Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: hyperthermia

47 Generation of Numerical Data for the Facilitation of the Personalized Hyperthermic Treatment of Cancer with An Interstital Antenna Array Using the Method of Symmetrical Components

Authors: Prodromos E. Atlamazoglou


The method of moments combined with the method of symmetrical components is used for the analysis of interstitial hyperthermia applicators. The basis and testing functions are both piecewise sinusoids, qualifying our technique as a Galerkin one. The dielectric coatings are modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents, which are simply related to the conduction current distribution, avoiding in that way the introduction of additional unknowns or numerical integrations. The results of our method for a four dipole circular array, are in agreement with those already published in literature for a same hyperthermia configuration. Apart from being accurate, our approach is more general, more computationally efficient and takes into account the coupling between the antennas.

Keywords: hyperthermia, integral equations, insulated antennas, method of symmetrical components

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
46 Light-Emitting Diode Assisted Synthesis of [email protected] Nanoparticles and Their Application in Magnetic and Photothermal Hyperthermia Therapy

Authors: Pei-Wen Lin, Ta-I Yang


Cancer has been one of the leading causes of human death for centuries. Considerable effort has been devoted to developing new treatments to reduce and control cancers. Magnetic particle hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy are the promising strategies to treat cancers due to its effectiveness with only mild side effects. This study focused on synthesizing magnetic [email protected] nanoparticles applicable for both of magnetic hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy. The hydrophilic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) polymer was utilized to prepare superparamagnetic Fe3O4 clusters and to promote silver nanoparticles grown on Fe3O4 surfaces, obtaining [email protected] nanoparticles. The morphology (shape and dimension) of Ag nanoparticles was subsequently tailored using commercial LED lights. Therefore, the resulting [email protected] nanoparticles can absorb specific wavelength of light ranging from 400 nm to 800 nm by adjusting the wavelength of LED lights and the free silver ions in reaction solution. Heating performance tests confirmed that the synthesized [email protected] nanoparticles show appreciable heating capability for both of magnetic particle hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy. The findings in this study could provide new ideas to design functional materials to treat cancers.

Keywords: light-emitting diode assisted synthesis, magnetic particles, photothermal materials, hyperthermia

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45 Evaluation of the Heating Capability and in vitro Hemolysis of Nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández, Javier Sánchez


Among the different cancer treatments that are currently used, hyperthermia has a promising potential due to the multiple benefits that are obtained by this technique. In general terms, hyperthermia is a method that takes advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to heat, in order to damage or destroy them. Within the different ways of supplying heat to cancer cells and achieve their destruction or damage, the use of magnetic nanoparticles has attracted attention due to the capability of these particles to generate heat under the influence of an external magnetic field. In addition, these nanoparticles have a high surface area and sizes similar or even lower than biological entities, which allow their approaching and interaction with a specific region of interest. The most used magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment are those based on iron oxides, mainly magnetite and maghemite, due to their biocompatibility, good magnetic properties and chemical stability. However, in order to fulfill more efficiently the requirements that demand the treatment of magnetic hyperthermia, there have been investigations using ferrites that incorporate different metallic ions, such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ca, Ni, Cu, Li, Gd, etc., in their structure. This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) ferrites by sol-gel method and their evaluation in terms of heating capability and in vitro hemolysis to determine the potential use of these nanoparticles as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia. It was possible to obtain ferrites with nanometric sizes, a single crystalline phase with an inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Additionally, at concentrations of 10 mg of magnetic material per mL of water, it was possible to reach a temperature of approximately 45°C, which is within the range of temperatures used for the treatment of hyperthermia. The results of the in vitro hemolysis assay showed that, at the concentrations tested, these nanoparticles are non-hemolytic, as their percentage of hemolysis is close to zero. Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.

Keywords: ferrites, heating capability, hemolysis, nanoparticles, sol-gel

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44 Metamaterial Lenses for Microwave Cancer Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubani, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


Nowadays, microwave hyperthermia is considered as an effective treatment for the malignant tumors. This microwave treatment which comes to substitute the chemotherapy and the surgical intervention enables an in-depth tumor heating without causing any diseases to the sane tissue. This technique requires a high precision system, in order to effectively concentrate the heating just in the tumor, without heating any surrounding healthy tissue. In the hyperthermia treatment, the temperature in cancerous area is typically raised up to over 42◦C and maintained for one hour in order to destroy the tumor sufficiently, whilst in the surrounding healthy tissues, the temperature is maintained below 42◦C to avoid any damage. Metamaterial lenses are widely used in medical applications like microwave hyperthermia treatment. They enabled a subdiffraction resolution thanks to the amplification of the evanescent waves and they can focus electromagnetic waves from a point source to a point image. Metasurfaces have been used to built metamaterial lenses. The main mechanical advantages of those structures over three dimensional material structures are ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Here in this work, we proposed a metasurface based lens operating at the frequency of 6 GHz and designed for microwave hyperthermia. This lens was applied and showed good results in focusing and heating the tumor inside a breast tissue with an increased and maintained temperature above 42°C. The tumor was placed in the focal distance of the lens so that only the tumor tissue will be heated. Finally, in this work, it has been shown that the hyperthermia area within the tissue can be carefully adjusted by moving the antennas or by changing the thickness of the metamaterial lenses based on the tumor position. Even though the simulations performed in this work have taken into account an ideal case, some real characteristics can be considered to improve the obtained results in a realistic model.

