Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: aerosols

58 Physicochemical Characterization of Coastal Aerosols over the Mediterranean Comparison with Weather Research and Forecasting-Chem Simulations

Authors: Stephane Laussac, Jacques Piazzola, Gilles Tedeschi


Estimation of the impact of atmospheric aerosols on the climate evolution is an important scientific challenge. One of a major source of particles is constituted by the oceans through the generation of sea-spray aerosols. In coastal areas, marine aerosols can affect air quality through their ability to interact chemically and physically with other aerosol species and gases. The integration of accurate sea-spray emission terms in modeling studies is then required. However, it was found that sea-spray concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations, more particularly at short fetch. In this study, the WRF-Chem model was implemented on a North-Western Mediterranean coastal region. WRF-Chem is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model online-coupled with chemistry for investigation of regional-scale air quality which simulates the emission, transport, mixing, and chemical transformation of trace gases and aerosols simultaneously with the meteorology. One of the objectives was to test the ability of the WRF-Chem model to represent the fine details of the coastal geography to provide accurate predictions of sea spray evolution for different fetches and the anthropogenic aerosols. To assess the performance of the model, a comparison between the model predictions using a local emission inventory and the physicochemical analysis of aerosol concentrations measured for different wind direction on the island of Porquerolles located 10 km south of the French Riviera is proposed.

Keywords: sea-spray aerosols, coastal areas, sea-spray concentrations, short fetch, WRF-Chem model

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
57 Seasonal Variation in Aerosols Characteristics over Ahmedabad

Authors: Devansh Desai, Chamandeep Kaur, Nirmal Kullu, George Christopher


Study of aerosols has become very important tool in assuming the climatic changes over a region.Spectral and temporal variability’s in aerosol optical depth(AOD) and size distribution are investigated using ground base measurements over Ahmedabad during the months of January(2013) to may (2013). Angstrom coefficient (ἁ) was found to be higher in winter season (January to march) indicating the dominance of fine mode aerosol concentration over Ahmedabad, and the Angstrom coefficient (ἁ) was found to be lower indicating the dominance of coarse mode aerosol concentration over Ahmedabad. The different values of alpha are observed when calculated over different wavelength ranges indicating bimodal aerosol size distribution. Discrimination of aerosol size during different seasons is made using the coefficient of polynomial fit (ἁ1 and ἁ2) which shows the presence of changing dominant aerosol types as a function of season over Ahmedabad. The ἁ2- ἁ1 value is used to get the confirmation on the dominant aerosol mode over Ahmedabad in both seasons. During pre-monsoon about 90% of AOD spectra is dominated by coarse mode aerosols and during winter about 60% of AOD spectra is dominated by fine mode aerosols. This characterization of aerosols is important in assessing the response of different aerosols type in radiative forcing and over climate of Ahmedabad.

Keywords: radiative forcing, aerosol optical depth, fine mode, coarse mode

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56 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha


Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
55 Formation of Volatile Iodine from Cesium Iodide Aerosols: A DFT Study

Authors: Houssam Hijazi, Laurent Cantrel, Jean-François Paul


Periodic DFT calculations were performed to study the chemistry of CsI particles and the possible release of volatile iodine from CsI surfaces for nuclear safety interest. The results show that water adsorbs at low temperature associatively on the (011) surface of CsI, while water desorbs at higher temperatures. On the other hand, removing iodine species from the surface requires oxidizing the surface one time for each removed iodide atom. The activation energy of removing I2 from the surface in the presence of two OH is 1,2 eV.

Keywords: aerosols, CSI, reactivity, DFT, water adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
54 Long Term Changes of Aerosols and Their Radiative Forcing over the Tropical Urban Station Pune, India

Authors: M. P. Raju, P. D. Safai, P. S. P. Rao, P. C. S. Devara, C. V. Naidu


In order to study the Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, samples of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) were collected using a high volume sampler at Pune, a semi-urban location in SW India during March 2009 to February 2010. TSP samples were analyzed for water soluble components like F, Cl, NO3, SO4, NH4, Na, K, Ca, and Mg and acid soluble components like Al, Zn, Fe and Cu using Ion-Chromatograph and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Analysis of the data revealed that the monthly mean TSP concentrations varied between 471.3 µg/m3 and 30.5 µg/m3 with an annual mean value of 159.8 µg/m3. TSP concentrations were found to be less during post-monsoon and winter (October through February), compared to those in summer and monsoon (March through September). Anthropogenic activities like vehicular emissions and dust particles originated from urban activities were the major sources for TSP. TSP showed good correlation with all the major ionic components, especially with SO4 (R= 0.62) and NO3 (R= 0.67) indicating the impact of anthropogenic sources over the aerosols at Pune. However, the overall aerosol nature was alkaline (Ave pH = 6.17) mainly due to the neutralizing effects of Ca and NH4. SO4 contributed more (58.8%) to the total acidity as compared to NO3 (41.1%) where as, Ca contributed more (66.5%) to the total alkalinity than NH4 (33.5%). Seasonality of acid soluble component Al, Fe and Cu showed remarkable increase, indicating the dominance of soil source over the man-made activities. Overall study on TSP indicated that aerosols at Pune were mainly affected by the local sources.

