Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 359

Search results for: desire

359 Desire as Psychological Case against Nihilism and a Clear Mechanism as Evidence for Moral Realism

Authors: Paul Pistone

Abstract:

Nihilism claims that there are no actual intrinsic goods. Desire, however, directly contradicts this claim. To desire, something is more than to be motivated to bring about the desired ends. It is more than to take pleasure in it, seeming that one has obtained her desired end. Desire is, further, more than believing that something is good. Desire is the perception that something is good for the self. In this paper, it is argued that desire is an agent-relative value seeming. This implies that there are intrinsic values. It will be argued that: (1) there are intrinsic values related to life and flourishing, (2) that it is metaphysically impossible that there are no intrinsic values, (3) that desire is our psychological mechanism which enables us to perceive a state of affairs or event as an agent-relative good, and (4) while we can be wrong about the large scale object of desire (i.e., the instrumental desire) we cannot be wrong about what is at the root of our desire (i.e., the intrinsic desire). The method of this paper will be to examine the claims of nihilism and moral realism in recent literature, present a case for moral realism, discuss a few theories of desire, connect moral realism to an evaluative perceptual model of desire, and conclude that not only is this the best theory of desire but that this psychological faculty offers a clear counterexample to nihilism.

Keywords: desire, moral realism, nihilism, perception

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358 A Study of Lurking Behavior: The Desire Perspective

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng, Chi-Wei Chen

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Lurking behaviour is common in information-seeking oriented communities. Transferring users with lurking behaviour to be contributors can assist virtual communities to obtain competitive advantages. Based on the ecological cognition framework, this study proposes a model to examine the antecedents of lurking behaviour in information-seeking oriented virtual communities. This study argues desire for emotional support, desire for information support, desire for performance-approach, desire for performance -avoidance, desire for mastery-approach, desire for mastery-avoidance, desire for ability trust, desire for benevolence trust, and desire for integrity trust effect on lurking behaviour. This study offers an approach to understanding the determinants of lurking behaviour in online contexts.

Keywords: lurking behaviour, the ecological cognition framework, Information-seeking oriented virtual communities, desire

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357 The Effects of Ethnicity, Personality and Religiosity on Desire for Personal Space

Authors: Ioanna Skoura

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Past research shows that personal space has been investigated since the 1950s. Also, personality traits have been found to have a significant relationship with personal space. However, some of these studies have been criticized for being ethically inappropriate. In an attempt to avoid ethical issues, a new scale measuring desire for personal space has been created. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of ethnicity on desire for personal space. Additionally, extraversion and neuroticism are expected to predict significantly desire for personal space. Furthermore, the study is looking for any impact of religiosity on desire for personal space. In order to test the previous hypotheses, 115 participants from three cultural groups (English, Greeks in Greece and Greeks in the UK) are recruited online. Results indicate that only extraversion and religiosity are significant predictors of desire for personal space. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Keywords: ethnicity, religiosity, personality, personal space

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356 Relevance to Transformation Desire at Venetian Masks

Authors: Yoko Katsumata, Takashi Horikoshi, Noriaki Fukuzumi, Shoji Yamaguchi

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This study examined some positive sensations that caused human to experience an intense feeling or sensitivity from Venetian Masks. We surveyed 102 Japanese university students (male; 85, female; 17) about their sensitivity impressions toward Venetian Masks using sensitivity questionnaire. We used questionnaires to examine the relevance to transformation desire at Venetian masks by means of correlation analysis. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between sensitivity impressions and transformation desire.

Keywords: Venetian Masks, sensitivity impression, transformation desire, Japan

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355 When Sexual Desire Fades: Women Talk about Changes in Desire within Long Term Heterosexual Relationships

Authors: Avigail Moor

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A decline in women’s sexual desire over the course of long-term relationships, relative to men’s, has been frequently noted. Yet, while there is ample evidence that this change in women is quite common, it is still generally pathologized. Moreover, little is known regarding its true meaning for women and the effect it has on their wellbeing. In light of that, our primary goal was to investigate women's subjective experiences of this reality. Do they connect it to dysfunction in self or marriage, or rather they don't equate love and sex, which for them simply become less connected with time, even as the relationship remains entirely fulfilling? A second goal was to explore how such gender-based differences in sexual desire impact women, and indirectly the couple and partner, in terms of wellbeing and satisfaction from the relationship. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women in committed long-term relations, aged 25 and over. The findings indicate that for women, there is no contradiction between a loving relation and a decline in spontaneous sexual desire. At the same time, while not rooted in a problem, it does create some. Tension, frustration, conflict, and pressure are some of the negative sequelae that carry adverse effects for women’s wellbeing, the solution to which requires, in their opinion, honest dialogue, mutual respect, and reasonable compromise.