Keywords: focusing, hyperthermia, metamaterial lenses, metasurface, microwave treatment

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43 Enhanced Magnetic Hyperthermic Efficiency of Ferrite Based Nanoparticles

Authors: J. P. Borah, R. D. Raland


Hyperthermia is one of many techniques used destroys cancerous cell. It uses the physical methods to heat certain organ or tissue delivering an adequate temperature in an appropriate period of time, to the entire tumor volume for achieving optimal therapeutic results. Magnetic Metal ferrites nanoparticles (MFe₂O₄ where M = Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Mg, etc.) are one of the most potential candidates for hyperthermia due to their tunability, biocompatibility, chemical stability and notable ability to mediate high rate of heat induction. However, to obtain the desirable properties for these applications, it is important to optimize their chemical composition, structure and magnetic properties. These properties are mainly sensitive to cation distribution of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Among the ferrites, zinc ferrite (ZnFe₂O₄) and Manganese ferrite ((MnFe₂O₄) is one of a strong candidate for hyperthermia application because Mn and zinc have a non-magnetic cation and therefore the magnetic property is determined only by the cation distribution of iron, which provides a better platform to manipulate or tailor the properties. In this talk, influence of doping and surfactant towards cation re-distribution leading to an enhancement of magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles will be demonstrated. The efficiency of heat generation in association with the enhanced magnetic property is also well discussed in this talk.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticle, hyperthermia, x-ray diffraction, TEM study

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42 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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41 Coarse-Graining in Micromagnetic Simulations of Magnetic Hyperthermia

Authors: Razyeh Behbahani, Martin L. Plumer, Ivan Saika-Voivod


Micromagnetic simulations based on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation are used to calculate dynamic magnetic hysteresis loops relevant to magnetic hyperthermia applications. With the goal to effectively simulate room-temperature loops for large iron-oxide based systems at relatively slow sweep rates on the order of 1 Oe/ns or less, a coarse-graining scheme is proposed and tested. The scheme is derived from a previously developed renormalization-group approach. Loops associated with nanorods, used as building blocks for larger nanoparticles that were employed in preclinical trials (Dennis et al., 2009 Nanotechnology 20 395103), serve as the model test system. The scaling algorithm is shown to produce nearly identical loops over several decades in the model grain sizes. Sweep-rate scaling involving the damping constant alpha is also demonstrated.

Keywords: coarse-graining, hyperthermia, hysteresis loops, micromagnetic simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
40 Synthesis of PVA/γ-Fe2O3 Used in Cancer Treatment by Hyperthermia

Authors: Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Shokooh Moghadam, Javad Tavakoli


In recent years a new method of combination treatment for cancer has been developed and studied that has led to significant advancements in the field of cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is a traditional therapy that, along with a creation of a medically approved level of heat with the help of an alternating magnetic AC current, results in the destruction of cancer cells by heat. This paper gives details regarding the production of the spherical nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in order to be used for medical purposes such as tumor treatment by hyperthermia. To reach a suitable and evenly distributed temperature, the nanocomposite with core-shell morphology and spherical form within a 100 to 200 nanometer size was created using phase separation emulsion, in which the magnetic nano-particles γ-Fe2O3 with an average particle size of 20 nano-meters and with different percentages of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 were covered by polyvinyl alcohol. The main concern in hyperthermia and heat treatment is achieving desirable specific absorption rate (SAR) and one of the most critical factors in SAR is particle size. In this project all attempts has been done to reach minimal size and consequently maximum SAR. The morphological analysis of the spherical structure of the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 was achieved by SEM analyses and the study of the chemical bonds created was made possible by FTIR analysis. To investigate the manner of magnetic nanocomposite particle size distribution a DLS experiment was conducted. Moreover, to determine the magnetic behavior of the γ-Fe2O3 particle and the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in different concentrations a VSM test was conducted. To sum up, creating magnetic nanocomposites with a spherical morphology that would be employed for drug loading opens doors to new approaches in developing nanocomposites that provide efficient heat and a controlled release of drug simultaneously inside the magnetic field, which are among their positive characteristics that could significantly improve the recovery process in patients.

