Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Jacques Petit-Frere

40 Thermodynamic Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose

Abstract:

The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

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39 Isothermal Vapour-Liquid Equilibria of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose

Abstract:

The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
38 Access Control System for Big Data Application

Authors: Winfred Okoe Addy, Jean Jacques Dominique Beraud

Abstract:

Access control systems (ACs) are some of the most important components in safety areas. Inaccuracies of regulatory frameworks make personal policies and remedies more appropriate than standard models or protocols. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of software, such as integrated Big Data (BD) software for controlling large volumes of encrypted data and resources embedded in a dedicated BD production system. This paper proposes a general access control strategy system for the diffusion of Big Data domains since it is crucial to secure the data provided to data consumers (DC). We presented a general access control circulation strategy for the Big Data domain by describing the benefit of using designated access control for BD units and performance and taking into consideration the need for BD and AC system. We then presented a generic of Big Data access control system to improve the dissemination of Big Data.

Keywords: access control, security, Big Data, domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
37 The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Educators in South Africa: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

Authors: Mostert Jacques, Gulseven Osman, Williams Courtney

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The Covid-19 pandemic caused unparalleled disruption in the lives of the majority of the world. This included school closures and introduction of Online Learning. In this article we investigated the impact of distance learning on the self-efficacy and anxiety levels experienced by educators in South Africa. We surveyed 60 respondents from Independent Schools using a Likert Scale rating of 0 to 4. The results suggested that despite experiencing moderate anxiety, educators showed a sense of high self-efficacy during distance learning. This was specifically true for those with underlying health concerns. There was no significant difference between how the different genders experienced anxiety and self-efficacy. Further research into the impact on learners’ anxiety levels during distance learning will provide policymakers and educators with a better understanding of how the use of technology is influencing the effectiveness of teaching, learning, and assessment.

Keywords: COVID-19, education, self-efficacy, anxiety

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36 A Simple Recursive Framework to Generate Gray Codes for Weak Orders in Constant Amortized Time

Authors: Marsden Jacques, Dennis Wong

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A weak order is a way to rank n objects where ties are allowed. In this talk, we present a recursive framework to generate Gray codes for weak orders. We then describe a simple algorithm based on the framework that generates 2-Gray codes for weak orders in constant amortized time per string. This framework can easily be modified to generate other Gray codes for weak orders. We provide an example on using the framework to generate the first Shift Gray code for weak orders, also in constant amortized time, where consecutive strings differ by a shift or a symbol change.

Keywords: weak order, Cayley permutation, Gray code, shift Gray code

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35 The Relationship between Quality of Work and Employment, Self-Perceived Health and Use of Health Services among the Older Japanese Workforce

Authors: Jacques Wels

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Japan has one of the highest average retirement ages within the OCDE and is paving the way to raise the retirement age to 70. However, the Japanese labour market is facing two main issues that can have detrimental effects on health: non-standard employment forms are widespread among the ageing workforce, and poor working conditions can contribute to explain poor health in late career. To assess such a relationship, the study uses data from JSTAR. Using mediation analysis, it particularly looks at the association between job dissatisfaction, employment status, self-perceived health (SPH), and use of health care services. Results show that work quality and employment status are associated with SPH. Contract work has a particularly negative impact and therefore contributes to explain the use of health care services but is not significantly associated with lower job satisfaction levels. SPH is a good predictor of the use of health care services.

Keywords: self-reported health, occupational health, employment, older workers, mediation

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34 The Popularity and the Fantasy in Tiny Times

Authors: Shu Hui

Abstract:

From 2013 to 2015, Tiny Times series gained huge commercial success. However, compared with the successful box office, these films received severe public criticism. Some scholars refer to these films as trash (lan pian) because of the fragment narrative, the non-professional photographing, and advocating money warship. Differing from other popular films, the popularity of Tiny Times series is actually generated from the fantasy that presented on screen instead of good stories or photographs. The fantasy is desired by the public and then formulates its popularity. Based on Jacques Lacan’s fantasy theory, the paper aims to explain what kind of fantast the films present. Then, according to hegemony theory, the paper will illustrate why the public desires such a fantasy and how the fantasy causes the criticism as well. The dominant ideology (patriarchy) conspires with or manipulates consumerism, which brings about the female's fantasy in Tiny Times. Because consumerism interrogates Confucianism, the film received public criticism for highlighting the former.