Keywords: gender, sexuality, sexual desire, well being

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354 Interplay of Imaginary, Symbolic and Real In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Disturbance of Nature

Authors: Mahnaz Poorshahidi

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This article is a psychological reading of Shakespeare’s Hamlet applying Lacan’s ideas to work with a new look. Lacan entitled Hamlet ‘tragedy of desire’. He believes that Hamlet is caught up in the desire of his mother. So he is the universal symbol of all human beings, regardless of their sex, who desire their mother, but based on the rules of Nature and Father, this unity is impossible. Hamlet hesitates in fulfilling the task of revenge and the text says nothing about the reasons and motives behind it. However, this essay tries to answer the question and justify Hamlet’s hesitation. There is one question for the readers, which is why Hamlet appears to delay in killing his uncle, despite the fact that this is precisely what he seems to want to do. In 1958-59 Lacan delivered a series of lectures on Hamlet entitled ‘Desire and Its Interpretations’ and called it ‘tragedy of desire’. However, this article will have a new representation of Hamlet’s decision not to take revenge. The research demonstrates that Hamlet has passed through imaginary, symbolic and real stages, which are the natural process of life. Eliminating father means disturbing this natural process. This essay is going to conclude that killing Claudius can break the natural order of life. On the other hand, Claudius has also disturbed nature and is regretful about his deed. Hamlet’s ever-present speech ‘To be or not to be’ reflects his mental turmoil and disturbance of the natural life cycle: Nature.

Keywords: desire, father figure, lacan, nature

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353 Tinder, Image Merchandise and Desire: The Configuration of Social Ties in Today's Neoliberalism

Authors: Daniel Alvarado Valencia

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Nowadays, the market offers us solutions for everything, creating the idea of an immediate availability of anything we could desire, and the Internet is the mean through which to obtain all this. The proposal of this conference is that this logic puts the subjects in a situation of self-exploitation, and considers the psyche as a productive force by configuring affection and desire from a neoliberal value perspective. It uses Tinder, starting from ethnographical data from Mexico City users, as an example for this. Tinder is an application created to get dates, have sexual encounters and find a partner. It works from the creation and management of a digital profile. It is an example of how futuristic and lonely the current era can be since we got used to interact with other people through screens and images. However, at the same time, it provides solutions to loneliness, since technology transgresses, invades and alters social practices in different ways. Tinder fits into this contemporary context, it is a concrete example of the processes of technification in which social bonds develop through certain devices offered by neoliberalism, through consumption, and where the search of love and courtship are possible through images and their consumption.

Keywords: desire, image, merchandise, neoliberalism

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352 Cascade Screening for Beta-Thalassemia in Pakistan: Relatives’ Experiences of a Decision Support Intervention in Routine Practice

Authors: Shenaz Ahmed, Hussain Jafri, Muhammed Faran, Wajeeha Naseer Ahmed, Yasmin Rashid, Yasmin Ehsan, Shabnam Bashir, Mushtaq Ahmed

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Low uptake of cascade screening for βeta-Thalassaemia Major (β-TM) in the ‘Punjab Thalassaemia Prevention Project’ (PTPP) in Pakistan led to the development of a ‘decision support intervention for relatives’ (DeSIRe). This paper presents the experiences of relatives of children with β-TM of the DeSIRe following its use by PTPP field officers in routine clinical practice. Fifty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted (April to June 2021) with relatives in seven cities in the Punjab province (Lahore, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahab, Kasur, Gujranwala, Multan, and Faisalabad). Thematic analysis shows that participants were satisfied with the content of the DeSIRe and its delivery by the field officers in a family meeting. They understood the main purpose of the DeSIRe was to improve their knowledge of β-TM and its inheritance, to enable them to make decisions about thalassemia carrier testing, particularly before marriage. While participants raised concerns about the stigma of testing positive, they believed the DeSIRe was an appropriate intervention, which supported relatives to make informed decisions. Our findings show the DeSIRe is appropriate for use by healthcare professionals in routine practice in a low-middle income country and has the potential to facilitate shared decision-making about cascade screening for thalassemia. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of the DeSIRe.

Keywords: thalassemia, Pakistan, cascade screening, decision support

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351 The Desire to Know: Arnold’s Contribution to a Psychological Conceptualization of Academic Motivation

Authors: F. Ruiz-Fuster

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Arnold’s redefinition of human motives can sustain a psychology of education which emphasizes the beauty of knowledge and the exercise of intellectual functions. Thus, education instead of focusing on skills and learning by doing would be centered on ‘the widest reaches of the human spirit’. One way to attain it is by developing children’s inherent interest. Arnold takes into account the fact that the desire to know is the inherent interest which leads students to explore and learn. She also emphasizes the need of exercising human functions as thinking, judging and reasoning. According to Arnold, the influence of psychological theories of motivation in education has derived in considering that all learning and school tasks should derive from children’s needs and impulses. The desire to know and the curiosity have not been considered as basic and active as any instinctive drive or basic need, so there has been an attempt to justify and understand how biological drives guide student’s learning. However, understanding motives and motivation not as a drive, an instinct or an impulse guided by our basic needs, but as a want that leads to action can help to understand, from a psychological perspective, how teachers can motivate students to learn, strengthening their desire and interest to reason and discover the whole new world of knowledge.