Keywords: chemical composition, acidic and neutralization potential, radiative forcing, urban station

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
53 Distribution and Segregation of Aerosols in Ambient Air

Authors: S. Ramteke, K. S. Patel


Aerosols are complex mixture of particulate matters (PM) inclusive of carbons, silica, elements, various salts, etc. Aerosols get deep into the human lungs and cause a broad range of health effects, in particular, respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. They are one of the major culprits for the climate change. They are emitted by the high thermal processes i.e. vehicles, steel, sponge, cement, thermal power plants, etc. Raipur (22˚33'N to 21˚14'N and 82˚6'E) to 81˚38'E) is a growing industrial city in central India with population of two million. In this work, the distribution of inorganics (i.e. Cl⁻, NO³⁻, SO₄²⁻, NH₄⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) associated to the PM in the ambient air is described. The PM₁₀ in ambient air of Raipur city was collected for duration of one year (December 2014 - December 2015). The PM₁₀ was segregated into nine modes i.e. PM₁₀.₀₋₉.₀, PM₉.₀₋₅.₈, PM₅.₈₋₄.₇, PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₃.₃₋₂.₁, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇, PM₀.₇₋₀.₄ and PM₀.₄ to know their emission sources and health hazards. The analysis of ions and metals was carried out by techniques i.e. ion chromatography and TXRF. The PM₁₀ concentration (n=48) was ranged from 100-450 µg/m³ with mean value of 73.57±20.82 µg/m³. The highest concentration of PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇ was observed in the commercial, residential and industrial area, respectively. The effect of meteorology i.e. temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction in the PM₁₀ and associated elemental concentration in the air is discussed.

Keywords: ambient aerosol, ions, metals, segregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
52 Modelling of Aerosols in Absorption Column

Authors: Hammad Majeed, Hanna Knuutila, Magne Hillestad, Hallvard F. Svendsen


Formation of aerosols can cause serious complications in industrial exhaust gas cleaning processes. Small mist droplets and fog formed can normally not be removed in conventional demisting equipment because their submicron size allows the particles or droplets to follow the gas flow. As a consequence of this, aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been identified from PCCC plants. The model predicts the droplet size, the droplet internal variable profiles, and the mass transfer fluxes as function of position in the absorber. The Matlab model is based on a subclass method of weighted residuals for boundary value problems named, orthogonal collocation method. This paper presents results describing the basic simulation tool for the characterization of aerosols formed in CO2 absorption columns and describes how various entering droplets grow or shrink through an absorber and how their composition changes with respect to time. Below are given some preliminary simulation results for an aerosol droplet composition and temperature profiles.

Keywords: absorption columns, aerosol formation, amine emissions, internal droplet profiles, monoethanolamine (MEA), post combustion CO2 capture, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
51 Optimizing the Efficiency of Measuring Instruments in Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso

Authors: Moses Emetere, Marvel Akinyemi, S. E. Sanni


At the moment, AERONET or AMMA database shows a large volume of data loss. With only about 47% data set available to the scientist, it is evident that accurate nowcast or forecast cannot be guaranteed. The calibration constants of most radiosonde or weather stations are not compatible with the atmospheric conditions of the West African climate. A dispersion model was developed to incorporate salient mathematical representations like a Unified number. The Unified number was derived to describe the turbulence of the aerosols transport in the frictional layer of the lower atmosphere. Fourteen years data set from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was tested using the dispersion model. A yearly estimation of the atmospheric constants over Ouagadougou using the model was obtained with about 87.5% accuracy. It further revealed that the average atmospheric constant for Ouagadougou-Niger is a_1 = 0.626, a_2 = 0.7999 and the tuning constants is n_1 = 0.09835 and n_2 = 0.266. Also, the yearly atmospheric constants affirmed the lower atmosphere of Ouagadougou is very dynamic. Hence, it is recommended that radiosonde and weather station manufacturers should constantly review the atmospheric constant over a geographical location to enable about eighty percent data retrieval.

Keywords: aerosols retention, aerosols loading, statistics, analytical technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
50 Interactions between Sodium Aerosols and Fission Products: A Theoretical Chemistry and Experimental Approach

Authors: Ankita Jadon, Sidi Souvi, Nathalie Girault, Denis Petitprez


Safety requirements for Generation IV nuclear reactor designs, especially the new generation sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) require a risk-informed approach to model severe accidents (SA) and their consequences in case of outside release. In SFRs, aerosols are produced during a core disruptive accident when primary system sodium is ejected into the containment and burn in contact with the air; producing sodium aerosols. One of the key aspects of safety evaluation is the in-containment sodium aerosol behavior and their interaction with fission products. The study of the effects of sodium fires is essential for safety evaluation as the fire can both thermally damage the containment vessel and cause an overpressurization risk. Besides, during the fire, airborne fission product first dissolved in the primary sodium can be aerosolized or, as it can be the case for fission products, released under the gaseous form. The objective of this work is to study the interactions between sodium aerosols and fission products (Iodine, toxic and volatile, being the primary concern). Sodium fires resulting from an SA would produce aerosols consisting of sodium peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, and bicarbonates. In addition to being toxic (in oxide form), this aerosol will then become radioactive. If such aerosols are leaked into the environment, they can pose a danger to the ecosystem. Depending on the chemical affinity of these chemical forms with fission products, the radiological consequences of an SA leading to containment leak tightness loss will also be affected. This work is split into two phases. Firstly, a method to theoretically understand the kinetics and thermodynamics of the heterogeneous reaction between sodium aerosols and fission products: I2 and HI are proposed. Ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Vienna ab-initio simulation package are carried out to develop an understanding of the surfaces of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) aerosols and hence provide insight on its affinity towards iodine species. A comprehensive study of I2 and HI adsorption, as well as bicarbonate formation on the calculated lowest energy surface of Na2CO3, was performed which provided adsorption energies and description of the optimized configuration of adsorbate on the stable surface. Secondly, the heterogeneous reaction between (I2)g and Na2CO3 aerosols were investigated experimentally. To study this, (I2)g was generated by heating a permeation tube containing solid I2, and, passing it through a reaction chamber containing Na2CO3 aerosol deposit. The concentration of iodine was then measured at the exit of the reaction chamber. Preliminary observations indicate that there is an effective uptake of (I2)g on Na2CO3 surface, as suggested by our theoretical chemistry calculations. This work is the first step in addressing the gaps in knowledge of in-containment and atmospheric source term which are essential aspects of safety evaluation of SFR SA. In particular, this study is aimed to determine and characterize the radiological and chemical source term. These results will then provide useful insights for the developments of new models to be implemented in integrated computer simulation tool to analyze and evaluate SFR safety designs.

