Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 182

Search results for: Dennis Wong

182 A Simple Recursive Framework to Generate Gray Codes for Weak Orders in Constant Amortized Time

Authors: Marsden Jacques, Dennis Wong

Abstract:

A weak order is a way to rank n objects where ties are allowed. In this talk, we present a recursive framework to generate Gray codes for weak orders. We then describe a simple algorithm based on the framework that generates 2-Gray codes for weak orders in constant amortized time per string. This framework can easily be modified to generate other Gray codes for weak orders. We provide an example on using the framework to generate the first Shift Gray code for weak orders, also in constant amortized time, where consecutive strings differ by a shift or a symbol change.

Keywords: weak order, Cayley permutation, Gray code, shift Gray code

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181 Bubble Point Pressures of CO2+Ethyl Palmitate by a Cubic Equation of State and the Wong-Sandler Mixing Rule

Authors: M. A. Sedghamiz, S. Raeissi

Abstract:

This study presents three different approaches to estimate bubble point pressures for the binary system of CO2 and ethyl palmitate fatty acid ethyl ester. The first method involves the Peng-Robinson (PR) Equation of State (EoS) with the conventional mixing rule of Van der Waals. The second approach involves the PR EOS together with the Wong Sandler (WS) mixing rule, coupled with the Uniquac Ge model. In order to model the bubble point pressures with this approach, the volume and area parameter for ethyl palmitate were estimated by the Hansen group contribution method. The last method involved the Peng-Robinson, combined with the Wong-Sandler Method, but using NRTL as the GE model. Results using the Van der Waals mixing rule clearly indicated that this method has the largest errors among all three methods, with errors in the range of 3.96–6.22 %. The Pr-Ws-Uniquac method exhibited small errors, with average absolute deviations between 0.95 to 1.97 percent. The Pr-Ws-Nrtl method led to the least errors where average absolute deviations ranged between 0.65-1.7%.

Keywords: bubble pressure, Gibbs excess energy model, mixing rule, CO2 solubility, ethyl palmitate

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180 Recent Studies on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Members by Ferrocement

Authors: E. Lam, Z. D. Yang, B. Li, I. Ho, T. Wong, V. Wong

Abstract:

This paper reports some of the recent studies on strengthening of reinforced concrete members by ferrocement. Using mortar in ferrocement with high tensile strength, tensile properties of (high performance) ferrocement can be enhanced. In the proposed strengthening strategy, defective concrete cover of structural members is replaced by ferrocement so as to increase the load carrying capacity. This has been successfully applied to strengthen columns and beam-column joints. To facilitate the ease of application of the proposed strengthening strategy, mortar in ferrocement is applied through dry spray shotcrete.

Keywords: ferrocement, high performance ferrocement, dry, spray shotcrete, column, beam-column joint, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
179 Genres as Time Machines: Hong Kong Cinema's Ways of Historicizing

Authors: Chin Pang Lei

Abstract:

Colonized by the UK, handed over to China, and now as a global financial city, Hong Kong’s history is never easy to write under the dominant discourses of colonialism, nationalism and globalization. In this plight, cinema, regarded as Hong Kong’s most representative cultural form, is used for writing, exploring and questioning the local history of the city. In their writing of the past, Hong Kong directors such as Wong Kar-wai, Stanley Kwan and Tsui Hark have demonstrated alternative ways of historicizing Hong Kong. Despite their interests in different periods of time (Wong is obsessed with the 1960s; Kwan is attracted to the 1930s; Tsui often goes back to the early 20th century), all these directors use genres as their time machines to revisit the past. As a popular cultural form, genres always come with a series of ideologies which define our lives and explain the society. Hence, in a changing society, genres change and complicate themselves with different packages of meanings. Genres function as open-ended and corrigible schemata which can contain multiple themes and various meanings. In Hong Kong, genres, often seen as highly commercial and overly market-oriented, are opportunities for alternative history writing and the exploration of local identities. This paper examines how these Hong Kong directors use the popular forms of genres, such as melodrama, martial art and gangster films, to present the past, and how the stories of the fictional characters, such as prostitutes, martial artists and jobless hooligans mobilize imagination of history. These texts show that genre is a crucial platform for Hong Kong’s post-colonial self-writing. Via genres, history in these films is against official and canonical history as well as grand narrative. Genres as time machines articulate a voice for Hong Kong.