Keywords: fantasy, desire, ideology, popularity

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33 The Awareness of Computer Science Students Regarding the Security of Location Based Games

Authors: Jacques Barnard, Magda Huisman, Gunther R. Drevin

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Rapid expansion and development in die mobile technology market has created an opportunity for users to participate in location based games. As a consequence of this fast expanding market and new technology, it is important to be aware of the implications this has on security. This paper measures the impact on the security awareness of games’ participants, as well as on that of students at university level with regards to their various stages of input in years of studying and gamer classification. This serves to provide insight into the matter as to discernible differences in the awareness of the security implications concerning these technologies. The data was accumulated via a web questionnaire that was to be completed yearly by students from respective year groups. Results signify a meaningful disparity in security awareness among students completing the varying study years and research. This awareness, however, does not always impact on gamers.

Keywords: gamer classifications, location based games, location based data, security awareness

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32 Integrating Human Preferences into the Automated Decisions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Arwa Khannoussi, Alexandru-Liviu Olteanu, Pritesh Narayan, Catherine Dezan, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Patrick Meyer, Jacques Petit-Frere

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Due to the nature of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) missions, it is important that the decisions of a UAV stay consistent with the priorities of an operator, while at the same time allowing them to be easily audited and explained. We propose a multi-layer decision engine that integrates the operator (human) preferences by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods. A software implementation of a UAV simulator and of the decision engine is presented to highlight the advantage of using such techniques on high-level decisions. We demonstrate that, with such a preference-based decision engine, the decisions of the UAV are compatible with the priorities of the operator, which in turn increases her/his confidence in its autonomous behavior.

Keywords: autonomous UAV, multi-criteria decision aiding, multi-layers decision engine, operator's preferences, traceable decisions, UAV simulation

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31 Sea-Spray Calculations Using the MESO-NH Model

Authors: Alix Limoges, William Bruch, Christophe Yohia, Jacques Piazzola

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A number of questions arise concerning the long-term impact of the contribution of marine aerosol fluxes generated at the air-sea interface on the occurrence of intense events (storms, floods, etc.) in the coastal environment. To this end, knowledge is needed on sea-spray emission rates and the atmospheric dynamics of the corresponding particles. Our aim is to implement the mesoscale model MESO-NH on the study area using an accurate sea-spray source function to estimate heat fluxes and impact on the precipitations. Based on an original and complete sea-spray source function, which covers a large size spectrum since taking into consideration the sea-spray produced by both bubble bursting and surface tearing process, we propose a comparison between model simulations and experimental data obtained during an oceanic scientific cruise on board the navy ship Atalante. The results show the relevance of the sea-spray flux calculations as well as their impact on the heat fluxes and AOD.

Keywords: atmospheric models, sea-spray source, sea-spray dynamics, aerosols

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30 Adjusted LOLE and EENS Indices for the Consideration of Load Excess Transfer in Power Systems Adequacy Studies

Authors: François Vallée, Jean-François Toubeau, Zacharie De Grève, Jacques Lobry

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When evaluating the capacity of a generation park to cover the load in transmission systems, traditional Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Expected Energy not Served (EENS) indices can be used. If those indices allow computing the annual duration and severity of load non-covering situations, they do not take into account the fact that the load excess is generally shifted from one penury state (hour or quarter of an hour) to the following one. In this paper, a sequential Monte Carlo framework is introduced in order to compute adjusted LOLE and EENS indices. Practically, those adapted indices permit to consider the effect of load excess transfer on the global adequacy of a generation park, providing thus a more accurate evaluation of this quantity.