Keywords: iodine adsorption, sodium aerosols, sodium cooled reactor, DFT calculations, sodium carbonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
49 Characterization of Particle Charge from Aerosol Generation Process: Impact on Infrared Signatures and Material Reactivity

Authors: Erin M. Durke, Monica L. McEntee, Meilu He, Suresh Dhaniyala


Aerosols are one of the most important and significant surfaces in the atmosphere. They can influence weather, absorption, and reflection of light, and reactivity of atmospheric constituents. A notable feature of aerosol particles is the presence of a surface charge, a characteristic imparted via the aerosolization process. The existence of charge can complicate the interrogation of aerosol particles, so many researchers remove or neutralize aerosol particles before characterization. However, the charge is present in real-world samples, and likely has an effect on the physical and chemical properties of an aerosolized material. In our studies, we aerosolized different materials in an attempt to characterize the charge imparted via the aerosolization process and determine what impact it has on the aerosolized materials’ properties. The metal oxides, TiO₂ and SiO₂, were aerosolized expulsively and then characterized, using several different techniques, in an effort to determine the surface charge imparted upon the particles via the aerosolization process. Particle charge distribution measurements were conducted via the employment of a custom scanning mobility particle sizer. The results of the charge distribution measurements indicated that expulsive generation of 0.2 µm SiO₂ particles produced aerosols with upwards of 30+ charges on the surface of the particle. Determination of the degree of surface charging led to the use of non-traditional techniques to explore the impact of additional surface charge on the overall reactivity of the metal oxides, specifically TiO₂. TiO₂ was aerosolized, again expulsively, onto a gold-coated tungsten mesh, which was then evaluated with transmission infrared spectroscopy in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The TiO₂ aerosols were exposed to O₂, H₂, and CO, respectively. Exposure to O₂ resulted in a decrease in the overall baseline of the aerosol spectrum, suggesting O₂ removed some of the surface charge imparted during aerosolization. Upon exposure to H₂, there was no observable rise in the baseline of the IR spectrum, as is typically seen for TiO₂, due to the population of electrons into the shallow trapped states and subsequent promotion of the electrons into the conduction band. This result suggests that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization fills the trapped states, therefore no rise is seen upon exposure to H₂. Dosing the TiO₂ aerosols with CO showed no adsorption of CO on the surface, even at lower temperatures (~100 K), indicating the additional charge on the aerosol surface prevents the CO molecules from adsorbing to the TiO₂ surface. The results observed during exposure suggest that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization impacts the interaction with each probe gas.

Keywords: aerosols, charge, reactivity, infrared

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48 Two-Phase Flow Study of Airborne Transmission Control in Dental Practices

Authors: Mojtaba Zabihi, Stephen Munro, Jonathan Little, Ri Li, Joshua Brinkerhoff, Sina Kheirkhah


Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified dental workers at the highest risk of contracting COVID-19. This is because aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) during dental practices generate aerosols ( < 5µm) and droplets. These particles travel at varying speeds, in varying directions, and for varying durations. If these particles bear infectious viruses, their spreading causes airborne transmission of the virus in the dental room, exposing dentists, hygienists, dental assistants, and even other dental clinic clients to the infection risk. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of two-phase flows based on a discrete phase model (DPM) is carried out to study the spreading of aerosol and droplets in a dental room. The simulation includes momentum, heat, and mass transfers between the particles and the airflow. Two simulations are conducted and compared. One simulation focuses on the effects of room ventilation in winter and summer on the particles' travel. The other simulation focuses on the control of aerosol and droplets' spreading. A suction collector is added near the source of aerosol and droplets, creating a flow sink in order to remove the particles. The effects of the suction flow on the aerosol and droplet travel are studied. The suction flow can remove aerosols and also reduce the spreading of droplets.

Keywords: aerosols, computational fluid dynamics, COVID-19, dental, discrete phase model, droplets, two-phase flow

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47 Relation of Black Carbon Aerosols and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height during Wet Removal Processes over a Semi Urban Location

Authors: M. Ashok Williams, T. V. Lakshmi Kumar


The life cycle of Black carbon aerosols depends on their physical removal processes from the atmosphere during the precipitation events. Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration has been analysed during rainy and non-rainy days of Northeast (NE) Monsoon months of the years 2015 and 2017 over a semi-urban environment near Chennai (12.81 N, 80.03 E), located on the east coast of India. BC, measured using an Aethalometer (AE-31) has been related to the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from the ERA Interim Reanalysis data during rainy and non-rainy days on monthly mean basis to understand the wet removal of BC over the study location. The study reveals that boundary layer height has a profound effect on the BC concentration on rainy days and non rainy days. It is found that the BC concentration in the night time is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days owing to wash out on rainy days and the boundary layer height remaining nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days. On the other hand, in the daytime, it is found that the BC concentration remains nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days whereas the boundary layer height is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days. This reveals that in daytime, lower boundary layer heights compensate for the wet removal effect on BC concentration on rainy days. A quantitative relation is found between the product of BC and BLH during rainy and non-rainy days which indicates the extent of redistribution of BC during non-rainy days when compared to the rainy days. Further work on the wet removal processes of the BC is in progress considering the individual rain events and other related parameters like wind speed.

Keywords: black carbon aerosols, atmospheric boundary layer, scavenging processes, tropical coastal location

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
46 Thermodynamics of Water Condensation on an Aqueous Organic-Coated Aerosol Aging via Chemical Mechanism

Authors: Yuri S. Djikaev


A large subset of aqueous aerosols can be initially (immediately upon formation) coated with various organic amphiphilic compounds whereof the hydrophilic moieties are attached to the aqueous aerosol core while the hydrophobic moieties are exposed to the air thus forming a hydrophobic coating thereupon. We study the thermodynamics of water condensation on such an aerosol whereof the hydrophobic organic coating is being concomitantly processed by chemical reactions with atmospheric reactive species. Such processing (chemical aging) enables the initially inert aerosol to serve as a nucleating center for water condensation. The most probable pathway of such aging involves atmospheric hydroxyl radicals that abstract hydrogen atoms from hydrophobic moieties of surface organics (first step), the resulting radicals being quickly oxidized by ubiquitous atmospheric oxygen molecules to produce surface-bound peroxyl radicals (second step). Taking these two reactions into account, we derive an expression for the free energy of formation of an aqueous droplet on an organic-coated aerosol. The model is illustrated by numerical calculations. The results suggest that the formation of aqueous cloud droplets on such aerosols is most likely to occur via Kohler activation rather than via nucleation. The model allows one to determine the threshold parameters necessary for their Kohler activation. Numerical results also corroborate previous suggestions that one can neglect some details of aerosol chemical composition in investigating aerosol effects on climate.