Keywords: Hong Kong cinema, genre, historicizing, local history, Wong Kar-Wai

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178 Ramadan as a Model of Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Gut Hormones, Appetite and Body Composition in Diabetes vs. Controls

Authors: Turki J. Alharbi, Jencia Wong, Dennis Yue, Tania P. Markovic, Julie Hetherington, Ted Wu, Belinda Brooks, Radhika Seimon, Alice Gibson, Stephanie L. Silviera, Amanda Sainsbury, Tanya J. Little

Abstract:

Fasting has been practiced for centuries and is incorporated into the practices of different religions including Islam, whose followers intermittently fast throughout the month of Ramadan. Thus, Ramadan presents a unique model of prolonged intermittent fasting (IF). Despite a growing body of evidence for a cardio-metabolic and endocrine benefit of IF, detailed studies of the effects of IF on these indices in type 2 diabetes are scarce. We studied 5 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 7 healthy controls (C) at baseline (pre), and in the last week of Ramadan (post). Fasting circulating levels of glucose, HbA1c and lipids, as well as body composition (with DXA) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured. Plasma gut hormone levels and appetite responses to a mixed meal were also studied. Data are means±SEM. Ramadan decreased total fat mass (-907±92 g, p=0.001) and trunk fat (-778±190 g, p=0.014) in T2DM but not in controls, without any reductions in lean mass or REE. There was a trend towards a decline in plasma FFA in both groups. Ramadan had no effect on body weight, glycemia, blood pressure, or plasma lipids in either group. In T2DM only, the area under the curve for post-meal plasma ghrelin concentrations increased after Ramadan (pre:6632±1737 vs. post:9025±2518 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.045). Despite this increase in orexigenic ghrelin, subjective appetite scores were not altered by Ramadan. Meal-induced plasma concentrations of the satiety hormone pancreatic polypeptide did not change during Ramadan, but were higher in T2DM compared to controls (post: C: 23486±6677 vs. T2DM: 62193±6880 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.003. In conclusion, Ramadan, as a model for IF appears to have more favourable effects on body composition in T2DM, without adverse effects on metabolic control or subjective appetite. These data suggest that IF may be particularly beneficial in T2DM as a nutritional intervention. Larger studies are warranted.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, obesity, intermittent fasting, appetite regulating hormones

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177 Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes (ẟ18O and ẟ2H) Tools Applied to the Study of Karst Aquifers in Wonderfonteinspruit Valley: North West, South Africa

Authors: Naziha Mokadem, Rainier Dennis, Ingrid Dennis

Abstract:

In South Africa, Karst aquifers are receiving greater attention since they provide large supplies of water which is used for domestic and agricultural purposes as well as for industry. Accordingly, a better insight into the origin of water mineralization and the geochemical processes controlling the recharge of the aquifer is crucial. Analyses of geochemical and environmental isotopes could lead to relevant information regarding karstification and infiltration processes, groundwater chemistry and isotopy. A study was conducted in a typical karst landscape of Wonderfonteinspruit catchment, also known as Wonderfonteinspruit Valley in North-western -South Africa. Furthermore, fifty-two samples were collected from (35 boreholes, 5 surface waters, 4 Dams, 4 springs, 1 canal, 2 pipelines, 1 cave) within the study area for hydrochemistry and 2H and 18O analysis. The determination of the anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO2, NO3-) were performed using Metrohm ion chromatography, model: 761 compact IC, with a precision of ± 0.001 mg/l. While, the cations (Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+) were determined using Metrohm ion chromatography, Model: ICP-MS 7500 series. The alkalinity (Alk) was determined by pH meter with volumetric titration using HCL to pH 4.5; 4.2; and 8.2. In addition, 18O and 2H relative to the Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water (RVSMOW), were determined by picarro L2130-I Isotopic H2O (Cavity Ringdown laser spectrometer, Picarro Ltd). The hydrochemical analysis of Wonderfonteinspruit groundwater showed a dominance of the cations Ca-Mg and the anion HCO3. Piper diagram shows that the groundwater sample of study area is characterized by four hydrochemical facies: Two main groups: (1) Ca–Mg–Cl–SO4; (2) Ca–Mg–HCO3 and two minor groups: (3) Ca–Mg–Cl; (4) Na–K–HCO3. The majority of boreholes of Malmani (Transvaal Supergroup) aquifer are plotted in Ca–Mg–HCO3.Oxygen-18 (18O‰SMOW) and deuterium (D‰SMOW) isotopic data indicate that the aquifer’s recharge is influenced by two phenomena; precipitation rates for most of the samples and river flow (Wonderfonteinspruit, Middelvieinspruit, Renfonteinspruit) for some samples.