Keywords: nanocomposite, hyperthermia, cancer therapy, drug releasing

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39 Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Xiao-Li Liu, Ling-Yun Zhao, Xing-Jie Liang, Hai-Ming Fan


Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (<5%). The 19 nm magnetic nanoparticles with 2000 Da PEG exhibited the highest SAR of 930 W•g-1 among the samples, which can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. This systematic work provides a general strategy for the optimization of surface coating of magnetic core for high performance MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia agent.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging, surface modification

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38 Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

Authors: M. R. Phadatare, J. V. Meshram, S. H. Pawar


Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia, drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this paper, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs. To increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs, one can take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the NP and maximize the specific absorption rate, which is the gauge of conversion efficiency. In order to examine the tunability of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetic heating power, a representative magnetically hard material (CoFe₂O₄) has been coupled to a soft material (Ni₀.₅Zn₀.₅Fe₂O₄). The synthesized NPs show specific absorption rates that are of an order of magnitude larger than the conventional one.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, surface functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic fluid hyperthermia, specific absorption rate

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37 Ferro-Substituted Silicate Calcium Materials, a Novel Bio-Ceramic Using Hyperthermia for Bone Cancer Therapy

Authors: Hassan Gheisari


Ferro silicate calcium nano particles are prepared through the sol-gel method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a chelating agent. The powder as prepared is annealed at three different temperatures (900 ºC, 1000 ºC and 1100 ºC) for 3 h. The XRD patterns of the samples indicate broad peaks and the full width at half maximum decreased with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectra of the samples confirm the presence of metal - oxygen complexes within the structure. The average particle size obtained from PSA curve demonstrates ultrafine particles. SEM micrographs indicate the particles synthesized have spherical morphology. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of the samples show dependence on particle size and crystallinity of the samples. The highest saturation magnetization is achieved for the sample annealed at 1100 ºC having maximum average particle size. The high saturation magnetization of the samples suggests the present method is suitable for obtaining nano particles magnetic ferro bioceramic which is desirable for practical applications such as hyperthermia bone cancer therapy.

Keywords: hyperthermia, bone cancer, bio ceramic, magnetic materials, sol– gel, silicate calcium

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36 Surfactant Free Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: M. Sneha, N. Meenakshi Sundaram


In recent times, magnetic hyperthermia is used for cancer treatment as a tool for active targeting of delivering drugs to the targeted site. It has a potential advantage over other heat treatment because there is no systemic buildup in organs and large doses are possible. The aim of this study is to develop a suitable magnetic biomaterial that can destroy the cancer cells as well as induce bone regeneration. In this work, the composite material was synthesized in two-steps. First, porous iron oxide nano needles were synthesized by hydrothermal process. Second, the hydroxyapatite, were synthesized from natural calcium (i.e., egg shell) and inorganic phosphorous source using wet chemical method. The crystalline nature is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Thermal analysis and the surface area of the material is studied by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett and Teller (BET) technique. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the particles have nanoneedle-like morphology. The magnetic property is studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique which confirms the superparamagnetic behavior. This paper presents a simple and easy method for synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites materials.

Keywords: iron oxide nano needles, hydroxyapatite, superparamagnetic, hyperthermia

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35 Radio Frequency Heating of Iron-Filled Carbon Nanotubes for Cancer Treatment

Authors: L. Szymanski, S. Wiak, Z. Kolacinski, G. Raniszewski, L. Pietrzak, Z. Staniszewska


There exist more than one hundred different types of cancer, and therefore no particular treatment is offered to people struggling with this disease. The character of treatment proposed to a patient will depend on a variety of factors such as type of the cancer diagnosed, advancement of the disease, its location in the body, as well as personal preferences of a patient. None of the commonly known methods of cancer-fighting is recognised as a perfect cure, however great advances in this field have been made over last few decades. Once a patient is diagnosed with cancer, he is in need of medical care and professional treatment for upcoming months, and in most cases even for years. Among the principal modes of treatment offered by medical centres, one can find radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. All of them can be applied separately or in combination, and the relative contribution of each is usually determined by medical specialist in agreement with a patient. In addition to the conventional treatment option, every day more complementary and alternative therapies are integrated into mainstream care. There is one promising cancer modality - hyperthermia therapy which is based on exposing body tissues to high temperatures. This treatment is still being investigated and is not widely available in hospitals and oncological centres. There are two kinds of hyperthermia therapies with direct and indirect heating. The first is not commonly used due to low efficiency and invasiveness, while the second is deeply investigated and a variety of methods have been developed, including ultrasounds, infrared sauna, induction heating and magnetic hyperthermia. The aim of this work was to examine possibilities of heating magnetic nanoparticles under the influence of electromagnetic field for cancer treatment. For this purpose, multiwalled carbon nanotubes used as nanocarriers for iron particles were investigated for its heating properties. The samples were subjected to an alternating electromagnetic field with frequency range between 110-619 kHz. Moreover, samples with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes were examined. The lowest frequency of 110 kHz and sample containing 10 wt% of carbon nanotubes occurred to influence the most effective heating process. Description of hyperthermia therapy aiming at enhancing currently available cancer treatment was also presented in this paper. Most widely applied conventional cancer modalities such as radiation or chemotherapy were also described. Methods for overcoming the most common obstacles in conventional cancer modalities, such as invasiveness and lack of selectivity, has been presented in magnetic hyperthermia characteristics, which explained the increasing interest of the treatment.