Keywords: expected energy not served, loss of load expectation, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, wind generation

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29 After Schubert’s Winterreise: Contemporary Aesthetic Journeys

Authors: Maria de Fátima Lambert

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Following previous studies about Writing and Seeing, this paper focuses on the aesthetic assumptions within the concept of Winter Journey (Voyage d’Hiver/Winterreise) both in Georges Perec’s Saga and the Oulipo Group vis-à-vis with the creations by William Kentridge and Michael Borremans. The aesthetic and artistic connections are widespread. Nevertheless, we can identify common poetical principles shared by these different authors, not only according to the notion of ekphrasis, but also following the procedures of contemporary creation in literature and visual arts. The analysis of the ongoing process of the French writers as individuals and as group and the visual artists’ acting might contribute for another crossed definition of contemporary conception. The same title/theme was a challenge and a goal for them. Let’s wonder how deep the concept encouraged them and which symbolic upbringings were directing their poetical achievements. The idea of an inner journey became the main point, and got “over” and “across” a shared path worth to be followed. The authors were chosen due to the resilient contents of their visual and written images, and looking for the reasons that might had driven their conceptual basis to be. In Pérec’s “Winter Journey” as for the following fictions by Jacques Roubaud, Hervé le Tellier, Jacques Jouet and Hugo Vernier (that emerges from Perec’s fiction and becomes a real author) powerful aesthetic and enigmatic reflections grow connected with a poetic (and aesthetic) understanding of Walkscapes. They might be assumed as ironic fictions and poetical drifts. Outstanding from different logics, the overwhelming impact of Winterreise Lied by Schubert after Wilhelm Müller’s poems is a major reference in present authorship creations. Both Perec and Oulipo’s author’s texts are powerfully ekphrastic, although we should not forget they follow goals, frameworks and identities. When acting as a reader, they induce powerful imageries - cinematic or cinematographic - that flow in our minds. It was well-matched with William Kentridge animated video Winter Journey (2014) and the creations (sharing the same title) of Michael Borremans (2014) for the KlaraFestival, Bozar, Cité de la musique, in Belgium. Both were taken by the foremost Schubert’s Winterreise. Several metaphors fulfil new Winter Journeys (or Travels) that were achieved in contemporary art and literature, as it once succeeded in the 19th century. Maybe the contemporary authors and artists were compelled by the consciousness of nothingness, although outstanding different aesthetics and ontological sources. The unbearable knowledge of the road’s end, and also the urge of fulfilling the void might be a common element to all of them. As Schopenhauer once wrote, after all, Art is the only human subjective power that we can call upon in life. These newer aesthetic meanings, released from these winter journeys are surely open to wider approaches that might happen in other poetic makings to be.

Keywords: Aesthetic, voyage D’Hiver, George Perec & Oulipo, William Kentridge & Michael Borreman, Schubert's Winterreise

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28 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

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Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children

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27 Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment

Authors: Tahani Farah, Hanène Souli, Jean-Marie Fleureau, Guillaume Kermouche, Jean-Jacques Fry, Benjamin Girard, Denis Aelbrecht

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In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.

Keywords: bio-clogging, granulometry, permeability, nutrition

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26 The Impact of Emoticons in the Workplace: Legal Challenges and Regulatory Change

Authors: Jacques C. Duvenhage

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The use of emoticons or so-called ‘emojis’ has gained much attention, not only in the daily use thereof with friends or family but also within the workplace amongst co-workers and employers. Even though emojis may be seen as a way to express feelings or even ideas, it may present legal challenges in the workplace. With new emojis being created on a daily basis, communicating through emojis, whether via phone, email or social media platforms, can become convoluted, especially within the working environment. The question to be addressed is how and/or whether Australian legislators will regulate the use of emojis (as a form of technology) in the workplace to prevent harassment, discrimination and other forms of prejudice. The emojis sent to co-workers may be interpreted by employees and even employers in different ways depending on their age, sexual orientation, and cultural background. Therefore, Australian courts will need to interpret an emoji’s meaning on a case-by-case basis. This paper will explore the use of emojis in the workplace (drawing on a desktop study), the impact emojis have on the employer-employee relationship as well as co-worker relationships, its legal application through case studies and whether a legal framework should be adopted by Australian legislators on this issue. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the legal framework and application of emojis in the workplace considering foreign jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the United States of America and whether Australia should adopt similar legal approaches to these jurisdictions.