Keywords: South Africa, Wonderfonteinspruit Valley, isotopic, hydrochemical, carbonate aquifers

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176 Intellectual Property Protection of CRISPR Related Technologies

Authors: Zheng Miao, Dennis Fernandez

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CRISPR research has the potential to completely transform life science, agriculture, live-stock and the health care industry. The Intellectual Property derived from its research has raised significant attention in the academic as well as the biopharmaceutical industry culminating an urgent need for strategic IP protection. We review the rudimentary concepts and key competitors of CRISPR technologies as well as the paramount strategies for intellectual property protection. Further, we elaborate on prosecution issues related to CRISPR patents as well as possible solutions to various patent laws, interferences and litigation. Finally, we address how the bioinformatics of the CRISPR technology begs an inquiry into issues of privacy and a host of ethical concerns.

Keywords: bioinformatics, CRISPR, biotechnology, intellectual property

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
175 Conditions on Expressing a Matrix as a Sum of α-Involutions

Authors: Ric Joseph R. Murillo, Edna N. Gueco, Dennis I. Merino

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Let F be C or R, where C and R are the set of complex numbers and real numbers, respectively, and n be a natural number. An n-by-n matrix A over the field F is called an α-involutory matrix or an α-involution if there exists an α in the field such that the square of the matrix is equal to αI, where I is the n-by-n identity matrix. If α is a complex number or a nonnegative real number, then an n-by-n matrix A over the field F can be written as a sum of n-by-n α-involutory matrices over the field F if and only if the trace of that matrix is an integral multiple of the square root of α. Meanwhile, if α is a negative real number, then a 2n-by-2n matrix A over R can be written as a sum of 2n-by-2n α-involutory matrices over R if and only the trace of the matrix is zero. Some other properties of α-involutory matrices are also determined

Keywords: α-involutory Matrices, sum of α-involutory Matrices, Trace, Matrix Theory

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174 A Framework for Internet Education: Personalised Approach

Authors: Zoe Wong

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The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for internet education. This framework uses the personalized learning approach for everyone who can freely develop their qualifications & careers. The key components of the framework includes students, teachers, assessments and infrastructure. It allows remove the challenges and limitations of the current educational system and allows learners' to cope with progressing learning materials.

Keywords: internet education, personalized approach, information technology, framework

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173 A New Model for Production Forecasting in ERP

Authors: S. F. Wong, W. I. Ho, B. Lin, Q. Huang

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ERP has been used in many enterprises for management, the accuracy of the production forecasting module is vital to the decision making of the enterprise, and the profit is affected directly. Therefore, enhancing the accuracy of the production forecasting module can also increase the efficiency and profitability. To deal with a lot of data, a suitable, reliable and accurate statistics model is necessary. LSSVM and Grey System are two main models to be studied in this paper, and a case study is used to demonstrate how the combination model is effective to the result of forecasting.

Keywords: ERP, grey system, LSSVM, production forecasting

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172 The Most Effective Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

Authors: Sarah-Anne Schumann, Chintan Shah, Sandeep Ponniah, Syeachia Dennis

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Effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity include limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake (SOR: B, longitudinal study), school and home based strategies to reduce total screen time and increase physical activity, behavioral and dietary counseling, and support for parents and families (SOR: A, meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials). Risk factors for childhood obesity include maternal pre-pregnancy weight, high infant birth weight, early infant rapid weight gain and maternal smoking during pregnancy which may provide opportunities to intervene and prevent childhood obesity (SOR: B, meta-analysis of observational studies).