Keywords: hyperthermia, carbon nanotubes, cancer colon cells, ligands

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34 Multicellular Cancer Spheroids as an in Vitro Model for Localized Hyperthermia Study

Authors: Kamila Dus-Szachniewicz, Artur Bednarkiewicz, Katarzyna Gdesz-Birula, Slawomir Drobczynski


In modern oncology hyperthermia (HT) is defined as a controlled tumor heating. HT treatment temperatures range between 40–48 °C and can selectively damage heat-sensitive cancer cells or limit their further growth, usually with minimal injury to healthy tissues. Despite many advantages, conventional whole-body and regional hyperthermia have clinically relevant side effects, including cardiac and vascular disorders. Additionally, the lack of accessibility of deep-seated tumor sites and impaired targeting micrometastases renders HT less effective. It is believed that above disadvantages can significantly overcome by the application of biofunctionalized microparticles, which can specifically target tumor sites and become activated by an external stimulus to provide a sufficient cellular response. In our research, the unique optical tweezers system have enabled capturing the silica microparticles, primary cells and tumor spheroids in highly controllable and reproducible environment to study the impact of localized heat stimulation on normal and pathological cell and within multicellular tumor spheroid. High throughput spheroid model was introduced to better mimic the response to HT treatment on tumors in vivo. Additionally, application of local heating of tumor spheroids was performed in strictly controlled conditions resembling tumor microenvironment (temperature, pH, hypoxia, etc.), in response to localized and nonhomogeneous hyperthermia in the extracellular matrix, which promotes tumor progression and metastatic spread. The lack of precise control over these well- defined parameters in basic research leads to discrepancies in the response of tumor cells to the new treatment strategy in preclinical animal testing. The developed approach enables also sorting out subclasses of cells, which exhibit partial or total resistance to therapy, in order to understand fundamental aspects of the resistance shown by given tumor cells in response to given therapy mode and conditions. This work was funded by the National Science Centre (NCN, Poland) under grant no. UMO-2017/27/B/ST7/01255.

Keywords: cancer spheroids, hyperthermia, microparticles, optical tweezers

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33 Lipid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Frequency Triggered Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen


Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) have become increasingly important materials for separation of specific bio-molecules, drug delivery vehicle, contrast agent for MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is emerging as an alternative cancer treatment to the conventional radio- and chemo-therapy, which have harmful side effects. When subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the magnetic energy of SPIONs is converted into thermal energy due to movement of particles. The ability of SPIONs to generate heat and potentially kill cancerous cells, which are more susceptible than the normal cells to temperatures higher than 41 °C forms the basis of hyerpthermia treatement. The amount of heat generated depends upon the magnetic properties of SPIONs which in turn is affected by their properties such as size and shape. One of the main problems associated with SPIONs is particle aggregation which limits their employability in in vivo drug delivery applications and hyperthermia cancer treatments. Coating the iron oxide core with thermally responsive lipid based nanostructures tend to overcome the issue of aggregation as well as improve biocompatibility and can enhance drug loading efficiency. Herein we report suitability of SPIONs and silica coated core-shell SPIONs, which are further, coated with various lipids for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia applications. The synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out using the established methods reported in the literature with some modifications. The nanoparticles are characterised using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under alternating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of alternating magnetic field. The results suggest that the nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the alternating magnetic field. Thus, the results demonstrate that lipid coated SPIONs exhibit potential as drug delivery vehicles for magnetic hyperthermia based cancer therapy.

Keywords: drug delivery, hyperthermia, lipids, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS)

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32 The Impact of P108L Genetic Variant on Calcium Release and Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility

Authors: Mohammed Althobiti, Patrick Booms, Dorota Fiszer, Philip Hopkins


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle. MH results from anaesthetics induced breakdown of calcium homeostasis. RYR1 and CACN1AS mutations represent the aetiology in ~70% of the MH population. Previous studies indicate that up to 25% of MH patients carry no variants in these genes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between MH susceptibility and genes encoding skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels as well as accessory proteins. The JSRP, encoding JP-45, was previously sequenced and novel genetic variants were identified. The variant p.P108L (c.323C > T) was identified in exon 4 and encodes a change from a proline at amino acid 108 to leucine residue. The variant P108L was detected in two patients out of 50 with 4% frequency in the sample population. The alignment of DNA sequences in different species indicates highly conserved proline sequences involved in the substitution of the P108L variant. In this study, the variant P108L co-segregates with the SNP p.V92A (c.275T > C) at the same exon, both variants being inherited in the same two patients only. This indicates that the two variants may represent a haplotype. Therefore, a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and statistical analysis will be used to investigate the effects of haplotypes on MH susceptibility. Furthermore, investigating the effect of the P108L variant in combination with RYR1 mutations or other genetic variants in other genes as a combination of two or more genetic variants, haplotypes may then provide stronger genetic evidence indicating that JSRP1 is associated with MH susceptibility. In conclusion, these preliminary results lend a potential modifier role of the variant P108L in JSRP1 in MH susceptibility and further investigations are suggested to confirm these results.