Keywords: emoticons, legal approaches, regulation, workplace

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25 Randomness in Cybertext: A Study on Computer-Generated Poetry from the Perspective of Semiotics

Authors: Hongliang Zhang

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The use of chance procedures and randomizers in poetry-writing can be traced back to surrealist works, which, by appealing to Sigmund Freud's theories, were still logocentrism. In the 1960s, random permutation and combination were extensively used by the Oulipo, John Cage and Jackson Mac Low, which further deconstructed the metaphysical presence of writing. Today, the randomly-generated digital poetry has emerged as a genre of cybertext which should be co-authored by readers. At the same time, the classical theories have now been updated by cybernetics and media theories. N· Katherine Hayles put forward the concept of ‘the floating signifiers’ by Jacques Lacan to be the ‘the flickering signifiers’ , arguing that the technology per se has become a part of the textual production. This paper makes a historical review of the computer-generated poetry in the perspective of semiotics, emphasizing that the randomly-generated digital poetry which hands over the dual tasks of both interpretation and writing to the readers demonstrates the intervention of media technology in literature. With the participation of computerized algorithm and programming languages, poems randomly generated by computers have not only blurred the boundary between encoder and decoder, but also raises the issue of human-machine. It is also a significant feature of the cybertext that the productive process of the text is full of randomness.

Keywords: cybertext, digital poetry, poetry generator, semiotics

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24 Data Structure Learning Platform to Aid in Higher Education IT Courses (DSLEP)

Authors: Estevan B. Costa, Armando M. Toda, Marcell A. A. Mesquita, Jacques D. Brancher

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The advances in technology in the last five years allowed an improvement in the educational area, as the increasing in the development of educational software. One of the techniques that emerged in this lapse is called Gamification, which is the utilization of video game mechanics outside its bounds. Recent studies involving this technique provided positive results in the application of these concepts in many areas as marketing, health and education. In the last area there are studies that cover from elementary to higher education, with many variations to adequate to the educators methodologies. Among higher education, focusing on IT courses, data structures are an important subject taught in many of these courses, as they are base for many systems. Based on the exposed this paper exposes the development of an interactive web learning environment, called DSLEP (Data Structure Learning Platform), to aid students in higher education IT courses. The system includes basic concepts seen on this subject such as stacks, queues, lists, arrays, trees and was implemented to ease the insertion of new structures. It was also implemented with gamification concepts, such as points, levels, and leader boards, to engage students in the search for knowledge and stimulate self-learning.

Keywords: gamification, Interactive learning environment, data structures, e-learning

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23 Seismotectonics of Southern Haiti: A Faulting Model for the 12 January 2010 M7 Earthquake

Authors: Newdeskarl Saint Fleur, Nathalie Feuillet, Raphaël Grandin, Éric Jacques, Jennifer Weil-Accardo, Yann Klinger

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The prevailing consensus is that the 2010 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake left the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden strike-slip Fault (EPGF) unruptured but broke unmapped blind north-dipping thrusts. Using high-resolution topography, aerial images, bathymetry and geology we identified previously unrecognized south-dipping NW-SE-striking active thrusts in southern Haiti. One of them, Lamentin thrust (LT), cuts across the crowded city of Carrefour, extends offshore into Port-au-Prince Bay and connects at depth with the EPGF. We propose that both faults broke in 2010. The rupture likely initiated on the thrust and propagated further along the EPGF due to unclamping. This scenario is consistent with geodetic, seismological and field data. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on the unruptured segments of the EPGF and on neighboring thrusts, significantly increasing the seismic hazard in the Port-au-Prince urban area. The numerous active thrusts recognized in that area must be considered for future evaluation of the seismic hazard.