Keywords: childhood, obesity, prevent obesity, interventions to prevent obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
171 Communication Experience and the Perception of Media Richness among Parents Working Overseas and Their Children Left-behind in the Philippines

Authors: Dennis Caasi

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This study analyzed four knowledge-building elements of channel expansion theory namely: communication media, communication content, communication partner, and communication influence vis-à- vis media richness dimensions among parents working overseas and their left-behind children in the Philippines. Results reveal that both parents and children consumed four out of six mediated communications tested in this research, spent one to four days a week connecting, between 30 minutes to 3 hours per engagement, and media consumption is dependent on the message content and media literacy of parents. Family, academic, household, and health were the common communication topics and parents dictate which channel to use. All six medium tested received high ratings based on the media richness constructs.

Keywords: channel expansion theory, computer-mediated communication, media richness theory, overseas Filipino worker

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170 Coarse-Graining in Micromagnetic Simulations of Magnetic Hyperthermia

Authors: Razyeh Behbahani, Martin L. Plumer, Ivan Saika-Voivod

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Micromagnetic simulations based on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation are used to calculate dynamic magnetic hysteresis loops relevant to magnetic hyperthermia applications. With the goal to effectively simulate room-temperature loops for large iron-oxide based systems at relatively slow sweep rates on the order of 1 Oe/ns or less, a coarse-graining scheme is proposed and tested. The scheme is derived from a previously developed renormalization-group approach. Loops associated with nanorods, used as building blocks for larger nanoparticles that were employed in preclinical trials (Dennis et al., 2009 Nanotechnology 20 395103), serve as the model test system. The scaling algorithm is shown to produce nearly identical loops over several decades in the model grain sizes. Sweep-rate scaling involving the damping constant alpha is also demonstrated.

Keywords: coarse-graining, hyperthermia, hysteresis loops, micromagnetic simulations

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169 The Multi-Lingual Acquisition Patterns of Elementary, High School and College Students in Angeles City, Philippines

Authors: Dennis Infante, Leonora Yambao

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The Philippines is a multilingual community. A Filipino learns at least three languages throughout his lifespan. Since languages are learned and picked up simultaneously in the environment, a student naturally develops a language system that combines features of at least three languages: the local language, English and Filipino. This study seeks to investigate this particular phenomenon and aspires to propose a theoretical framework of unique language acquisition in the elementary, high school and college in the three languages spoken and used in media, community, business and school: Kapampangan, the local language; Filipino, the national language; and English. The study randomly selects five students from three participating schools in order to acquire language samples. The samples were analyzed in the subsentential, sentential and suprasentential levels using grammatical theories. The data are classified to map out the pattern of substitution or shifting from one language to another.

Keywords: language acquisition, mother tongue, multiculturalism, multilingual education

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168 Pinch Analysis of Triple Pressure Reheat Supercritical Combined Cycle Power Plant

Authors: Sui Yan Wong, Keat Ping Yeoh, Chi Wai Hui

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In this study, supercritical steam is introduced to Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) in an attempt to further optimize energy recovery. Subcritical steam is commonly used in the CCPP, operating at maximum pressures around 150-160 bar. Supercritical steam is an alternative to increase heat recovery during vaporization period of water. The idea of improvement using supercritical steam is further examined with the use of exergy, pinch analysis and Aspen Plus simulation.

Keywords: exergy, pinch, combined cycle power plant, supercritical steam

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167 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad

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Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: thermal deposition, wearable antennas, bluetooth technology, flexible electronics

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166 An Improved Photovolatic System Balancer Architecture

Authors: Chih-Chiang Hua, Yi-Hsiung Fang, Cyuan-Jyun Wong

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An improved PV balancer for photovoltaic applications is proposed in this paper. The proposed PV balancer senses the voltage and current of PV module and adjusts the output voltage of converter. Thus, the PV system can implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT) independently for each module whether it is under shading, different irradiation or degradation of PV cell. In addition, the cost of PV balancer can be reduced due to the low power rating of converter. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, two PV balancers are designed and verified through simulation under different shading conditions. The proposed PV balancers can provide more energy than the traditional PV balancer.