Keywords: JSRP1, malignant hyperthermia, RyR1, skeletal muscle

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31 Remote Controlled of In-Situ Forming Thermo-sensitive Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Hyperthermia Therapy Application: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Elbadawy A. Kamoun


Magnetically responsive hydrogel nanocomposite (NCH) based on composites of superparamagnetic of Fe3O4 nano-particles and temperature responsive hydrogel matrices were developed. The nanocomposite hydrogel system based on the temperature sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol)-400 dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA) incorporating with chitosan derivative, was synthesized and characterized. Likewise, the NCH system was synthesized by visible-light free radical photopolymerization, using carboxylated camphorquinone-amine system to avoid the common risks of the use of UV-light especially in hyperthermia treatment. Superparamagnetic of iron oxide nanoparticles were introduced into the hydrogel system by polymerizing mixture technique and monomer solution. FT-IR with Raman spectroscopy and Wide angle-XRD analysis were utilized to verify the chemical structure of NCH and exfoliation reaction for nanoparticles, respectively. Additionally, morphological structure of NCH was investigated using SEM and TEM photographs. The swelling responsive of the current nanocomposite hydrogel system with different crosslinking conditions, temperature, magnetic field efficiency, and the presence effect of magnetic nanoparticles were evaluated. Notably, hydrolytic degradation of this system was proved in vitro application. While, in-vivo release profile behavior is under investigation nowadays. Moreover, the compatibility and cytotoxicity tests were previously investigated in our studies for photoinitiating system. These systems show promised polymeric material candidate devices and are expected to have a wide applicability in various biomedical applications as mildly.

Keywords: hydrogel nanocomposites, tempretaure-responsive hydrogel, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia therapy

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30 Magnetic Properties and Cytotoxicity of Ga-Mn Magnetic Ferrites Synthesized by the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Javier Sánchez, Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández


Magnetic spinel ferrites are materials that possess size, magnetic properties and heating ability adequate for their potential use in biomedical applications. The Mn0.5Ga0.5Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as chelating agent of metallic precursors. The synthesized samples were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) as an inverse spinel structure with no secondary phases. Saturation magnetization (Ms) of crystalline powders was 45.9 emu/g, which was higher than those corresponding to GaFe2O4 (14.2 emu/g) and MnFe2O4 (40.2 emu/g) synthesized under similar conditions, while the coercivity field (Hc) was 27.9 Oe. The average particle size was 18 ± 7 nm. The heating ability of the MNPs was enough to increase the surrounding temperature up to 43.5 °C in 7 min when a quantity of 4.5 mg of MNPs per mL of liquid medium was tested. Cytotoxic effect (hemolysis assay) of MNPs was determined and the results showed hemolytic values below 1% in all tested cases. According to the results obtained, these synthesized nanoparticles can be potentially used as thermoseeds for hyperthermia therapy.

Keywords: manganese-gallium ferrite, magnetic hyperthermia, heating ability, cytotoxicity

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29 Core-Shell Type Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen


Magnetic nanoparticles such as those made of iron oxide have been widely explored as biocatalysts, contrast agents, and drug delivery systems. However, some of the challenges associated with these particles are agglomeration and biocompatibility, which lead to concern of toxicity of the particles, especially for drug delivery applications. Coating the particles with biocompatible materials such as lipids and peptides have shown to improve the mentioned issues. Thus, these core-shell type nanoparticles are emerging as the new class of nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery applications. In this study, various types of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are prepared and characterized using techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under oscillating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of oscillating field. The results suggest that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although, coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the oscillating magnetic field. Thus, the results strongly indicate the suitability of the prepared core-shell type nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles and their potential in magnetic hyperthermia applications and for hyperthermia cancer therapy.

Keywords: core-shell, hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery

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28 Powder Assisted Sheet Forming to Fabricate Ti Capsule Magnetic Hyperthermia Implant

Authors: Keigo Nishitani, Kohei Mizuta Mizuta, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Yukinori Taniguchi


To establish mass production process of Ti capsule which has Fe powder inside as magnetic hyperthermia implant, we assumed that Ti thin sheet can be drawn into a φ1.0 mm die hole through the medium of Fe Powder and becomes outer shell of capsule. This study discusses mechanism of powder assisted deep drawing process by both of numerical simulation and experiment. Ti thin sheet blank was placed on die, and was covered by Fe powder layer without pressurizing. Then upper punch was indented on the Fe powder layer, and the blank can be drawn into die cavity as pressurized powder particles were extruded into die cavity from behind of the drawn blank. Distinct Element Method (DEM) has been used to demonstrate the process. To identify bonding parameters on Fe particles which are cohesion, tensile bond stress and inter particle friction angle, axial and diametrical compression failure test of Fe powder compact was conducted. Several density ratios of powder compacts in range of 0.70 - 0.85 were investigated and relationship between mean stress and equivalent stress was calculated with consideration of critical state line which rules failure criterion in consolidation of Fe powder. Since variation of bonding parameters with density ratio has been experimentally identified, and good agreement has been recognized between several failure tests and its simulation, demonstration of powder assisted sheet forming by using DEM becomes applicable. Results of simulation indicated that indent/drawing length of Ti thin sheet is promoted by smaller Fe particle size, larger indent punch diameter, lower friction coefficient between die surface and Ti sheet and certain degrees of die inlet taper angle. In the deep drawing test, we have made die-set with φ2.4 mm punch and φ1.0 mm die bore diameter. Pure Ti sheet with 100 μm thickness, annealed at 650 deg. C has been tested. After indentation, indented/drawn capsule has been observed by microscope, and its length was measured to discuss the feasibility of this capsulation process. Longer drawing length exists on progressive loading pass comparing with the case of single stroke loading. It is expected that progressive loading has an advantage of which extrusion of powder particle into die cavity with Ti sheet is promoted since powder particle layer can be rebuilt while the punch is withdrawn from the layer in each loading steps. This capsulation phenomenon is qualitatively demonstrated by DEM simulation. Finally, we have fabricated Ti capsule which has Fe powder inside for magnetic hyperthermia cancer care treatment. It is concluded that suggested method is possible to use the manufacturing of Ti capsule implant for magnetic hyperthermia cancer care.