Keywords: academic motivation, interests, desire to know, educational psychology, intellectual functions

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350 Oral Fluency: A Case Study of L2 Learners in Canada

Authors: Maaly Jarrah

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Oral fluency in the target language is what many second language learners hope to achieve by living abroad. Research in the past has demonstrated the role informal environments play in improving L2 learners' oral fluency. However, living in the target country and being part of its community does not ensure the development of oral fluency skills. L2 learners' desire to communicate and access to speaking opportunities in the host community are key in achieving oral fluency in the target language. This study attempts to identify differences in oral fluency, specifically speech rate, between learners who communicate in the L2 outside the classroom and those who do not. In addition, as the desire to communicate is a crucial factor in developing oral fluency, this study investigates whether or not learners' desire to speak the L2 outside the classroom plays a role in their frequency of L2 use outside the classroom. Finally, given the importance of the availability of speaking opportunities for L2 learners in order to practice their speaking skills, this study reports on the participants' perceptions of the speaking opportunities accessible to them in the target community while probing whether or not their perceptions differed based on their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate. The results suggest that exposure to the target language and daily communication with the native speakers is strongly related to the development of learners' oral fluency. Moreover, the findings suggest that learners' desire to communicate affects their frequency of communication in their L2 outside the classroom. At the same time, all participants, regardless of their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate, asserted that speaking opportunities beyond the classroom are very limited. Finally, the study finds there are marked differences in the perceptions learners have regarding opportunities for learning offered by the same language program. After reporting these results, the study concludes with recommendations for ESL programs that serve international students.

Keywords: ESL programs, L2 Learners, oral fluency, second language

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349 Aristotle's Notion of Akratic Action through the Prism of Moral Psychology

Authors: Manik Konch

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Actions are generally evaluated from moral point of view. Either the action is praised or condemned, but in all cases it involves the agent who performs it. The agent is held morally responsible for bringing out an action. This paper is an attempt to explore the Aristotle’s notion of action and its relation with moral development in response to modern philosophical moral psychology. Particularly, the distinction between voluntary, involuntary, and non-voluntary action in the Nicomachean Ethics with some basic problems from the perspective of moral psychology: the role of choice, moral responsibility, desire, and akrasia for an action. How to do a morally right action? Is there any role of virtue, character to do a moral action? These problems are analyzed and interpreted in order to show that the Aristotelian theory of action significantly contributes to the philosophical study of moral psychology. In this connection, the paper juxtaposes Aristotle’s theory of action with response from David Charles, John R. Searle’s, and Alfred Mele theorization of action in the mechanism of human moral behaviours. To achieve this addressed problem, we consider, how the recent moral philosophical moral psychology research can shed light on Aristotle's ethics by focusing on theory of action. In this connection, we argue that the desire is the only responsible for the akratic action. According to Aristotle, desire is primary source of action and it is the starting point of action and also the endpoint of an action. Therefore we are trying to see how desire can make a person incontinent and motivate to do such irrational actions. Is there any causes which we can say such actions are right or wrong? To measure an action we have need to see the consequences such act. Thus, we discuss the relationship between akrasia and action from the perspective of contemporary moral psychologists and philosophers whose are currently working on it.

Keywords: action, desire, moral psychology, Aristotle

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348 Performing Artists Consumption of Celebrity Entertainment TV News Shows: Relations to the Desire and Perception of Fame

Authors: Annette Davies

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Celebrity entertainment TV news shows such as Access Hollywood, Entertainment Tonight, E! News, etc., have remained extremely popular. While the effects of these shows have been examined in academic literature on various sample populations, the effects have rarely been examined on a sample population of performing artists in the entertainment field. The present research investigates how the consumption of these shows influence the desire for fame and the perception of fame among active performing artists. Two separate chi-square analyses were conducted to yield the following results: 1) as the viewing of these shows increases, the overall desire for fame also tends to increase; 2) performers who believe that these celebrity entertainment TV news shows frame fame positively are more likely to perceive fame as a positive achievement overall. Thus, the results of the second finding are consistent with second-level agenda-setting theory. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Keywords: celebrity, entertainment, fame, performers

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347 A Pink Pill Daily: On the Lust Enhancing Pill for Women and the Medicalization of Sexual Desire