Keywords: active faulting, enriquillo-plantain garden fault, Haiti earthquake, seismic hazard

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22 ‘A Ghost of One’s Own’: Spectral Intrusions and Trauma in the Poetry of Joanna Baillie and Anne Bannerman

Authors: Elli Karampela

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In Specters of Marx (1993), Jacques Derrida refers to the ghost as an Other presence that occupies the space of the self and emanates from there, haunting in its shadowy pastness and threatening/striving to break free. In times of change, ghosts both reflect the dissolution of set principles and voice traumas of the past that create a sense of fear and instability. This paper observes the way female ghosts create connections with the living in the poetry of Joanna Baillie and Anne Bannerman, both integral, albeit under-researched in different ways, writers of the English Romantic period working in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Especially at the beginning of the nineteenth century, when ghost narratives were devoured by readers and enjoyed as stories that re-awakened sensation in times of revolution, there was at the same time fear of intrusion by terror’s unruly forces that threatened to turn the readers restless. The ghost was particularly dangerous because it was associated with memory and the intrusion of past trauma in the here and now. As will be seen, both Baillie and Bannerman explore the idea of the female ghost’s ‘return’ (a Freudian term that will be approached) which breaks both time and space boundaries to raise the suppressed female voice, threaten stability, and correct wrongs. As a result, the varied manifestations of female ghosts render Baillie and Bannerman active in the contemporary discourse about human rights and the reclamation of the agency.

Keywords: poetry, romanticism, spectrality, trauma, women

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21 Gradient Index Metalens for WLAN Applications

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubeni, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David

Abstract:

The control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of several researches over the past decade. In this regard, Metamaterials have shown a strong ability to manipulate the electromagnetic waves on a subwavelength scales thanks to its unconventional properties that are not available in natural materials such as negative refraction index, super imaging and invisibility cloaking. Metalenses were used to avoid some drawbacks presented by conventional lenses since focusing with conventional lenses suffered from the limited resolution because they were only able to focus the propagating wave component. Nevertheless, Metalenses were able to go beyond the diffraction limit and enhance the resolution not only by collecting the propagating waves but also by restoring the amplitude of evanescent waves that decay rapidly when going far from the source and that contains the finest details of the image. Metasurfaces have many mechanical advantages over three-dimensional metamaterial structures especially the ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Those structures have been widely used for antenna performance improvement and to build flat metalenses. In this work, we showed that a well-designed metasurface lens operating at the frequency of 5.9GHz, has efficiently enhanced the radiation characteristics of a patch antenna and can be used for WLAN applications (IEEE 802.11 a). The proposed metasurface lens is built with a geometrically modified unit cells which lead to a change in the response of the lens at different position and allow the control of the wavefront beam of the incident wave thanks to the gradient refractive index.

Keywords: focusing, gradient index, metasurface, metalens, WLAN Applications

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20 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard

Abstract:

To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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19 Influence of Different Sports on the Taste Perception and Acceptability of a Commercial Sports Drink among University Student-Athletes

Authors: Jana Daher, Ammar Olabi, Elie-Jacques Fares, Samer Kharrroubi, Tarek Gherbal

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It has been previously suggested that the perception and acceptability of fluids significantly varies between exercise and non-exercise situations. The study investigates the influence of different types of sports on the taste perception and acceptability of a commercial sports drink. A sample of Gatorade – red orange flavor was evaluated pre and post exercise by 34 male university athletes (20 weightlifters, 14 runners) recruited from the American University of Beirut. Urine samples were collected from the participants to test for hydration. Sensory testing examined the change in the intensity of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and the thirst-quenching ability of the drink as well as its acceptability with respect to the type of sport practiced. Results indicated that the acceptability of the drink increased as the hydration status of the athletes decreased (p<0.01). No significant change was found in the perception of the sensory attributes between exercise and non-exercise conditions. However, there were significant differences between the two sports groups in the ratings of the thirst-quenching ability of the drink where runners’ ratings increased after exercise while weightlifters’ ratings decreased after exercise (p<0.01). These findings suggest that exercise has a larger effect on the acceptability and overall liking of the beverage compared to other sensory attributes. An enhanced liking of the beverage is key for optimal replenishment of lost fluids and electrolytes after exercise.