Keywords: MPPT, partial shading, PV System, converter

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165 Visualization of Malaysia Universities Websites Based On Social Network Analysis

Authors: N. A. Ismail, Abdul Arif, Sharul Hafiz, Lu S. J., Tham W. S., Wong S. K.

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This paper investigates the visulization of Malaysia universities websites. Twenty (20) public universities websites in Malaysia has been chosen as samples to explore and visualize the link relationship between their academic websites using social network analysis methods such as inlink, degree, weight, betweenness and modularity class. All of the connection and relation demonstrate the power to influence, comprehensive strength and also the variety of subject types that are present in universities. The experimental results also show that University Malaysia Sabah (UMS) is the biggest back links provider.

Keywords: academic websites, link analysis, social network analysis, experimental result

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164 Construction Noise Control: Hong Kong Reviews International Best Practices

Authors: Morgan Cheng, Wilson Ho, Max Yiu, Dragon Tsui, Wylog Wong, Richard Kwan, K. C. Lam, Hannah Lo, C. L. Wong

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Hong Kong has been known worldwide for its ability to thrive under trying circumstances. The 7.5 million residents of this mature and busy metropolis are living in a primarily high-rise city whereby development and renewal of the cityscape are taking place unceasingly. Hong Kong residents are therefore affected by the virtually continuous and numerous construction activities. In 2020, the Hong Kong environmental protection department (EPD) completed a feasibility study on managing construction noise, including those associated with the renovation of domestic premises. Part of the study was the review of management and control of construction noise in other metropolitan cities globally. As far as the authors are aware of, such worldwide and extensive review of best practices on construction noise control has not been conducted for over 20 years. In order to benefit from international best practices, the extensive review is to identify possible areas for improvement in Hong Kong. The consultant of the study first referred to the United Nations Report ‘The World’s Cities in 2016’ and examined the top 100 cities therein. The 20 most suitable cities were then chosen for further review. Upon screening of each of these 20 cities, 12 cities with the more relevant management practices were selected for further scrutiny. These 12 cities were: Asia – Tokyo, Seoul, Taipei, Guangzhou, Singapore; Europe – City of Westminster (London), Berlin; North America – Toronto, New York City, San Francisco; Oceania – Sydney, Melbourne. Afterwards, three cities, namely Sydney, City of Westminster, and New York City, were selected for in-depth review. These cities were chosen primarily because of the maturity, success, and effectiveness of their construction noise management and control measures, as well as their similarity to Hong Kong in key and selected aspects. One of the more important findings of the review is the usefulness of early focus, with the aim of designing the noise issues away wherever practicable. The consultant examined the similar yet different construction noise early focus mechanisms of the three cities. This paper describes this landmark worldwide and extensive review of international best practices on construction noise management and control. The methodology, approach, and key findings are presented to give readers a succinct yet comprehensive view. The authors shared the findings with the acoustics professionals worldwide with the hope of global advancement of more mature construction noise management while welcoming sustainable development and construction.

Keywords: construction noise, international best practices, noise control, noise management

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163 An Android Geofencing App for Autonomous Remote Switch Control

Authors: Jamie Wong, Daisy Sang, Chang-Shyh Peng

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Geofence is a virtual fence defined by a preset physical radius around a target location. Geofencing App provides location-based services which define the actionable operations upon the crossing of a geofence. Geofencing requires continual location tracking, which can consume noticeable amount of battery power. Additionally, location updates need to be frequent and accurate or order so that actions can be triggered within an expected time window after the mobile user navigate through the geofence. In this paper, we build an Android mobile geofencing Application to remotely and autonomously control a power switch.

Keywords: location based service, geofence, autonomous, remote switch

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162 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

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Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents.