Authors: Maaike Maria Augustina Hommes

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This paper reviews the emergence of the recently approved lust enhancing pill for women (sold under the brand name of Addyi) and its status as ‘medicine’ from a cultural studies perspective to understand the way in which the usage of the pill can be seen as a medicalization of sexual desire. It asks where this medicalization can be localized to understand the current placement of and notions on female sexuality. Via a close reading of a woman’s narration of her usage of the pill that appeared in Shape Magazine, this paper critically reviews the pill’s relation to the concept of ‘cure’ and assesses the way this Pink Pill functions as a cure to the DSM-IV based disorder called Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. As such it finds that in the diagnosis with HSDD meant a huge relief. Now this woman was not just ‘bad at life and bad at marriage’ but ‘just had this health issue’. In order to get to an understanding of the different structures that conjoin in this expression of relief this paper reviews the emergence of the sexual desire disorder within psychology and the way that the loss of desire becomes localized in the brain. This localization will be related to two ways of looking at the human body; the medical gaze as described by Michel Foucault, and the neuromolecular gaze, as introduced by Nikolas Rose and Joelle M.Abi-Rached. Both these penetrating gazes bring about a certain reductionism in which the human body is either viewed as an objectified ‘sick body’ or as a set of chemical reactions. By referring to these modes of looking as reductionist one assumes that something is lost, or forgotten in the act of reducing. It is both what is gained in the formulation of the disorder, as what is lost in reduction of the disorder in medical knowledge that is at the central inquiry of this paper. As such, this paper brings forward the way in which medicine and cultural narrative are deeply intertwined. It is this way in which different forces of subject formation come together that is addressed via an interdisciplinary and object-centered focus on the pink pill.

Keywords: disorder and cure, female sexual desire, medical gaze, neuromolecular gaze

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346 Hysterectomy and Symbolic Damage: When the Desire for Motherhood is Reactivated in a Nun

Authors: Ndje Ndje Mireille

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The improvement in the physical aspects of hysterectomy has tended to make us forget the psychological burden of this operation for many women. African women closely associate fertility and femininity, and they fear that their desire will diminish, that they will be less desirable after having undergone a hysterectomy. Medicine may be tempted to trivialize this surgical intervention by relying on the evolution of current surgery that leaves little or no marks. It is possible to think that the uterus is useless for a nun who has decided to freely disregard her motherhood. We used the clinical research method for this study. Through a semi-directive interview guide, we collected the verbatims of an hysterectomized catholic nun. The verbatims were transcribed and analyzed with the thematic content analysis. This analysis shows that the medical reality does not always correspond to the subjective experience of women, for whom hysterectomy can imply strong symbolic damage. The uterus is not essential to life, but it is essential to give life, and this lack can reactivate a desire for motherhood. The experience of hysterectomy is unique for each woman in relation to her history. This operation will eliminate all hope of pregnancy; it will be felt as intimate mutilation and an attack on femininity, it will bring up concerns about sexuality. Even if a woman has past the age of having children, has gone through menopause, or has freely decided not to have children, she still find it difficult to accept this procedure. The lack of uterus make a woman feel useless.

Keywords: hysterectomy, symbolic damage, desire for motherhood, feminity, nun

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345 A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis of Factors Influencing Couples' Fertility Preferences in Kenya

Authors: Naomi W. Maina

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Fertility preference is a subject of great significance in developing countries. Studies reveal that the preferences of fertility are actually significant in determining the society’s fertility levels because the fertility behavior of the future has a high likelihood of falling under the effect of currently observed fertility inclinations. The objective of this study was to establish the factors associated with fertility preference amongst couples in Kenya by fitting a multinomial logistic regression model against 5,265 couple data obtained from Kenya demographic health survey 2014. Results revealed that the type of place of residence, the region of residence, age and spousal age gap significantly influence desire for additional children among couples in Kenya. There was the notable high likelihood of couples living in rural settlements having similar fertility preference compared to those living in urban settlements. Moreover, geographical disparities such as in northern Kenya revealed significant differences in a couples desire to have additional children compared to Nairobi. The odds of a couple’s desire for additional children were further observed to vary dependent on either the wife or husbands age and to a large extent the spousal age gap. Evidenced from the study, was the fact that as spousal age gap increases, the desire for more children amongst couples decreases. Insights derived from this study would be attractive to demographers, health practitioners, policymakers, and non-governmental organizations implementing fertility related interventions in Kenya among other stakeholders. Moreover, with the adoption of devolution, there is a clear need for adoption of population policies that are County specific as opposed to a national population policy as is the current practice in Kenya. Additionally, researchers or students who have little understanding in the application of multinomial logistic regression, both theoretical understanding and practical analysis in SPSS as well as application on real datasets, will find this article useful.

Keywords: couples' desire, fertility, fertility preference, multinomial regression analysis

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344 Hidden Markov Model for the Simulation Study of Neural States and Intentionality

Authors: R. B. Mishra

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Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been used in prediction and determination of states that generate different neural activations as well as mental working conditions. This paper addresses two applications of HMM; one to determine the optimal sequence of states for two neural states: Active (AC) and Inactive (IA) for the three emission (observations) which are for No Working (NW), Waiting (WT) and Working (W) conditions of human beings. Another is for the determination of optimal sequence of intentionality i.e. Believe (B), Desire (D), and Intention (I) as the states and three observational sequences: NW, WT and W. The computational results are encouraging and useful.