Keywords: hedonic, liking, sweetness, thirst-quenching

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18 Physicochemical Characterization of Coastal Aerosols over the Mediterranean Comparison with Weather Research and Forecasting-Chem Simulations

Authors: Stephane Laussac, Jacques Piazzola, Gilles Tedeschi

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Estimation of the impact of atmospheric aerosols on the climate evolution is an important scientific challenge. One of a major source of particles is constituted by the oceans through the generation of sea-spray aerosols. In coastal areas, marine aerosols can affect air quality through their ability to interact chemically and physically with other aerosol species and gases. The integration of accurate sea-spray emission terms in modeling studies is then required. However, it was found that sea-spray concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations, more particularly at short fetch. In this study, the WRF-Chem model was implemented on a North-Western Mediterranean coastal region. WRF-Chem is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model online-coupled with chemistry for investigation of regional-scale air quality which simulates the emission, transport, mixing, and chemical transformation of trace gases and aerosols simultaneously with the meteorology. One of the objectives was to test the ability of the WRF-Chem model to represent the fine details of the coastal geography to provide accurate predictions of sea spray evolution for different fetches and the anthropogenic aerosols. To assess the performance of the model, a comparison between the model predictions using a local emission inventory and the physicochemical analysis of aerosol concentrations measured for different wind direction on the island of Porquerolles located 10 km south of the French Riviera is proposed.

Keywords: sea-spray aerosols, coastal areas, sea-spray concentrations, short fetch, WRF-Chem model

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17 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi

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For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

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16 Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets around the Global Financial Crisis: Trends and Explanatory Factors

Authors: Najlae Bendou, Jean-Jacques Lilti, Khalid Elbadraoui

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In this paper, we examine stock market integration of emerging markets around the global financial turmoil of 2007-2008. Following Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009), we measure the integration of 46 emerging countries using the adjusted R-square from the regression of each country's daily index returns on global factors extracted from the covariance matrix computed using dollar-denominated daily index returns of 17 developed countries. Our sample surrounds the global financial crisis and ranges between 2000 and 2018. We analyze results using four cohorts of emerging countries: East Asia & Pacific and South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & Africa. We find that the level of integration of emerging countries increases at the commencement of the crisis and during the booming phase of the business cycles. It reaches a maximum point in the middle of the crisis and then tends to revert to its pre-crisis level. This pattern tends to be common among the four geographic zones investigated in this study. Finally, we investigate the determinants of stock market integration of emerging countries in our sample using panel regressions. Our results suggest that the degree of stock market integration of these countries should be put into perspective by some macro-economic factors, such as the size of the equity market, school enrollment rate, international liquidity level, stocks traded volume, tax revenue level, imports and exports volumes.

Keywords: correlations, determinants of integration, diversification, emerging markets, financial crisis, integration, markets co-movement, panel regressions, r-square, stock markets

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15 Metamaterial Lenses for Microwave Cancer Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubani, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David

Abstract:

Nowadays, microwave hyperthermia is considered as an effective treatment for the malignant tumors. This microwave treatment which comes to substitute the chemotherapy and the surgical intervention enables an in-depth tumor heating without causing any diseases to the sane tissue. This technique requires a high precision system, in order to effectively concentrate the heating just in the tumor, without heating any surrounding healthy tissue. In the hyperthermia treatment, the temperature in cancerous area is typically raised up to over 42◦C and maintained for one hour in order to destroy the tumor sufficiently, whilst in the surrounding healthy tissues, the temperature is maintained below 42◦C to avoid any damage. Metamaterial lenses are widely used in medical applications like microwave hyperthermia treatment. They enabled a subdiffraction resolution thanks to the amplification of the evanescent waves and they can focus electromagnetic waves from a point source to a point image. Metasurfaces have been used to built metamaterial lenses. The main mechanical advantages of those structures over three dimensional material structures are ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Here in this work, we proposed a metasurface based lens operating at the frequency of 6 GHz and designed for microwave hyperthermia. This lens was applied and showed good results in focusing and heating the tumor inside a breast tissue with an increased and maintained temperature above 42°C. The tumor was placed in the focal distance of the lens so that only the tumor tissue will be heated. Finally, in this work, it has been shown that the hyperthermia area within the tissue can be carefully adjusted by moving the antennas or by changing the thickness of the metamaterial lenses based on the tumor position. Even though the simulations performed in this work have taken into account an ideal case, some real characteristics can be considered to improve the obtained results in a realistic model.