Keywords: metal powder compaction, metal forming, distinct element method, cancer care, magnetic hyperthermia

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27 Analgesic and Antipyretic Activity of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. Extract

Authors: Nantawan Soonklang, Linda Chularojanamontri, Urarat Nanna


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. belongs to the family Acanthaceae commonly known as Rang jeud in Thailand. This plant is traditionally used in Thailand for centuries as an antidote for several poisons and drug overdose. Aim of the study: This research aimed to study the analgesic and antipyretic activities of T. laurifolia water extract by using animal models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was studied using 2 methods of pain induction including acetic acid and heat induced pain. And the antipyretic activity study was performed by yeast-induced hyperthermia. Results: The results showed that the administration of T. laurifolia extract possessed analgesic activity by reducing acetic acid-induced writhing response and heat-induced pain as well as showed antipyretic activity by decreasing body temperature of hyperthermic rats induced by brewer’s yeast. Conclusion: The study indicates that the T. laurifolia extract possesses analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals.

Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia extract, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity, hyperthermia

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26 Influence of Iron Content in Carbon Nanotubes on the Intensity of Hyperthermia in the Cancer Treatment

Authors: S. Wiak, L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, G. Raniszewski, L. Pietrzak, Z. Staniszewska


The term ‘cancer’ is given to a collection of related diseases that may affect any part of the human body. It is a pathological behaviour of cells with the potential to undergo abnormal breakdown in the processes that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and death of particular cells. Although cancer is commonly considered as modern disease, there are beliefs that drastically growing number of new cases can be linked to the extensively prolonged life expectancy and enhanced techniques for cancer diagnosis. Magnetic hyperthermia therapy is a novel approach to cancer treatment, which may greatly contribute to higher efficiency of the therapy. Employing carbon nanotubes as nanocarriers for magnetic particles, it is possible to decrease toxicity and invasiveness of the treatment by surface functionalisation. Despite appearing in recent years, magnetic particle hyperthermia has already become of the highest interest in the scientific and medical environment. The reason why hyperthermia therapy brings so much hope for future treatment of cancer lays in the effect that it produces in malignant cells. Subjecting them to thermal shock results in activation of numerous degradation processes inside and outside the cell. The heating process initiates mechanisms of DNA destruction, protein denaturation and induction of cell apoptosis, which may lead to tumour shrinkage, and in some cases, it may even cause complete disappearance of cancer. The factors which have the major impact on the final efficiency of the treatment include temperatures generated inside the tissues, time of exposure to the heating process, and the character of an individual cancer cell type. The vast majority of cancer cells is characterised by lower pH, persistent hypoxia and lack of nutrients, which can be associated to abnormal microvasculature. Since in healthy tissues we cannot observe presence of these conditions, they should not be seriously affected by elevation of the temperature. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of iron content in iron filled Carbon Nanotubes on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon- ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. The research work has been financed from the budget of science as a research project No. PBS2/A5/31/2013.

Keywords: hyperthermia, carbon nanotubes, cancer colon cells, radio frequency field

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25 Design of RF Generator and Its Testing in Heating of Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: D. Suman, M. Venkateshwara Rao


Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body, which is affecting millions of people leading to death. Even though there have been tremendous developments taken place over the last few decades the effective therapy for cancer is still not a reality. The existing techniques of cancer therapy are chemotherapy and radio therapy which are having their limitations in terms of the side effects, patient discomfort, radiation hazards and the localization of treatment. This paper describes a novel method for cancer therapy by using RF-hyperthermia application of nanoparticles. We have synthesized ferromagnetic nanoparticles and characterized by using XRD and TEM. These nanoparticles after the biocompatibility studies will be injected in to the body with a suitable tracer element having affinity to the specific tumor site. When RF energy is applied to the nanoparticles at the tumor site it produces heat of excess room temperature and nearly 41-45°C is sufficient to kill the tumor cells. We have designed a RF source generator provided with a temperature feedback controller to control the radiation induced temperature of the tumor site. The temperature control is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism of the thermocouple and a relay connected to the power source of the RF generator. This method has advantages in terms of its effect like localized therapy, less radiation, and no side effects. It has several challenges in designing the RF source provided with coils suitable for the tumour site, biocompatibility of the nanomaterials, cooling system design for the RF coil. If we can overcome these challenges this method will be a huge benefit for the society.