Keywords: hiden markov model, believe desire intention, neural activation, simulation

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343 The Taste of Macau: An Exploratory Study of Destination Food Image

Authors: Jianlun Zhang, Christine Lim

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Local food is one of the most attractive elements to tourists. The role of local cuisine in destination branding is very important because it is the distinctive identity that helps tourists remember the destination. The objectives of this study are: (1) Test the direct relation between the cognitive image of destination food and tourists’ intention to eat local food. (2) Examine the mediating effect of tourists’ desire to try destination food on the relationship between the cognitive image of local food and tourists’ intention to eat destination food. (3) Study the moderating effect of tourists’ perceived difficulties in finding local food on the relationship between tourists’ desire to try destination food and tourists’ intention to eat local food. To achieve the goals of this study, Macanese cuisine is selected as the destination food. Macau is located in Southeastern China and is a former colonial city of Portugal. The taste and texture of Macanese cuisine are unique because it is a fusion of cuisine from many countries and regions of mainland China. As people travel to seek authentically exotic experience, it is important to investigate if the food image of Macau leaves a good impression on tourists and motivate them to try local cuisine. A total of 449 Chinese tourists were involved in this study. To analyze the data collected, partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique is employed. Results suggest that the cognitive image of Macanese cuisine has a direct effect on tourists’ intention to eat Macanese cuisine. Tourists’ desire to try Macanese cuisine mediates the cognitive image-intention relationship. Tourists’ perceived difficulty of finding Macanese cuisine moderates the desire-intention relationship. The lower tourists’ perceived difficulty in finding Macanese cuisine is, the stronger the desire-intention relationship it will be. There are several practical implications of this study. First, the government tourism website can develop an authentic storyline about the evolvement of local cuisine, which provides an opportunity for tourists to taste the history of the destination and create a novel experience for them. Second, the government should consider the development of food events, restaurants, and hawker businesses. Third, to lower tourists’ perceived difficulty in finding local cuisine, there should be locations of restaurants and hawker stalls with clear instructions for finding them on the websites of the government tourism office, popular tourism sites, and public transportation stations in the destination. Fourth, in the post-COVID-19 era, travel risk will be a major concern for tourists. Therefore, when promoting local food, the government tourism website should post images that show food safety and hygiene.

Keywords: cognitive image of destination food, desire to try destination food, intention to eat food in the destination, perceived difficulties of finding local cuisine, PLS-SEM

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342 Exploring the Facets of Sexuality among Older Adults

Authors: Vivienne Cloude C. Bersabe, Nuelle Anne Castro, Christy P. Gonzales, Nathalie Ann D. Ocbo, Araceli Chuwaley C. Padcayan, Michelle Gaile Lianne S. Peralta, Cecile A. Perez, Eiden Mae A. Roque, Frances Bea S. Sabaten, Korina Louise A. Saculles, Jada Kristen O. Taska, Jose Reinhard C. Laoingco, Don Leonardo N. Dacumos

Abstract:

The rationale of the study: Since discussion about sexuality is considered taboo in the Filipino culture, provision of quality holistic care often lacks sexuality aspect. This research was conducted to highlight the need for nurses to incorporate sexuality in their care of older adults. Research Objectives: To measure the levels of older adults’ sexual desire, sexual behavior, and sexual intimacy and relate them to sex, living arrangement, educational level, and presence of chronic illness, whether with or without treatment. Methods: This study is of quantitative descriptive design that utilized purposive sampling. 400 older adults of Baguio City participated. The study used a 30 point researcher-made questionnaire, one-on-one interview and focused group discussion to gather data. Data were treated using weighted mean, t-test, F-test, and Scheffe's test. Results and Conclusions: The overall findings revealed that Filipino older adults have a low level of sexuality expressed by the participants’ sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Males have significantly higher level of sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Living arrangement does not seem to influence the level of sexuality in all its 3 facets. Sexual desire was significantly higher among those with tertiary education and without chronic illness. Recommendation: It is recommended that nurses carry out their assessment of clients to include the exploration of their sexuality especially the older adults. A similar study may be done to explore other variables like demographic location, i.e., rural or urban setting; socio-cultural factors; and functional performance status. It is also recommended that a similar study may be done exploring the different facets of sexuality among homosexual older persons.

Keywords: geriatrics, older adults, Philippines, sexuality

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341 Towards the Ideal Life: Quantitative Study on the Impact of Social Enterprises towards Their Employees

Authors: Joseph Daniel Lumain

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The Philippine business sector has witnessed the emergence of a new category that distinguishes itself from the common framework that most enterprises utilize as this new emerging player incorporates social needs as part of its mission and goals. Various literature has manifested the relevance of social enterprises as an instrument towards poverty alleviation, as it concretely increases the capabilities of individuals. This study aims to identify whether or not social enterprises creates an impact towards their employees by positively influencing their respective perceptions on their capabilities on income, health and education. Utilizing Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Framework, this study is grounded on the relationships between social enterprises and increased capabilities, and increased capabilities and developing towards living a life they truly desire. The data gathered was analyzed quantitatively, supplemented by qualitative interviews with one to two employees from the social enterprise itself. Focusing on three social enterprises found within GKonomics, or the platform of Gawad Kalinga for social enterprise development, this purposive study was able to show that employees’ perceptions on their employment positively influenced their perceptions on their capabilities, and that this result affected their improvement towards living a life they desire.