Keywords: aqueous aerosols, organic coating, chemical aging, cloud condensation nuclei, Kohler activation, cloud droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
45 Characterization and Modelling of Aerosol Droplet in Absorption Columns

Authors: Hammad Majeed, Hanna Knuutila, Magne Hillestad, Hallvard F. Svendsen


Formation of aerosols can cause serious complications in industrial exhaust gas CO2 capture processes. SO3 present in the flue gas can cause aerosol formation in an absorption based capture process. Small mist droplets and fog formed can normally not be removed in conventional demisting equipment because their submicron size allows the particles or droplets to follow the gas flow. As a consequence of this aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been identified from PCCC plants. In absorption processes aerosols are generated by spontaneous condensation or desublimation processes in supersaturated gas phases. Undesired aerosol development may lead to amine emissions many times larger than what would be encountered in a mist free gas phase in PCCC development. It is thus of crucial importance to understand the formation and build-up of these aerosols in order to mitigate the problem. Rigorous modelling of aerosol dynamics leads to a system of partial differential equations. In order to understand mechanics of a particle entering an absorber an implementation of the model is created in Matlab. The model predicts the droplet size, the droplet internal variable profiles and the mass transfer fluxes as function of position in the absorber. The Matlab model is based on a subclass method of weighted residuals for boundary value problems named, orthogonal collocation method. The model comprises a set of mass transfer equations for transferring components and the essential diffusion reaction equations to describe the droplet internal profiles for all relevant constituents. Also included is heat transfer across the interface and inside the droplet. This paper presents results describing the basic simulation tool for the characterization of aerosols formed in CO2 absorption columns and gives examples as to how various entering droplets grow or shrink through an absorber and how their composition changes with respect to time. Below are given some preliminary simulation results for an aerosol droplet composition and temperature profiles.

Keywords: absorption columns, aerosol formation, amine emissions, internal droplet profiles, monoethanolamine (MEA), post combustion CO2 capture, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
44 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez


Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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43 Characterization of Aerosol Droplet in Absorption Columns to Avoid Amine Emissions

Authors: Hammad Majeed, Hanna Knuutila, Magne Hilestad, Hallvard Svendsen


Formation of aerosols can cause serious complications in industrial exhaust gas CO2 capture processes. SO3 present in the flue gas can cause aerosol formation in an absorption based capture process. Small mist droplets and fog formed can normally not be removed in conventional demisting equipment because their submicron size allows the particles or droplets to follow the gas flow. As a consequence of this aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been identified from PCCC plants. In absorption processes aerosols are generated by spontaneous condensation or desublimation processes in supersaturated gas phases. Undesired aerosol development may lead to amine emissions many times larger than what would be encountered in a mist free gas phase in PCCC development. It is thus of crucial importance to understand the formation and build-up of these aerosols in order to mitigate the problem.Rigorous modelling of aerosol dynamics leads to a system of partial differential equations. In order to understand mechanics of a particle entering an absorber an implementation of the model is created in Matlab. The model predicts the droplet size, the droplet internal variable profiles and the mass transfer fluxes as function of position in the absorber. The Matlab model is based on a subclass method of weighted residuals for boundary value problems named, orthogonal collocation method. The model comprises a set of mass transfer equations for transferring components and the essential diffusion reaction equations to describe the droplet internal profiles for all relevant constituents. Also included is heat transfer across the interface and inside the droplet. This paper presents results describing the basic simulation tool for the characterization of aerosols formed in CO2 absorption columns and gives examples as to how various entering droplets grow or shrink through an absorber and how their composition changes with respect to time. Below are given some preliminary simulation results for an aerosol droplet composition and temperature profiles. Results: As an example a droplet of initial size of 3 microns, initially containing a 5M MEA, solution is exposed to an atmosphere free of MEA. Composition of the gas phase and temperature is changing with respect to time throughout the absorber.

Keywords: amine solvents, emissions, global climate change, simulation and modelling, aerosol generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
42 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo


The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
41 Estimations of Spectral Dependence of Tropospheric Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo in Sukhothai, Thailand

Authors: Siriluk Ruangrungrote


Analyses of available data from MFR-7 measurement were performed and discussed on the study of tropospheric aerosol and its consequence in Thailand. Since, ASSA (w) is one of the most important parameters for a determination of aerosol effect on radioactive forcing. Here the estimation of w was directly determined in terms of the ratio of aerosol scattering optical depth to aerosol extinction optical depth (ωscat/ωext) without any utilization of aerosol computer code models. This is of benefit for providing the elimination of uncertainty causing by the modeling assumptions and the estimation of actual aerosol input data. Diurnal w of 5 cloudless-days in winter and early summer at 5 distinct wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673 and 870 nm with the consideration of Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric column NO2 and Ozone contents were investigated, respectively. Besides, the tendency of spectral dependence of ω representing two seasons was observed. The characteristic of spectral results reveals that during wintertime the atmosphere of the inland rural vicinity for the period of measurement possibly dominated with a lesser amount of soil dust aerosols loading than one in early summer. Hence, the major aerosol loading particularly in summer was subject to a mixture of both soil dust and biomass burning aerosols.