Keywords: calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks

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161 Development of Tutorial Courseware on Selected Topics in Mathematics, Science and the English Language

Authors: Alice D. Dioquino, Olivia N. Buzon, Emilio F. Aguinaldo, Ruel Avila, Erwin R. Callo, Cristy Ocampo, Malvin R. Tabajen, Marla C. Papango, Marilou M. Ubina, Josephine Tondo, Cromwell L. Valeriano

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to develop, evaluate and validate courseware on Selected Topics in Mathematics, Science, and the English Language. Specifically, it aimed to: 1. Identify the appropriate Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model in the development of the courseware material; 2. Assess the courseware material according to its: a. Content Characteristics; b. Instructional Characteristics; and c. Technical Characteristics 3. Find out if there is a significant difference in the performance of students before and after using the tutorial CAI. This research is developmental as well as a one group pretest-posttest design. The study had two phases. Phase I includes the needs analysis, writing of lessons and storyboard by the respective experts in each field. Phase II includes the digitization or the actual development of the courseware by the faculty of the ICT department. In this phase it adapted an instructional systems design (ISD) model which is the ADDIE model. ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Formative evaluation was conducted simultaneously with the different phases to detect and remedy any bugs in the courseware along the areas of content, instructional and technical characteristics. The expected output are the digitized lessons in Algebra, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Communication Arts in English. Students and some IT experts validated the CAI material using the Evaluation Form by Wong & Wong. They validated the CAI materials as Highly Acceptable with an overall mean rating of 4.527and standard deviation of 0 which means that they were one in the ratings they have given the CAI materials. A mean gain was recorded and computing the t-test for dependent samples it showed that there were significant differences in the mean achievement of the students before and after the treatment (using CAI). The identified ISD model used in the development of the tutorial courseware was the ADDIE model. The quantitative analyses of data based on ratings given by the respondents’ shows that the tutorial courseware possess the characteristics and or qualities of a very good computer-based courseware. The ratings given by the different evaluators with regard to content, instructional, and technical aspects of the Tutorial Courseware are in conformity towards being excellent. Students performed better in mathematics, biology chemistry, physics and the English Communication Arts after they were exposed to the tutorial courseware.

Keywords: CAI, tutorial courseware, Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Model, education

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160 The Compliance of Safe-Work Behaviors among Undergraduate Nursing Students with Different Clinical Experiences

Authors: K. C. Wong, K. L. Siu, S. N. Ng, K. N. Yip, Y. Y. Yuen, K. W. Lee, K. W. Wong, C. C. Li, H. P. Lam

Abstract:

Background: Occupational injuries among nursing profession were found related to repeated bedside nursing care, such as transfer, lifting and manual handling patients from previous studies. Likewise, undergraduate nursing students are also exposed to potential safety hazard due to their similar work nature of registered nurses. Especially, those students who worked as Temporary undergraduate nursing students (TUNS) which is a part-time clinical job in hospitals in Hong Kong who mainly assisted in providing bedside cares appeared to at high risk of work-related injuries. Several studies suggested the level of compliance with safe work behaviors was highly associated with work-related injuries. Yet, it had been limitedly studied among nursing students. This study was conducted to assess and compare the compliance with safe work behaviors and the levels of awareness of different workplace safety issues between undergraduate nursing students with or without TUNS experiences. Methods: This is a quantitative descriptive study using convenience sampling. 362 undergraduate nursing students in Hong Kong were recruited. The Safe Work Behavior relating to Patient Handling (SWB-PH) was used to assess their compliance of safe-work behaviors and the level of awareness of different workplace safety issues. Results: The results showed that most of the participants (n=250, 69.1%) who were working as TUNS. However, students who worked as TUNS had significantly lower safe-work behaviors compliance (mean SWB-PH score = 3.64±0.54) than those did not worked as TUNS (SWB-PH score=4.21±0.54) (p<0.001). Particularly, these students had higher awareness to seek help and use assistive devices but lower awareness of workplace safety issues and awareness of proper work posture than students without TUNS experiences. The students with TUNS experiences had higher engagement in help-seeking behaviors might be possibly explained by their richer clinical experiences which served as a facilitator to seek help from clinical staff whenever necessary. Besides, these experienced students were more likely to bear risks for occupational injuries and worked alone when no available aid which might be related to the busy working environment, heightened work pressures and high expectations of TUNS. Eventually, students who worked as TUNS might target on completing the assigned tasks and gradually neglecting the occupational safety. Conclusion: The findings contributed to an understanding of the level of compliance with safe work behaviors among nursing students with different clinical experiences. The results might guide the modification of current safety protocols and the introduction of multiple clinical training courses to improve nursing student’s engagement in safe work behaviors.