Keywords: social enterprise, Amartya Sen, capabilities framework, Gawad Kalinga

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340 Assessment of Cafe Design Criteria in a Consumerist Society: An Approach on Place Attachment

Authors: Azadeh Razzagh Shoar, Hassan Sadeghi Naeini

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There is little doubt that concepts such as space and place have become more common considering that human beings have grown more apart and more than having contact with each other, they are in contact with objects, spaces, and places. Cafés, as a third place which is neither home nor workplace, have attracted these authors’ interests, who are industrial and interior designers. There has been much research on providing suitable cafés, customer behavior, and criteria for spatial sense. However, little research has been carried out on consumerism, desire for variety, and their relationship with changing places, and specifically cafes in term of interior design. In fact, customer’s sense of place has mostly been overlooked. In this case study, authors conducted to challenge the desire for variety and consumerism as well as investigating the addictive factors in cafés. From the designers’ point of view and by collecting data through observing and interviewing café managers, this study investigates and analyzes the customers in two cafes located in a commercial building in northern Tehran (a part of city with above average economic conditions). Since these two cafés are at the same level in terms of interior and spatial design, the question is raised as to why customers patronize the newly built café despite their loyalty to the older café. This study aims to investigate and find the criteria based on the sense of space (café) in a consumerist society, a world where consumption is a myth. Going to cafés in a larger scale than a product can show a selection and finally who you are, where you go, which brand of coffee you prefer, and what time of the day you would like to have your coffee. The results show that since people spend time in cafés more than any other third place, the interaction they have with their environment is more than anything else, and they are consumers of time and place more than coffee or any other product. Also, if there is a sense of consumerism and variety, it is mostly for the place rather than coffee and other products. To satisfy this sense, individuals go to a new place (the new café). It can be easily observed that this sense overshadows the sense of efficiency, design, facilities and all important factor for a café.

Keywords: place, cafe, consumerist society, consumerism, desire for variety

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339 The Desire for Significance & Memorability in Popular Culture: A Cognitive Psychological Study of Contemporary Literature, Art, and Media

Authors: Israel B. Bitton

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“Memory” is associated with various phenomena, from physical to mental, personal to collective and historical to cultural. As part of a broader exploration of memory studies in philosophy and science (slated for academic publication October 2021), this specific study employs analytical methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy of memory to theorize that A) the primary human will (drive) is to significance, in that every human action and expression can be rooted in a most primal desire to be cosmically significant (however that is individually perceived); and B) that the will to significance manifests as the will to memorability, an innate desire to be remembered by others after death. In support of these broad claims, a review of various popular culture “touchpoints”—historic and contemporary records spanning literature, film and television, traditional news media, and social media—is presented to demonstrate how this very theory is repeatedly and commonly expressed (and has been for a long time) by many popular public figures as well as “everyday people.” Though developed before COVID, the crisis only increased the theory’s relevance: so many people were forced to die alone, leaving them and their loved ones to face even greater existential angst than what ordinarily accompanies death since the usual expectations for one’s “final moments” were shattered. To underscore this issue of, and response to, what can be considered a sociocultural “memory gap,” this study concludes with a summary of several projects launched by journalists at the height of the pandemic to document the memorable human stories behind COVID’s tragic warped speed death toll that, when analyzed through the lens of Viktor E. Frankl’s psychoanalytical perspective on “existential meaning,” shows how countless individuals were robbed of the last wills and testaments to their self-significance and memorability typically afforded to the dying and the aggrieved. The resulting insight ought to inform how government and public health officials determine what is truly “non-essential” to human health, physical and mental, at times of crisis.

Keywords: cognitive psychology, covid, neuroscience, philosophy of memory

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338 Prevalence of Hinglish on the Indian English News Channels and Its Impact on the New Language Learners: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Swatantra

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Hinglish, a blended version of Hindi and English, emerged due to the lack of the competence and command of the speakers over the foreign language, i., e., English. But, amazingly, the trend has gained wide acceptance. In India, this acceptance has gone up to the extent that popular news anchors at the prime time shows are frequently using it. At the moment, instead of being considered a flaw of their presentation Hinglish is emerging as a trendy genre. Its pervasive usage and extensive acceptance is motivating youngsters to opt for the similar kind of patterns. The current study is an endeavour to assess the impact of this trend on the new language learners. With the help of semi-structured interviews, the researcher has tried to gauge the level of comfort and desire to be at par with the other fluent English speakers. The results clearly depict a substantiated boost in the confidence level of learners because they are able to use the vocabulary and sentence patterns of their own choice and convenience. The prevalence and acceptance of the trend in the main stream media have really served as a catalyst and the desire to be at par with the other fluent speakers is also fading away. The users of Hinglish find this trend to be closer to their heart as in the earlier times in the absence of exact translation they had to compromise with the meaning or spirit of the word/phrase / sentence. But now enhanced flexibility is leaving them more comfortable and confident.