Keywords: aerosol scattering optical depth, aerosol extinction optical depth, biomass burning aerosol, soil dust aerosol

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
40 Carbonaceous Monolithic Multi-Channel Denuders as a Gas-Particle Partitioning Tool for the Occupational Sampling of Aerosols from Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds

Authors: Vesta Kohlmeier, George C. Dragan, Juergen Orasche, Juergen Schnelle-Kreis, Dietmar Breuer, Ralf Zimmermann


Aerosols from hazardous semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) may occur in workplace air and can simultaneously be found as particle and gas phase. For health risk assessment, it is necessary to collect particles and gases separately. This can be achieved by using a denuder for the gas phase collection, combined with a filter and an adsorber for particle collection. The study focused on the suitability of carbonaceous monolithic multi-channel denuders, so-called Novacarb™-Denuders (MastCarbon International Ltd., Guilford, UK), to achieve gas-particle separation. Particle transmission efficiency experiments were performed with polystyrene latex (PSL) particles (size range 0.51-3 µm), while the time dependent gas phase collection efficiency was analysed for polar and nonpolar SVOC (mass concentrations 7-10 mg/m3) over 2 h at 5 or 10 l/min. The experimental gas phase collection efficiency was also compared with theoretical predictions. For n-hexadecane (C16), the gas phase collection efficiency was max. 91 % for one denuder and max. 98 % for two denuders, while for diethylene glycol (DEG), a maximal gas phase collection efficiency of 93 % for one denuder and 97 % for two denuders was observed. At 5 l/min higher gas phase collection efficiencies were achieved than at 10 l/min. The deviations between the theoretical and experimental gas phase collection efficiencies were up to 5 % for C16 and 23 % for DEG. Since the theoretical efficiency depends on the geometric shape and length of the denuder, flow rate and diffusion coefficients of the tested substances, the obtained values define an upper limit which could be reached. Regarding the particle transmission through the denuders, the use of one denuder showed transmission efficiencies around 98 % for 1-3 µm particle diameters. The use of three denuders resulted in transmission efficiencies from 93-97 % for the same particle sizes. In summary, NovaCarb™-Denuders are well applicable for sampling aerosols of polar/nonpolar substances with particle diameters ≤3 µm and flow rates of 5 l/min or lower. These properties and their compact size make them suitable for use in personal aerosol samplers. This work is supported by the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV), research contract FP371.

Keywords: gas phase collection efficiency, particle transmission, personal aerosol sampler, SVOC

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
39 Density Functional Theory Study of the Surface Interactions between Sodium Carbonate Aerosols and Fission Products

Authors: Ankita Jadon, Sidi Souvi, Nathalie Girault, Denis Petitprez


The interaction of fission products (FP) with sodium carbonate (Na₂CO₃) aerosols is of a high safety concern because of their potential role in the radiological source term mitigation by FP trapping. In a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor (SFR) experiencing a severe accident, sodium (Na) aerosols can be formed after the ejection of the liquid Na coolant inside the containment. The surface interactions between these aerosols and different FP species have been investigated using ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP). In addition, an improved thermodynamic model has been proposed to treat DFT-VASP calculated energies to extrapolate them to temperatures and pressures of interest in our study. A combined experimental and theoretical chemistry study has been carried out to have both atomistic and macroscopic understanding of the chemical processes; the theoretical chemistry part of this approach is presented in this paper. The Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof functional were applied in combination with Grimme’s van der Waals correction to compute exchange-correlational energy at 0 K. Seven different surface cleavages were studied of Ƴ-Na₂CO₃ phase (stable at 603.15 K), it was found that for defect-free surfaces, the (001) facet is the most stable. Furthermore, calculations were performed to study surface defects and reconstructions on the ideal surface. All the studied surface defects were found to be less stable than the ideal surface. More than one adsorbate-ligand configurations were found to be stable confirming that FP vapors could be trapped on various adsorption sites. The calculated adsorption energies (Eads, eV) for the three most stable adsorption sites for I₂ are -1.33, -1.088, and -1.085. Moreover, the adsorption of the first molecule of I₂ changes the surface in a way which would favor stronger adsorption of a second molecule of I2 (Eads, eV = -1.261). For HI adsorption, the most favored reactions have the following Eads (eV) -1.982, -1.790, -1.683 implying that HI would be more reactive than I₂. In addition to FP species, adsorption of H₂O was also studied as the hydrated surface can have different reactivity than the bare surface. One thermodynamically favored site for H₂O adsorption was found with an Eads, eV of -0.754. Finally, the calculations of hydrated surfaces of Na₂CO₃ show that a layer of water adsorbed on the surface significantly reduces its affinity for iodine (Eads, eV = -1.066). According to the thermodynamic model built, the required partial pressure at 373 K to have adsorption of the first layer of iodine is 4.57×10⁻⁴ bar. The second layer will be adsorbed at partial pressures higher than 8.56×10⁻⁶ bar; a layer of water on the surface will increase these pressure almost ten folds to 3.71×10⁻³ bar. The surface interacts with elemental Cs with an Eads (eV) of -1.60, while interacts even strongly with CsI with an Eads (eV) of -2.39. More results on the interactions between Na₂CO₃ (001) and cesium-based FP will also be presented in this paper.

Keywords: iodine uptake, sodium carbonate surface, sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor, DFT calculations, fission products

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38 Long Term Monitoring and Assessment of Atmospheric Aerosols in Indo-Gangetic Region of India

Authors: Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Amrendra Kumar


The long term sampling at one of the most populated city in Indo-Gangetic region shows higher mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol (PM₂.₅) during spring season (144.70µg/m³), summer season (91.96 µg/m³), the autumn season (266.48µg/m³) and winter season (367.09 µg/m³) respectively. The concentration of PM₂.₅ in Patna across the year shows much higher than the limit fixed by the national ambient air quality level fixed by central pollution control board India (CPCB, India) and World Health Organization (WHO). Different water-soluble cation (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, NH₄⁺ , and Mg²⁺) and anion (Cl⁻, NO₃⁻ , and SO₄²⁻) species were detected in PM₂.₅. Results show the significantly higher loaded of water-soluble ions during winter and spring seasons. The acidity of the atmosphere was revealed and calculated using selected major cations (K⁺, Ca²⁺ , and NH₄⁺) and anions (SO₄²⁻, and NO₃⁻). A regression correlation was analyzed to check the significant linkage between the acidity and alkalinity ions. During the winter season (r² = 0.79) and spring season (r² = 0.64) shows good significant correlation between the cations and anions. The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ indicates the sources of secondary pollutants were mainly influenced by industrial and vehicular emission however SO₄²⁻ mostly emitted from industries during the winter season.