Keywords: hyperthermia, cancer therapy, RF source generator, nanoparticles

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24 Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow with Magnetic Nanoparticles as Carrier for Targeted Drug Delivery in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit


A study on targeted drug delivery is carried out in an unsteady flow of blood infused with magnetic NPs (nanoparticles) with an aim to understand the flow pattern and nanoparticle aggregation in a diseased arterial segment having stenosis. The magnetic NPs are supervised by the magnetic field which is significant for therapeutic treatment of arterial diseases, tumor and cancer cells and removing blood clots. Coupled thermal energy have also been analyzed by considering dissipation of energy because of the application of the magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. Simulation technique used to solve the mathematical model is vorticity-stream function formulations in the diseased artery. An elevation in SLP (Specific loss power) is noted in the aortic bloodstream when the agglomeration of nanoparticles is higher. This phenomenon has potential application in the treatment of hyperthermia. The study focuses on the lowering of WSS (Wall Shear Stress) with increasing particle concentration at the downstream of the stenosis which depicts the vigorous flow circulation zone. These low shear stress regions prolong the residing time of the nanoparticles carrying drugs which soaks up the LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) deposition. Moreover, an increase in NP concentration enhances the Nusselt number which marks the increase of heat transfer from the arterial wall to the surrounding tissues to destroy tumor and cancer cells without affecting the healthy cells. The results have a significant influence in the study of medicine, to treat arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis without the need for surgery which can minimize the expenditures on cardiovascular treatments.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, blood flow, atherosclerosis, hyperthermia

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23 Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluids for Hyperthermia

Authors: Z. Kolacinski, L. Szymanski. G. Raniszewski, D. Koza, L. Pietrzak


Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluid (BNF) can be composed of a buffer fluid such as plasma and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron, nickel, cobalt and their oxides. However iron is one of the best elements for magnetization by electromagnetic radiation. It can be used as a tool for medical diagnosis and treatment. Radio frequency (RF) radiation is able to heat iron nanoparticles due to magnetic hysteresis. Electromagnetic heating of iron nanoparticles and ferro-fluids BNF can be successfully used for non-invasive thermal ablation of cancer cells. Moreover iron atoms can be carried by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) if iron is used as catalyst for CNTs synthesis. Then CNTs became the iron containers and they screen the iron content against oxidation. We will present a method of CNTs addressing to the required cells. For thermal ablation of cancer cells we use radio frequencies for which the interaction with human body should be limited to minimum. Generally, the application of RF energy fields for medical treatment is justified by deep tissue penetration. The highly iron doped CNTs as the carriers creating magnetic fluid will be presented. An excessive catalyst injection method using electrical furnace and microwave plasma reactor will be presented. This way it is possible to grow the Fe filled CNTs on a moving surface in continuous synthesis process. This also allows producing uniform carpet of the Fe filled CNTs carriers. For the experimental work targeted to cell ablation we used RF generator to measure the increase in temperature for some samples like: solution of Fe2O3 in BNF which can be plasma-like buffer, solutions of pure iron of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture, solutions of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture. Then the targeted therapies which can be effective if the carriers are able to distinguish the difference between cancerous and healthy cell’s physiology are considered. We have developed an approach based on ligand-receptor or antibody-antigen interactions for the case of colon cancer.

Keywords: cancer treatment, carbon nano tubes, drag delivery, hyperthermia, iron

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22 The Development of an Anaesthetic Crisis Manual for Acute Critical Events: A Pilot Study

Authors: Jacklyn Yek, Clara Tong, Shin Yuet Chong, Yee Yian Ong


Background: While emergency manuals and cognitive aids (CA) have been used in high-hazard industries for decades, this has been a nascent field in healthcare. CAs can potentially offset the large cognitive load involved in crisis resource management and possibly facilitate the efficient performance of key steps in treatment. A crisis manual was developed based on local guidelines and the latest evidence-based information and introduced to a tertiary hospital setting in Singapore. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the crisis manual in guiding response and management of critical events. Methods: 7 surgical teams were recruited to participate in a series of simulated emergencies in high-fidelity operating room simulator over the period of April to June 2018. All teams consisted of a surgical consultant and medical officer/registrar, anesthesia consultant and medical officer/registrar; as well as a circulating, scrub and anesthetic nurse. Each team performed a simulated operation in which 1 or more of the crisis events occurred. The teams were randomly assigned to a scenario of the crisis manual and all teams were deemed to be equal in experience and knowledge. Before the simulation, teams were instructed on proper checklist use but the use of the checklist was optional. Results: 7 simulation sessions were performed, consisting of the following scenarios: Airway fire, Massive Transfusion Protocol, Malignant Hyperthermia, Eclampsia, and Difficult Airway. Out of the 7 surgical teams, 2 teams made use of the crisis manual – of which both teams had encountered a ‘Malignant Hyperthermia’ scenario. These team members reflected that the crisis manual assisted allowed them to work in a team, especially being able to involve the surgical doctors who were unfamiliar with the condition and management. A run chart plotted showed a possible upward trend, suggesting that with increasing awareness and training, staff would become more likely to initiate the use of the crisis manual. Conclusion: Despite the high volume load in this tertiary hospital, certain crises remain rare and clinicians are often caught unprepared. A crisis manual is an effective tool and easy-to-use repository that can improve patient outcome and encourage teamwork. With training, familiarity would allow clinicians to be increasingly comfortable with reaching out for the crisis manual. More simulation training would need to be conducted to determine its effectiveness.