Keywords: Occupational safety, Safety compliance, Safe-work behavior, Nursing students

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159 An Appraisal of the Design, Content, Approaches and Materials of the K-12 Grade 8 English Curriculum by Language Teachers, Supervisors and Teacher-Trainers

Authors: G. Infante Dennis, S. Balinas Elvira, C. Valencia Yolanda, Cunanan

Abstract:

This paper examined the feed-backs, concerns, and insights of the teachers, supervisors, and teacher-trainers on the nature and qualities of the K-12 grade 8 design, content, approaches, and materials. Specifically, it sought to achieve the following objectives: 1) to describe the critical nature and qualities of the design, content, teaching-learning-and-evaluation approaches, and the materials to be utilized in the implementation of the grade 8 curriculum; 2) to extract the possible challenges relevant to the implementation of the design, content, teaching-learning-and-evaluation approaches, and the materials of the grade 8 curriculum in terms of the linguistic and technical competence of the teachers, readiness to implement, willingness to implement, and capability to make relevant adaptations; 3) to present essential demands on the successful and meaningful implementation of the grade 8 curriculum in terms of teacher-related factors, school-related factors, and student-related concerns.

Keywords: curriculum reforms, K-12, teacher-training, language teaching, learning

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158 Routing Protocol in Ship Dynamic Positioning Based on WSN Clustering Data Fusion System

Authors: Zhou Mo, Dennis Chow

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In the dynamic positioning system (DPS) for vessels, the reliable information transmission between each note basically relies on the wireless protocols. From the perspective of cluster-based routing protocols for wireless sensor networks, the data fusion technology based on the sleep scheduling mechanism and remaining energy in network layer is proposed, which applies the sleep scheduling mechanism to the routing protocols, considering the remaining energy of node and location information when selecting cluster-head. The problem of uneven distribution of nodes in each cluster is solved by the Equilibrium. At the same time, Classified Forwarding Mechanism as well as Redelivery Policy strategy is adopted to avoid congestion in the transmission of huge amount of data, reduce the delay in data delivery and enhance the real-time response. In this paper, a simulation test is conducted to improve the routing protocols, which turn out to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and increase the efficiency of data delivery.

Keywords: DPS for vessel, wireless sensor network, data fusion, routing protocols

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157 The Reflections of the K-12 English Language Teachers on the Implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines

Authors: Dennis Infante

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This paper examined the reflections of teachers on curriculum reforms, the implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines. The results revealed that problems and concerns raised by teachers could be classified into curriculum materials and design; competence, readiness and motivation of the teachers; the learning environment, and support systems; readiness, competence and motivation of students; and other relevant factors. The best features of the K-12 curriculum reforms included (1) the components, curriculum materials; (2) the design, structure and delivery of the lessons; (3) the framework and theoretical approach; (3) the qualities of the teaching-learning activities; (4) and other relevant features. With the demanding task of implementing the new curriculum, the teachers expressed their needs which included (1) making the curriculum materials available to achieve the goals of the curriculum reforms; (2) enrichment of the learning environments; (3) motivating and encouraging the teachers to embrace change; (4) providing appropriate support systems; (5) re-tooling, and empowering teachers to implement the curriculum reforms; and (6) other relevant factors. The research concluded with a synthesis that provided a paradigm for implementing curriculum reforms which recognizes the needs of the teachers and the features of the new curriculum.

Keywords: curriculum reforms, K-12, teachers' reflections, implementing curriculum change

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156 The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

Authors: Bernice V. Y. Wong, Kong Fah Tee

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods.