Keywords: aerosols, inorganic species, source apportionment, Indo-Gangetic region

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37 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Isotopes of Plutonium in PM₂.₅

Authors: C. G. Mendez-Garcia, E. T. Romero-Guzman, H. Hernandez-Mendoza, C. Solis, E. Chavez-Lomeli, E. Chamizo, R. Garcia-Tenorio


Plutonium is present in different concentrations in the environment and biological samples related to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear waste recycling and accidental discharges of nuclear plants. This radioisotope is considered the most radiotoxic substance, particularly when it enters the human body through inhalation of powders insoluble or aerosols. This is the main reason of the determination of the concentration of this radioisotope in the atmosphere. Besides that, the isotopic ratio of ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu provides information about the origin of the source. PM₂.₅ sampling was carried out in the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZVM) from February 18th to March 17th in 2015 on quartz filter. There have been significant developments recently due to the establishment of new methods for sample preparation and accurate measurement to detect ultra trace levels as the plutonium is found in the environment. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a technique that allows measuring levels of detection around of femtograms (10-15 g). The AMS determinations include the chemical isolation of Pu. The Pu separation involved an acidic digestion and a radiochemical purification using an anion exchange resin. Finally, the source is prepared, when Pu is pressed in the corresponding cathodes. According to the author's knowledge on these aerosols showed variations on the ²³⁵U/²³⁸U ratio of the natural value, suggesting that could be an anthropogenic source altering it. The determination of the concentration of the isotopes of Pu can be a useful tool in order the clarify this presence in the atmosphere. The first results showed a mean value of activity concentration of ²³⁹Pu of 280 nBq m⁻³ thus the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu was 0.025 corresponding to the weapon production source; these results corroborate that there is an anthropogenic influence that is increasing the concentration of radioactive material in PM₂.₅. According to the author's knowledge in Total Suspended Particles (TSP) have been reported activity concentrations of ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu around few tens of nBq m⁻³ and 0.17 of ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu ratios. The preliminary results in MZVM show high activity concentrations of isotopes of Pu (40 and 700 nBq m⁻³) and low ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu ratio than reported. These results are in the order of the activity concentrations of Pu in weapons-grade of high purity.

Keywords: aerosols, fallout, mass spectrometry, radiochemistry, tracer, ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu ratio

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36 Atmospheric Circulation Types Related to Dust Transport Episodes over Crete in the Eastern Mediterranean

Authors: K. Alafogiannis, E. E. Houssos, E. Anagnostou, G. Kouvarakis, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Fotiadi


The Mediterranean basin is an area where different aerosol types coexist, including urban/industrial, desert dust, biomass burning and marine particles. Particularly, mineral dust aerosols, mostly originated from North African deserts, significantly contribute to high aerosol loads above the Mediterranean. Dust transport, controlled by the variation of the atmospheric circulation throughout the year, results in a strong spatial and temporal variability of aerosol properties. In this study, the synoptic conditions which favor dust transport over the Eastern Mediterranean are thoroughly investigated. For this reason, three datasets are employed. Firstly, ground-based daily data of aerosol properties, namely Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent (α440-870) and fine fraction from the FORTH-AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) station along with measurements of PM10 concentrations from Finokalia station, for the period 2003-2011, are used to identify days with high coarse aerosol load (episodes) over Crete. Then, geopotential height at 1000, 850 and 700 hPa levels obtained from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project, are utilized to depict the atmospheric circulation during the identified episodes. Additionally, air-mass back trajectories, calculated by HYSPLIT, are used to verify the origin of aerosols from neighbouring deserts. For the 227 identified dust episodes, the statistical methods of Factor and Cluster Analysis are applied on the corresponding atmospheric circulation data to reveal the main types of the synoptic conditions favouring dust transport towards Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). The 227 cases are classified into 11 distinct types (clusters). Dust episodes in Eastern Mediterranean, are found to be more frequent (52%) in spring with a secondary maximum in autumn. The main characteristic of the atmospheric circulation associated with dust episodes, is the presence of a low-pressure system at surface, either in southwestern Europe or western/central Mediterranean, which induces a southerly air flow favouring dust transport from African deserts. The exact position and the intensity of the low-pressure system vary notably among clusters. More rarely dust may originate from deserts of Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: aerosols, atmospheric circulation, dust particles, Eastern Mediterranean

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35 Impact of Unusual Dust Event on Regional Climate in India

Authors: Kanika Taneja, V. K. Soni, Kafeel Ahmad, Shamshad Ahmad


A severe dust storm generated from a western disturbance over north Pakistan and adjoining Afghanistan affected the north-west region of India between May 28 and 31, 2014, resulting in significant reductions in air quality and visibility. The air quality of the affected region degraded drastically. PM10 concentration peaked at a very high value of around 1018 μgm-3 during dust storm hours of May 30, 2014 at New Delhi. The present study depicts aerosol optical properties monitored during the dust days using ground based multi-wavelength Sky radiometer over the National Capital Region of India. High Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 500 nm was observed as 1.356 ± 0.19 at New Delhi while Angstrom exponent (Alpha) dropped to 0.287 on May 30, 2014. The variation in the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and real n(λ) and imaginary k(λ) parts of the refractive index indicated that the dust event influences the optical state to be more absorbing. The single scattering albedo, refractive index, volume size distribution and asymmetry parameter (ASY) values suggested that dust aerosols were predominant over the anthropogenic aerosols in the urban environment of New Delhi. The large reduction in the radiative flux at the surface level caused significant cooling at the surface. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF) was calculated using a radiative transfer model during the dust period. A consistent increase in surface cooling was evident, ranging from -31 Wm-2 to -82 Wm-2 and an increase in heating of the atmosphere from 15 Wm-2 to 92 Wm-2 and -2 Wm-2 to 10 Wm-2 at top of the atmosphere.