Keywords: Hinglish, language learners, linguistic trends, media

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337 Modern Tragic Substance in O’Neill’s Desire under the Elms and Mourning Becomes Electra

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

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The position Eugene O’Neill occupies in the history of American drama is undisputable. Critics have agreed that the American theatre was waiting for O’Neill to give it substance, character, and value. The American dramatist continues to be considered as a major influence on the body of dramatic repertoire across the globe. The American theatre before O’Neill knew playwrights who were mostly viewed as entertainers. The serious drama had to wait until O’Neill started his career with expressionistic and social drama. His breakthrough, however, came in 1925 when he published Desire Under the Elms, described as the first important tragedy to be written in America. Mourning Becomes Electra, published in 1931, further reinforced the reputation of Eugene O’Neill and was described as his 'magnum opus'. Aspiring to portray the essence of life and man’s innermost conflicts, O’Neill turned to the classical model, rather than to social realistic drama, to create modern tragedies with the aid of the then-new science of psychology. The present paper aims to undertake an in-depth study of how overtones from classical tragedies by the classical masters Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides resonate through O’Neill’s two plays. The paper shows how leaning on classical themes and concepts interpreted in terms of psychological forces have added depth and tragic substance to a modern milieu and produced masterpieces of dramaturgy.

Keywords: classical, drama, O'Neill, modern, tragic

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336 NanoCelle®: A Nano Delivery Platform to Enhance Medicine

Authors: Sean Hall

Abstract:

Nanosystems for drug delivery are not new; as medicines evolve, so too does the desire to deliver a more targeted, patient-compliant medicine. Though, historically the widespread use of nanosystems for drug delivery has been fouled by non-replicability, scalability, toxicity issues, and economics. Examples include steps of manufacture and thus cost to manufacture, toxicity for nanoparticle scaffolding, autoimmune response, and considerable technical expertise for small non-commercial yields. This, unfortunately, demonstrates the not-so-obvious chasm between science and drug formulation for regulatory approval. Regardless there is a general and global desire to improve the delivery of medicines, reduce potential side effect profiles, promote increased patient compliance, and increase and/or speed public access to medicine availability. In this paper, the author will discuss NanoCelle®, a nano-delivery platform that specifically addresses degradation and solubility issues that expands from fundamental micellar preparations. NanoCelle® has been deployed in several Australian listed medicines and is in use of several drug candidates across small molecules, with research endeavors now extending into large molecules. The author will discuss several research initiatives as they relate to NanoCelle® to demonstrate similarities seen in various drug substances; these examples will include both in vitro and in vivo work.

Keywords: NanoCelle®, micellar, degradation, solubility, toxicity

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335 Interrogating the Theoretical Basis of the Freedom Charter in South Africa

Authors: Sibonginkosi Mazibuko

Abstract:

The “adoption” of the Freedom Charter in 1955 at Kliptown south of Johannesburg, South Africa represented a desire to create a society that is based on common citizenship, and democracy. The architects of the Charter had a vision of a society that lived in peace with itself. Today, the Charter is still promoted as the best thing that ever happened to a society ravaged by racism, dispossession, oppression and exploitation – a society divided in all aspects of its life. This paper moves from the understanding that land is fundamental to all life. It interrogates the Charter’s claim on land. At a time when the colonised world sought to free themselves from the chains of colonialism and Africans throughout the continent demanded Africa for the Africans, the Freedom Charter claimed South Africa for all who lived in it. To the extent that this paper problematizes the philosophical underpinnings of the Charter, it uses the methodology of dialectic materialism to understand the theoretical basis of the Freedom Charter. The paper argues that the understanding, desire and the vision of the Freedom Charter were, as they are today, irreconcilable. To that effect and in pursuit of narrow class interests, the Charter justified land dispossession and unsustainable living conditions for the dispossessed majority. The paper then concludes that, by misrepresenting the critically fundamental land question, the Charter tried to reconcile the dispossessed with their dispossession and thus reflected coloniality and whiteness long before colonialism and settler-colonialism came to an end in South Africa.

Keywords: colonialism, contradictions, freedom charter, South Africa

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334 The Making of a Male: Narrative Analysis of the Protagonist in Cholera District

Authors: Behre O. Ozalp

Abstract:

Cinema is a reflection of the society, as much as it captures the social codes. These codes are learned within the society; and through movies these practices of the gender order are reproduced as well. One of the best examples engendering these codes is a modern classic of Turkish cinema, Cholera District (1997), originally Ağır Roman in Turkish. It is a coming of age movie of a teenage boy in an old neighborhood of Istanbul, where he learns to be a 'man' through the hegemonic masculinity codes of the society. The corporal and verbal practices that are used in the representation of the male protagonist's portrayal is based on his performativity. This paper, through narrative analysis of the aforementioned movie, reviews how gender and narrative are intertwined within the context of queer theory. The methodology follows the protagonist's object of desire while evaluating his heterosexuality which requires affirmative performances. The framework of the study firstly focuses on the protagonist's own life and his interactions with the males of his kinship. Later, the focus gravitates towards his interactions with the female object of desire while evaluating how this relationship shapes his status in society. Lastly, the study focuses on the relationship between the protagonist and non-relative males of the neighborhood. The journey of a young male becoming a man by copying the other males delivers a clear representation of how heterosexuality is favored in terms of gender order.