Keywords: timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance

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155 Water Management in Mexico City and Its Metropolitan Area

Authors: Raquel Salazar Moreno, Uwe Schmidt, Efrén Fitz Rodríguez, Dennis Dannehl, Abraham Rojano Aguilar, Irineo López Cruz, Gilberto Navas Gómez

Abstract:

As urban areas expand, strategic and protected water reserves become more critical. In this study we investigate the water problems in Mexico City and its Metropolitan area. This region faces a complex water problem that concerns not only Mexican boundaries but also international level because is one of the biggest human concentrations in the World. The current water shortage situation raises the necessity of importing surface and groundwater from the Cutzamala River and from the Alto Rio Lerma System respectively. Water management is the real issue in this region, because waste water generation is more than aquifer overexploitation, and surface water loss in the rainfall period is greater than water imported from other regions. However, the possible solutions of the water supply schemes are complicated, there is a need to look for alternatives socially acceptable and environmentally desirable, considering first the possible solutions on the demand side. Also, it is necessary more investment in water treatment plants and hydraulic infrastructure to ensure water supply and decrease the environmental problems in the area. More studies need to be done related to water efficiency in the three sectors.

Keywords: megacities, aquifer overexploitation, environmental problems, vulnerability

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154 Research on Routing Protocol in Ship Dynamic Positioning Based on WSN Clustering Data Fusion System

Authors: Zhou Mo, Dennis Chow

Abstract:

In the dynamic positioning system (DPS) for vessels, the reliable information transmission between each note basically relies on the wireless protocols. From the perspective of cluster-based routing pro-tocols for wireless sensor networks, the data fusion technology based on the sleep scheduling mechanism and remaining energy in network layer is proposed, which applies the sleep scheduling mechanism to the routing protocols, considering the remaining energy of node and location information when selecting cluster-head. The problem of uneven distribution of nodes in each cluster is solved by the Equilibrium. At the same time, Classified Forwarding Mechanism as well as Redelivery Policy strategy is adopted to avoid congestion in the transmission of huge amount of data, reduce the delay in data delivery and enhance the real-time response. In this paper, a simulation test is conducted to improve the routing protocols, which turns out to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and increase the efficiency of data delivery.

Keywords: DPS for vessel, wireless sensor network, data fusion, routing protocols

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153 Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of School-Based Internet Intervention for Alcohol Drinking Behaviours among Chinese Adolescent

Authors: Keith T. S. Tung, Frederick K. Ho, Rosa S. Wong, Camilla K. M. Lo, Wilfred H. S. Wong, C. B. Chow, Patrick Ip

Abstract:

Objectives: Underage drinking is an important public health problem both locally and globally. Conventional prevention/intervention relies on unidirectional knowledge transfer such as mail leaflets or health talks which showed mixed results in changing the target behaviour. Previously, we conducted a school internet-based intervention which was found to be effective in reducing alcohol use among adolescents, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been properly investigated. This study, therefore, examined the mechanisms that explain how the intervention produced a change in alcohol drinking behaviours among Chinese adolescent as observed in our previous clustered randomised controlled trial (RCT) study. Methods: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel group design. Participating schools were randomised to the Internet intervention or the conventional health education group (control) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Secondary 1–3 students of the participating schools were enrolled in this study. The Internet intervention was a web-based quiz game competition, in which participating students would answer 1,000 alcohol-related multiple-choice quiz questions. Conventional health education group received a promotional package on equivalent alcohol-related knowledge. The participants’ alcohol-related attitude, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control were self-reported before the intervention (baseline) and one month and three months after the intervention. Results: Our RCT results showed that participants in the Internet group were less likely to drink (risk ratio [RR] 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as in lesser amount (β -0.06, p < 0.05) compared to those in the control group at both post-intervention follow-ups. Within the intervention group, regression analyses showed that high quiz scorer had greater improvement in alcohol-related knowledge (β 0.28, p < 0.01) and attitude (β -0.26, p < 0.01) at 1 month after intervention, which in turn increased their perceived behavioural control against alcohol use (β 0.10 and -0.26, both p < 0.01). Attitude, compared to knowledge, was found to be a stronger contributor to the intervention effect on perceived behavioural control. Conclusions: Our internet-based intervention has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the risk of underage drinking when compared with conventional health education. Our study results further showed an attitude to be a more important factor than knowledge in changing health-related behaviour. This has an important implication for future prevention/intervention on an underage drinking problem.

Keywords: adolescents, internet-based intervention, randomized controlled trial, underage drinking

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