Keywords: aerosol optical properties, dust storm, radiative transfer model, sky radiometer

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34 Spherical Organic Particle (SOP) Emissions from Fixed-Bed Residential Coal-Burning Devices

Authors: Tafadzwa Makonese, Harold Annegarn, Patricia Forbes


Residential coal combustion is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the Highveld region of South Africa, significantly affecting the local and regional climate. In this study, we investigated single coal burning particles emitted when using different fire-ignition techniques (top-lit up-draft vs bottom-lit up-draft) and air ventilation rates (defined by the number of air holes above and below the fire grate) in selected informal braziers. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the SeTAR Centre Laboratory, University of Johannesburg. Individual particles (~700) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two distinct forms of spherical organic particles (SOPs) were identified, one less oxidized than the other. The particles were further classified into "electronically" dark and bright, according to China et al. [2014]. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark spherical organic particles balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright SOPs. We quantify the morphology of spherical organic particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are bare single particles; ~35% particles are aggregated and form diffusion accretion chains; 10% have inclusions; and 5% are deformed due to impaction on filter material during sampling. We conclude that there are two distinct kinds of coal burning spherical organic particles and that dark SOPs are less volatile than bright SOPs. We also show that these spherical organic particles are similar in nature and characteristics to tar balls observed in biomass combustion, and that they have the potential to absorb sunlight thereby affecting the earth’s radiative budget and climate. This study provides insights on the mixing states, morphology, and possible formation mechanisms of these organic particles from residential coal combustion in informal stoves.

Keywords: spherical organic particles, residential coal combustion, fixed-bed, aerosols, morphology, stoves

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33 Surface Acoustic Waves Nebulisation of Liposomes Manufactured in situ for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

Authors: X. King, E. Nazarzadeh, J. Reboud, J. Cooper


Pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, are generally treated by the inhalation of aerosols that has the advantage of reducing the off-target (e.g., toxicity) effects associated with systemic delivery in blood. Effective respiratory drug delivery requires a droplet size distribution between 1 and 5 µm. Inhalation of aerosols with wide droplet size distribution, out of this range, results in deposition of drug in not-targeted area of the respiratory tract, introducing undesired side effects on the patient. In order to solely deliver the drug in the lower branches of the lungs and release it in a targeted manner, a control mechanism to produce the aerosolized droplets is required. To regulate the drug release and to facilitate the uptake from cells, drugs are often encapsulated into protective liposomes. However, a multistep process is required for their formation, often performed at the formulation step, therefore limiting the range of available drugs or their shelf life. Using surface acoustic waves (SAWs), a pulmonary drug delivery platform was produced, which enabled the formation of defined size aerosols and the formation of liposomes in situ. SAWs are mechanical waves, propagating along the surface of a piezoelectric substrate. They were generated using an interdigital transducer on lithium niobate with an excitation frequency of 9.6 MHz at a power of 1W. Disposable silicon superstrates were etched using photolithography and dry etch processes to create an array of cylindrical through-holes with different diameters and pitches. Superstrates were coupled with the SAW substrate through water-based gel. As the SAW propagates on the superstrate, it enables nebulisation of a lipid solution deposited onto it. The cylindrical cavities restricted the formation of large drops in the aerosol, while at the same time unilamellar liposomes were created. SAW formed liposomes showed a higher monodispersity compared to the control sample, as well as displayed, a faster production rate. To test the aerosol’s size, dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction methods were used, both showing the size control of the aerosolised particles. The use of silicon superstate with cavity size of 100-200 µm, produced an aerosol with a mean droplet size within the optimum range for pulmonary drug delivery, containing the liposomes in which the medicine could be loaded. Additionally, analysis of liposomes with Cryo-TEM showed formation of vesicles with narrow size distribution between 80-100 nm and optimal morphology in order to be used for drug delivery. Encapsulation of nucleic acids in liposomes through the developed SAW platform was also investigated. In vitro delivery of siRNA and DNA Luciferase were achieved using A549 cell line, lung carcinoma from human. In conclusion, SAW pulmonary drug delivery platform was engineered, in order to combine multiple time consuming steps (formation of liposomes, drug loading, nebulisation) into a unique platform with the aim of specifically delivering the medicament in a targeted area, reducing the drug’s side effects.

Keywords: acoustics, drug delivery, liposomes, surface acoustic waves

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32 The Concentration of Selected Cosmogenic and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Ground Layer of the Atmosphere (Polar and Mid-Latitudes Regions)

Authors: A. Burakowska, M. Piotrowski, M. Kubicki, H. Trzaskowska, R. Sosnowiec, B. Myslek-Laurikainen


The most important source of atmospheric radioactivity are radionuclides generated as a result of the impact of primary and secondary cosmic radiation, with the nuclei of nitrogen oxygen and carbon in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This creates about thirty radioisotopes of more than twenty elements. For organisms, the four of them are most important: ³H, ⁷Be, ²²Na, ¹⁴C. The natural radionuclides, which are present in Earth crust, also settle on dust and particles of water vapor. By this means, the derivatives of uranium and thorium, and long-life 40K get into the air. ¹³⁷Cs is the most widespread isotope, that is implemented by humans into the environment. To determine the concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere, high volume air samplers were used, where the aerosol collection took place on a special filter fabric (Petrianov filter tissue FPP-15-1.5). In 2002 the high volume air sampler AZA-1000 was installed at the Polish Polar Observatory of the Polish Academy of Science in Hornsund, Spitsbergen (77°00’N, 15°33’E), designed to operate in all weather conditions of the cold polar region. Since 1991 (with short breaks) the ASS-500 air sampler has been working, which is located in Swider at the Kalinowski Geophysical Observatory of Geophysics Institute of the Polish Academy of Science (52°07’N, 21°15’E). The following results of radionuclides concentrations were obtained from both stations using gamma spectroscopy analysis: ⁷Be, ¹³⁷Cs, ¹³⁴Cs, ²¹⁰Pb, ⁴⁰K. For gamma spectroscopy analysis HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector were used. These data were compared with each other. The preliminary results gave evidence that radioactivity measured in aerosols is not proportional to the amount of dust for both studied regions. Furthermore, the results indicate annual variability (seasonal fluctuations) as well as a decrease in the average activity of ⁷Be with increasing latitude. The content of ⁷Be in surface air also indicates the relationship with solar activity cycles.

