised transport is on motorcycle and car. The reason it happens is due lack and inconvenient of the public transportation in Indonesia. Motor vehicle ownership by individual households tends to rising rapidly. Indonesian government still does not have a clear direction how to face this phenomenon.

Keywords: Indonesian economy, inconvenient public transportation, motor vehicle growth, urban problems

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6572 The Impact of Corporate Governance on Risk Taking in European Insurance Industry

Authors: Francesco Venuti, Simona Alfiero

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to develop an empirical research on the nature and consequences of corporate governance on Eurozone Insurance Industry risk taking attitude. More particularly, we analyzed the effect of public ownership on risk taking with respect to privately held Insurance Companies. We also analyzed the effects on risk taking attitude of different degrees of ownership concentration, directors compensation, and the dimension/diversity of the Board of Directors. Our results provide quite strong evidence that, coherently with the Agency Theory, publicly traded insurance companies with more concentrated ownership are less risky than the corresponding privately held.

Keywords: agency theory, corporate governance, insurance companies, risk taking

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6571 Cultural Aspects of Tax Compliance of Medium Size Enterprises in South Africa

Authors: Oludele A. Akinboade

Abstract:

The paper discusses cultural aspects of tax compliance of medium size companies (MEs) in South Africa to enhance tax compliance. A survey of 641 companies in eight provinces was made. Racial identities of ME owners are not significant in explaining differences in tax registration compliance. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and highly significantly correlated with pay as you earn compliance. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. White ownership of MEs is negative and weakly (10%) significantly correlated with company income tax compliance while the opposite is found in favour of Asian ownership. Race is negative and highly significant in explaining White owned MEs value added tax compliance behaviour. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and weakly significantly(10%) associated with timely submission of tax returns.

Keywords: tax compliance, cultural diversity, medium size companies, South Africa

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6570 Vehicle Ownership and Occupancy Change in Travel Demand Model Due to the Emergence of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Authors: Asadur Rahman, Bin Ran

Abstract:

Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) will have a major impact on transportation infrastructure, transportation mobility, as well as vehicle ownership and occupancy. The traffic forecasting process using the travel demand model (TDM) predicts traffic conditions that are expected to occur on the transportation system in future years but not the precise representations of traffic volume due to the complexity of real-world drive behavior and roadway characteristics. This research has proposed a framework (from the state-of-the-art and practice and the 20 to 30 years forecast horizon) to incorporate CAVs in the traditional four-step trip based TDM to do traffic forecast; and concludes that vehicle miles travel (VMT), vehicle hours travel (VHT), and travel delay are directly related to travel behaviors such as vehicle ownership and occupancy. Outlining changes (decrease) in single occupancy (SO) in trips and vehicle ownership (VO) in households with the dedicated lane(s) for CAVs in roadway network, the planned scenarios revealed that ‘with CAV’ VMT may decrease up to forty percent than ‘without CAV’ in an extreme scenario. Results from different scenarios in this research suggest implementing a single dedicated lane in the road network for CAVs at the beginning of implementation. Analyzing the impact of CAVs on urban-rural mobility, travel patterns, vehicle ownership, and occupancy will benefit traffic forecasts from a scenario planning perspective for the long-range transportation planning process; to guide and improve investment plans and the overall decision-making process.

Keywords: connected and automated vehicles, traffic forecasting, vehicle ownership, vehicle occupancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 75