Keywords: focusing, hyperthermia, metamaterial lenses, metasurface, microwave treatment

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14 Maximum Power and Bone Variables in Young Adult Men

Authors: Anthony Khawaja, Jacques Prioux, Ghassan Maalouf, Rawad El Hage

Abstract:

The regular practice of physical activities characterized by significant mechanical stresses stimulates bone formation and improves bone mineral density (BMD) in the most solicited sites. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between maximum power and bone variables in a group of young adult men. Identification of new determinants of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and hip geometric indices in young adult men, would allow screening and early management of future cases of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Fifty-three young adult men (18 – 35yr) voluntarily participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Body composition, BMC and BMD were determined for each individual by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) at whole body (WB), lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN). FN cross-sectional area (CSA), strength index (SI), buckling ratio (BR), FN section modulus (Z), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and L1-L4 TBS were also evaluated by DXA. The vertical jump was evaluated using a field test (sargent test). Two main parameters were retained: vertical jump performance (cm) and power (w). The subjects performed three jumps with 2 minutes of recovery between jumps. The highest vertical jump was selected. Maximum power (P max, in watts) was calculated. Maximum power was positively correlated to WB BMD (r = 0.41; p < 0.01), WB BMC (r = 0.65; p < 0.001), L1-L4 BMC (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), FN BMC (r = 0.35; p < 0.01), TH BMC (r = 0.50; p < 0.001), CSMI (r = 0.50; p < 0.001), CSA (r = 0.33; p < 0.05). Vertical jump was positively correlated to WB BMC (r = 0.31; p < 0.05), L1-L4 BMC (r = 0.40; p < 0.01), CSMI (r = 0.29; p < 0.05). The current study suggests that maximum power is a positive determinant of BMD, BMC and hip geometric indices in young adult men. In addition, it shows also that maximum power is a stronger positive determinant of bone variables than vertical jump in this population. Implementing strategies to increase maximum power in young adult men may be useful for preventing osteoporotic fractures later in life.

Keywords: bone variables, maximum power, osteopenia, osteoporosis, vertical jump, young adult men

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13 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of Transient Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column Using a Coupled Discrete Phase Model (DPM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model

Authors: Sonia Besbes, Mahmoud El Hajem, Habib Ben Aissia, Jean Yves Champagne, Jacques Jay

Abstract:

In this work, we present a computational study for the characterization of the flow in a rectangular bubble column. To simulate the dynamic characteristics of the flow, a three-dimensional transient numerical simulations based on a coupled discrete phase model (DPM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) model are performed. Modeling of bubble column reactor is often carried out under the assumption of a flat liquid surface with a degassing boundary condition. However, the dynamic behavior of the top surface surmounting the liquid phase will to some extent influence the meandering oscillations of the bubble plume. Therefore it is important to capture the surface behavior, and the assumption of a flat surface may not be applicable. So, the modeling approach needs to account for a dynamic liquid surface induced by the rising bubble plume. The volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied for the liquid and top gas which both interacts with bubbles implemented with a discrete phase model. This model treats the bubbles as Lagrangian particles and the liquid and the top gas as Eulerian phases with a sharp interface. Two-way coupling between Eulerian phases and Lagrangian bubbles are accounted for in a single set continuous phase momentum equation for the mixture of the two Eulerian phases. The effect of gas flow rate on the dynamic and time-averaged flow properties was studied. The time averaged liquid velocity field predicted from simulations and from our previous PIV measurements shows that the liquid is entrained up flow in the wake of the bubbles and down flow near the walls. The simulated and measured vertical velocity profiles exhibit a reasonable agreement looking at the minimum velocity values near the walls and the maximum values at the column center.