Keywords: aerosols, air filters, atmospheric beryllium, environmental radionuclides, gamma spectroscopy, mid-latitude regions radionuclides, polar regions radionuclides, solar cycles

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31 Observationally Constrained Estimates of Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing over Indian Ocean

Authors: Sofiya Rao, Sagnik Dey


Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction continues to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in quantifying the aerosol climate forcing. The uncertainty is increasing from global to regional scale. This problem remains unresolved due to the large discrepancy in the representation of cloud processes in the climate models. Most of the studies on aerosol-cloud-climate interaction and aerosol-cloud-precipitation over Indian Ocean (like INDOEX, CAIPEEX campaign etc.) are restricted to either particular to one season or particular to one region. Here we developed a theoretical framework to quantify aerosol indirect radiative forcing using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products of 15 years (2000-2015) period over the Indian Ocean. This framework relies on the observationally constrained estimate of the aerosol-induced change in cloud albedo. We partitioned the change in cloud albedo into the change in Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Effective Radius of Clouds (Reff) in response to an aerosol optical depth (AOD). Cloud albedo response to an increase in AOD is most sensitive in the range of LWP between 120-300 gm/m² for a range of Reff varying from 8-24 micrometer, which means aerosols are most sensitive to this range of LWP and Reff. Using this framework, aerosol forcing during a transition from indirect to semi-direct effect is also calculated. The outcome of this analysis shows best results over the Arabian Sea in comparison with the Bay of Bengal and the South Indian Ocean because of heterogeneity in aerosol spices over the Arabian Sea. Over the Arabian Sea during Winter Season the more absorbing aerosols are dominating, during Pre-monsoon dust (coarse mode aerosol particles) are more dominating. In winter and pre-monsoon majorly the aerosol forcing is more dominating while during monsoon and post-monsoon season meteorological forcing is more dominating. Over the South Indian Ocean, more or less same types of aerosol (Sea salt) are present. Over the Arabian Sea the Aerosol Indirect Radiative forcing are varying from -5 ± 4.5 W/m² for winter season while in other seasons it is reducing. The results provide observationally constrained estimates of aerosol indirect forcing in the Indian Ocean which can be helpful in evaluating the climate model performance in the context of such complex interactions.

Keywords: aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction, aerosol-cloud-climate interaction, indirect radiative forcing, climate model

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30 Influence of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns on Dust Pollution Transport during the Harmattan Period over West Africa

Authors: Ayodeji Oluleye


This study used Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) and reanalysis dataset of thirty years (1983-2012) to investigate the influence of the atmospheric circulation on dust transport during the Harmattan period over WestAfrica using TOMS data. The Harmattan dust mobilization and atmospheric circulation pattern were evaluated using a kernel density estimate which shows the areas where most points are concentrated between the variables. The evolution of the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD), Sea surface Temperature (SST) over the Gulf of Guinea, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during the Harmattan period (November-March) was also analyzed and graphs of the average ITD positions, SST and the NAO were observed on daily basis. The Pearson moment correlation analysis was also employed to assess the effect of atmospheric circulation on Harmattan dust transport. The results show that the departure (increased) of TOMS AI values from the long-term mean (1.64) occurred from around 21st of December, which signifies the rich dust days during winter period. Strong TOMS AI signal were observed from January to March with the maximum occurring in the latter months (February and March). The inter-annual variability of TOMSAI revealed that the rich dust years were found between 1984-1985, 1987-1988, 1997-1998, 1999-2000, and 2002-2004. Significantly, poor dust year was found between 2005 and 2006 in all the periods. The study has found strong north-easterly (NE) trade winds were over most of the Sahelianregion of West Africa during the winter months with the maximum wind speed reaching 8.61m/s inJanuary.The strength of NE winds determines the extent of dust transport to the coast of Gulf of Guinea during winter. This study has confirmed that the presence of the Harmattan is strongly dependent on theSST over Atlantic Ocean and ITD position. The locus of the average SST and ITD positions over West Africa could be described by polynomial functions. The study concludes that the evolution of near surface wind field at 925 hpa, and the variations of SST and ITD positions are the major large scale atmospheric circulation systems driving the emission, distribution, and transport of Harmattan dust aerosols over West Africa. However, the influence of NAO was shown to have fewer significance effects on the Harmattan dust transport over the region.

Keywords: atmospheric circulation, dust aerosols, Harmattan, West Africa

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29 Heavy Metals in PM2.5 Aerosols in Urban Sites of Győr, Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős


Atmospheric concentrations of some heavy metal compounds (Pb, Cd, Ni) and the metalloid As were identified and determined in airborne PM2.5 particles in urban sites of Győr, northwest area of Hungary. PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected in two different sampling sites and the trace metal(loid) (Pb, Ni, Cd and As) content were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of PM2.5 fraction was varied between 12.22 and 36.92 μg/m3 at the two sampling sites. The trend of heavy metal mean concentrations regarding the mean value of the two urban sites of Győr was found in decreasing order of Pb > Ni > Cd. The mean values were 7.59 ng/m3 for Pb, 0.34 ng/m3 for Ni and 0.11 ng/m3 for Cd, respectively. The metalloid As could be detected only in 3.57% of the total collected samples. The levels of PM2.5 bounded heavy metals were determined and compared with other cities located in Hungary.

Keywords: aerosol, air quality, heavy metals, PM2.5

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