Keywords: hegemonic masculinity, performativity, queer theory, Turkish cinema

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333 Deconstructing Local Area Networks Using MaatPeace

Authors: Gerald Todd

Abstract:

Recent advances in random epistemologies and ubiquitous theory have paved the way for web services. Given the current status of linear-time communication, cyberinformaticians compellingly desire the exploration of link-level acknowledgements. In order to realize this purpose, we concentrate our efforts on disconfirming that DHTs and model checking are mostly incompatible.

Keywords: LAN, cyberinformatics, model checking, communication

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332 A Multilevel Approach of Reproductive Preferences and Subsequent Behavior in India

Authors: Anjali Bansal

Abstract:

Reproductive preferences mainly deal with two questions: when a couple wants children and how many they want. Questions related to these desires are often included in the fertility surveys as they can provide relevant information on the subsequent behavior. The aim of the study is to observe whether respondent’s response to these questions changed over time or not. We also tried to identify socio- economic and demographic factors associated with the stability (or instability) of fertility preferences. For this purpose, we used IHDS1 (2004-05) and follow up survey IHDS2 (2011-12) data and applied bivariate, multivariate and multilevel repeated measure analysis to it to find the consistency between responses. From the analysis, we found that preferences of women changes over the course of time as from the bivariate analysis we have found that 52% of women are not consistent in their desired family size and huge inconsistency are found in desire to continue childbearing. To get a better overlook of these inconsistencies, we have computed Intra Class Correlation (ICC) which tries to explain the consistency between individuals on their fertility responses at two time periods. We also explored that husband’s desire for additional child specifically male offspring contribute to these variations. Our findings lead us to a cessation that in India, individuals fertility preferences changed over a seven-year time period as the Intra Class correlation comes out to be very small which explains the variations among individuals. Concerted efforts should be made, therefore, to educate people, and conduct motivational programs to promote family planning for family welfare.

Keywords: change, consistency, preferences, over time

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331 A Bi-Objective Model to Optimize the Total Time and Idle Probability for Facility Location Problem Behaving as M/M/1/K Queues

Authors: Amirhossein Chambari

Abstract:

This article proposes a bi-objective model for the facility location problem subject to congestion (overcrowding). Motivated by implementations to locate servers in internet mirror sites, communication networks, one-server-systems, so on. This model consider for situations in which immobile (or fixed) service facilities are congested (or queued) by stochastic demand to behave as M/M/1/K queues. We consider for this problem two simultaneous perspectives; (1) Customers (desire to limit times of accessing and waiting for service) and (2) Service provider (desire to limit average facility idle-time). A bi-objective model is setup for facility location problem with two objective functions; (1) Minimizing sum of expected total traveling and waiting time (customers) and (2) Minimizing the average facility idle-time percentage (service provider). The proposed model belongs to the class of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models and the class of NP-hard problems. In addition, to solve the model, controlled elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms (Controlled NSGA-II) and controlled elitist non-dominated ranking genetic algorithms (NRGA-I) are proposed. Furthermore, the two proposed metaheuristics algorithms are evaluated by establishing standard multiobjective metrics. Finally, the results are analyzed and some conclusions are given.

Keywords: bi-objective, facility location, queueing, controlled NSGA-II, NRGA-I

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330 Migration, Agency and Subjectivity in Helon Habila's Travellers

Authors: Bankole Wright

Abstract:

The late 20th to the early 21st century has been predominantly characterized by the movement of individuals from one country to another country or countries. The chief reasons for migration have always been premised on socio-cultural, socio-political and socio-economic factors, with influences of migration finding expression through various ways. Indeed, migration experiences have formed points of subjectivity which functions as agencies that propel migrants to strongly quest for migrating from their home space to other socio-cultural space that performs the role of escape for them. This paper interrogates the discourse of migration, agency and subjectivity in Helon Habila’s Travellers. The essay explores the interconnectedness between migration which is the physical [as deployed in this paper] movement from one location to another, agency as seen in the ability to act based on various ideological frameworks within which the action is taken, and subjectivity which identifies with the predominant factors that influence human actions; and how these connections are responsible for defining the diaspora individual. The discourse of what makes migrants desire to move from their various spaces is as critical as the experiences they face in their various host land. Hence, this paper demonstrates, through the analysis of an African diasporic novel, that the quest for migration is mostly determined by certain agencies in the diaspora home space, which characters have been subjects of and desire to escape. Traveller is a novel which chronicles the various experiences of migrants who journey from their various home space to another land as a result of different agencies that precipitated their migration. This paper engages these agencies as impediments to human survival.

Keywords: migration, agency, subjectivity, Helon Habila, diaspora, home, space

Procedia PDF Downloads 163