Keywords: crisis resource management, high fidelity simulation training, medical errors, visual aids

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21 Application of Nanoparticles in Biomedical and MRI

Authors: Raziyeh Mohammadi


At present, nanoparticles are used for various biomedical applications where they facilitate laboratory diagnostics and therapeutics. The performance of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is often assessed by their narrow size distribution, suitable magnetic saturation, and low toxicity effects. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have received great attention due to their applications as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. (Processes in the tissue where the blood brain barrier is intact in this way shielded from the contact to this conventional contrast agent and will only reveal changes in the tissue if it involves an alteration in the vasculature. This technique is very useful for detecting tumors and can even be used for detecting metabolic functional alterations in the brain, such as epileptic activity.SPIONs have found application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia. Unlike bulk iron, SPIONs do not have remnant magnetization in the absence of the external magnetic field; therefore, a precise remote control over their action is possible.

Keywords: nanoparticles, MRI, biomedical, iron oxide, spions

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20 Antibody-Conjugated Nontoxic Arginine-Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Circulating Tumor Cells Separation

Authors: F. Kashanian, M. M. Masoudi, A. Akbari, A. Shamloo, M. R. Zand, S. S. Salehi


Nano-sized materials present new opportunities in biology and medicine and they are used as biomedical tools for investigation, separation of molecules and cells. To achieve more effective cancer therapy, it is essential to select cancer cells exactly. This research suggests that using the antibody-functionalized nontoxic Arginine-doped magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs), has been prosperous in detection, capture, and magnetic separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in tumor tissue. In this study, A-MNPs were synthesized via a simple precipitation reaction and directly immobilized Ep-CAM EBA-1 antibodies over superparamagnetic A-MNPs for Mucin BCA-225 in breast cancer cell. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FT-IR spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These antibody-functionalized nontoxic A-MNPs were used to capture breast cancer cell. Through employing a strong permanent magnet, the magnetic separation was achieved within a few seconds. Antibody-Conjugated nontoxic Arginine-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for the future study to capture CTCs which are released from tumor tissue and for drug delivery, and these results demonstrate that the antibody-conjugated A-MNPs can be used in magnetic hyperthermia techniques for cancer treatment.

Keywords: tumor tissue, antibody, magnetic nanoparticle, CTCs capturing

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19 Targeting Calcium Dysregulation for Treatment of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Huafeng Wei


Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the number one cause of dementia internationally, without effective treatments. Increasing evidence suggest that disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis, primarily pathological elevation of cytosol and mitochondria but reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentrations, play critical upstream roles on multiple pathologies and associated neurodegeneration, impaired neurogenesis, synapse, and cognitive dysfunction in various AD preclinical studies. The last federal drug agency (FDA) approved drug for AD dementia treatment, memantine, exert its therapeutic effects by ameliorating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor overactivation and subsequent calcium dysregulation. More research works are needed to develop other drugs targeting calcium dysregulation at multiple pharmacological acting sites for future effective AD dementia treatment. Particularly, calcium channel blockers for the treatment of hypertension and dantrolene for the treatment of muscle spasm and malignant hyperthermia can be repurposed for this purpose. In our own research work, intranasal administration of dantrolene significantly increased its brain concentrations and durations, rendering it a more effective therapeutic drug with less side effects for chronic AD dementia treatment. This review summarizesthe progress of various studies repurposing drugs targeting calcium dysregulation for future effective AD dementia treatment as potentially disease-modifying drugs.

Keywords: alzheimer, calcium, cognitive dysfunction, dementia, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis

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18 Muscle Relaxant Dantrolene Repurposed to Treat Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Huafeng Wei


Failures of developing new drugs primarily based on the amyloid pathology hypothesis after decades of efforts internationally lead to changes of focus targeting alternative pathways of pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, especially the pathological and excessive Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ channels, has been considered an upstream pathology resulting in major AD pathologies, such as amyloid and Tau pathology, mitochondria damage and inflammation, etc. Therefore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of RyRs that reduces the pathological Ca2+ release from ER and a clinically available drug for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia and muscle spasm, is expected to ameliorate AD multiple pathologies synapse and cognitive dysfunction. Our own studies indicated that dantrolene ameliorated impairment of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in neurons developed from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) originated from skin fibroblasts of either familiar (FAD) or sporadic (SAD) AD by restoring intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Intranasal administration of dantrolene significantly increased its passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and, therefore its brain concentrations and durations. This can render dantrolene a more effective therapeutic drug with fewer side effects for chronic AD treatment. This review summarizes the potential therapeutic and side effects of dantrolene and repurposes intranasal dantrolene as a disease-modifying drug for future AD treatment.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, calcium, drug development, dementia, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis

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