Keywords: bubble column, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), coupled DPM and VOF model, hydrodynamics

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12 Laboratory Analysis of Stormwater Runoff Hydraulic and Pollutant Removal Performance of Pervious Concrete Based on Seashell By-Products

Authors: Jean-Jacques Randrianarimanana, Nassim Sebaibi, Mohamed Boutouil

Abstract:

In order to solve problems associated with stormwater runoff in urban areas and their effects on natural and artificial water bodies, the integration of new technical solutions to the rainwater drainage becomes even more essential. Permeable pavement systems are one of the most widely used techniques. This paper presents a laboratory analysis of stormwater runoff hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of permeable pavement system using pervious pavements based on seashell products. The laboratory prototype is a square column of 25 cm of side and consists of the surface in pervious concrete, a bedding of 3 cm in height, a geotextile and a subbase layer of 50 cm in height. A series of constant simulated rain events using semi-synthetic runoff which varied in intensity and duration were carried out. The initial vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the entire pervious pavement system was 0.25 cm/s (148 L/m2/min). The hydraulic functioning was influenced by both the inlet flow rate value and the test duration. The total water losses including evaporation ranged between 9% to 20% for all hydraulic experiments. The temporal and vertical variability of the pollutant removal efficiency (PRE) of the system were studied for total suspended solids (TSS). The results showed that the PRE along the vertical profile was influenced by the size of the suspended solids, and the pervious paver has the highest capacity to trap pollutant than the other porous layers of the permeable pavement system after the geotextile. The TSS removal efficiency was about 80% for the entire system. The first-flush effect of TSS was observed, but it appeared only at the beginning (2 to 6 min) of the experiments. It has been shown that the PPS can capture first-flush. The project in which this study is integrated aims to contribute to both the valorization of shellfish waste and the sustainable management of rainwater.

Keywords: hydraulic, pervious concrete, pollutant removal efficiency, seashell by-products, stormwater runoff

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11 Towards a Deconstructive Text: Beyond Language and the Politics of Absences in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot

Authors: Afia Shahid

Abstract:

The writing of Samuel Beckett is associated with meaning in the meaninglessness and the production of what he calls ‘literature of unword’. The casual escape from the world of words in the form of silences and pauses, in his play Waiting for Godot, urges to ask question of their existence and ultimately leads to investigate the theory behind their use in the play. This paper proposes that these absences (silence and pause) in Beckett’s play force to think ‘beyond’ language. This paper asks how silence and pause in Beckett’s text speak for the emergence of poststructuralist text. It aims to identify the significant features of the philosophy of deconstruction in the play of Beckett to demystify the hostile complicity between literature and philosophy. With the interpretive paradigm of poststructuralism this research focuses on the text as a research data. It attempts to delineate the relationship between poststructuralist theoretical concerns and text of Beckett. Keeping in view the theoretical concerns of Poststructuralist theorist Jacques Derrida, the main concern of the discussion is directed towards the notion of ‘beyond’ language into the absences that are aimed at silencing the existing discourse with the ‘radical irony’ of this anti-formal art that contains its own denial and thus represents the idea of ceaseless questioning and radical contradiction in art and any text. This article asks how text of Beckett vibrates with loud silence and has disrupted language to demonstrate the emptiness of words and thus exploring the limitless void of absences. Beckett’s text resonates with silence and pause that is neither negation nor affirmation rather a poststructuralist’s suspension of reality that is ever changing with the undecidablity of all meanings. Within the theoretical notion of Derrida’s Différance this study interprets silence and pause in Beckett’s art. The silence and pause behave like Derrida’s Différance and have questioned their own existence in the text to deconstruct any definiteness and finality of reality to extend an undecidable threshold of poststructuralists that aims to evade the ‘labyrinth of language’.

Keywords: Différance, language, pause, poststructuralism, silence, text

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