Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1134

Search results for: seismic hazard

1134 Preliminary Seismic Hazard Mapping of Papua New Guinea

Authors: Hadi Ghasemi, Mark Leonard, Spiliopoulos Spiro, Phil Cummins, Mathew Moihoi, Felix Taranu, Eric Buri, Chris Mckee


In this study the level of seismic hazard in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) was calculated for return period of 475 years, using modeled seismic sources and assigned ground-motion equations. The calculations were performed for bedrock site conditions (Vs30=760 m/s). From the results it is evident that the seismic hazard reaches its maximum level (i.e. PGA≈1g for 475 yr return period) at the Huon Peninsula and southern New Britain regions. Disaggregation analysis revealed that moderate to large earthquakes occurring along the New Britain Trench mainly control the level of hazard at these locations. The open-source computer program OpenQuake developed by Global Earthquake Model foundation was used for the seismic hazard computations. It should be emphasized that the presented results are still preliminary and should not be interpreted as our final assessment of seismic hazard in PNG.

Keywords: probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, Papua New Guinea, building code, OpenQuake

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1133 Prediction of Structural Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Juan Bojórquez, Henry E. Reyes, Edén Bojórquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar


This paper addressed the use of Artificial Intelligence to obtain the structural reliability of reinforced concrete buildings. For this purpose, artificial neuronal networks (ANN) are developed to predict seismic demand hazard curves. In order to have enough input-output data to train the ANN, a set of reinforced concrete buildings (low, mid, and high rise) are designed, then a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is made to obtain the seismic demand hazard curves. The results are then used as input-output data to train the ANN in a feedforward backpropagation model. The predicted values of the seismic demand hazard curves found by the ANN are then compared. Finally, it is concluded that the computer time analysis is significantly lower and the predictions obtained from the ANN were accurate in comparison to the values obtained from the conventional methods.

Keywords: structural reliability, seismic design, machine learning, artificial neural network, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic demand hazard curves

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1132 Seismic Hazard Response of Bhairabi-Sairang Tunnel Due to the Effect of Faulting

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Subhrajit Pathak


In this study, structural response of Bhairabi-Sairang Tunnel due to presence of seismic faults has been thoroughly examined. There may be several active faults located in and around the project. Faults are the key seismic sources from where earthquakes are originated. The magnitude of earthquake will depend on the length of the fault. A long fault more than 200 km can produce earthquake of magnitude (Mw ) more than 8.0 and smaller length less than 10 km will produce small magnitude earthquake. Now-a-days it is very much essential to identify the distance and length of a fault from the project site. Based on this, in the present paper, a case study of the Bhairabi Sairang Tunnel of 1.73 Km length located in the North Eastern Region of India has been selected to calculate the seismic hazard from the surrounding effect of faults. A comparative study of seismic hazard at the tunnel site has been made based on the location of faults with the seismic hazard obtained from the Indian Standards code of Practice. In this paper, a practical problem of a tunnel has been analysed based on the available faults around the project site accounting the soil factor.

Keywords: seismic hazard, effect of fault, soil factor, Bhairabi Sairang tunnel

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1131 Developing an Integrated Seismic Risk Model for Existing Buildings in Northern Algeria

Authors: R. Monteiro, A. Abarca


Large scale seismic risk assessment has become increasingly popular to evaluate the physical vulnerability of a given region to seismic events, by putting together hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. This study, developed within the scope of the EU-funded project ITERATE (Improved Tools for Disaster Risk Mitigation in Algeria), explains the steps and expected results for the development of an integrated seismic risk model for assessment of the vulnerability of residential buildings in Northern Algeria. For this purpose, the model foresees the consideration of an updated seismic hazard model, as well as ad-hoc exposure and physical vulnerability models for local residential buildings. The first results of this endeavor, such as the hazard model and a specific taxonomy to be used for the exposure and fragility components of the model are presented, using as starting point the province of Blida, in Algeria. Specific remarks and conclusions regarding the characteristics of the Northern Algerian in-built are then made based on these results.

Keywords: Northern Algeria, risk, seismic hazard, vulnerability

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1130 Seismic Microzonation of El-Fayoum New City, Egypt

Authors: Suzan Salem, Heba Moustafa, Abd El-Aziz Abd El-Aal


Seismic micro hazard zonation for urban areas is the first step towards a seismic risk analysis and mitigation strategy. Essential here is to obtain a proper understanding of the local subsurface conditions and to evaluate ground-shaking effects. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard considering local site effects by carrying out detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization in El-Fayoum New City. Seismic hazard analysis and microzonation of El-Fayoum New City are addressed in three parts: in the first part, estimation of seismic hazard is done using seismotectonic and geological information. The second part deals with site characterization using geotechnical and shallow geophysical techniques. In the last part, local site effects are assessed by carrying out one-dimensional (1-D) ground response analysis using the equivalent linear method by program SHAKE 2000. Finally, microzonation maps have been prepared. The detailed methodology, along with experimental details, collected data, results and maps are presented in this paper.

Keywords: El-Fayoum, microzonation, seismotectonic, Egypt

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1129 Introduction to Various Innovative Techniques Suggested for Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: Deepshikha Shukla, C. H. Solanki, Mayank K. Desai


Amongst all the natural hazards, earthquakes have the potential for causing the greatest damages. Since the earthquake forces are random in nature and unpredictable, the quantification of the hazards becomes important in order to assess the hazards. The time and place of a future earthquake are both uncertain. Since earthquakes can neither be prevented nor be predicted, engineers have to design and construct in such a way, that the damage to life and property are minimized. Seismic hazard analysis plays an important role in earthquake design structures by providing a rational value of input parameter. In this paper, both mathematical, as well as computational methods adopted by researchers globally in the past five years, will be discussed. Some mathematical approaches involving the concepts of Poisson’s ratio, Convex Set Theory, Empirical Green’s Function, Bayesian probability estimation applied for seismic hazard and FOSM (first-order second-moment) algorithm methods will be discussed. Computational approaches and numerical model SSIFiBo developed in MATLAB to study dynamic soil-structure interaction problem is discussed in this paper. The GIS-based tool will also be discussed which is predominantly used in the assessment of seismic hazards.

Keywords: computational methods, MATLAB, seismic hazard, seismic measurements

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1128 The Effect of Sumatra Fault Earthquakes on West Malaysia

Authors: Noushin Naraghi Araghi, M. Nawawi, Syed Mustafizur Rahman


This paper presents the effect of Sumatra fault earthquakes on west Malaysia by calculating the peak horizontal ground acceleration (PGA). PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). A uniform catalog of earthquakes for the interest region has been provided. We used empirical relations to convert all magnitudes to Moment Magnitude. After eliminating foreshocks and aftershocks in order to achieve more reliable results, the completeness of the catalog and uncertainty of magnitudes have been estimated and seismicity parameters were calculated. Our seismic source model considers the Sumatran strike slip fault that is known historically to generate large earthquakes. The calculations were done using the logic tree method and four attenuation relationships and slip rates for different part of this fault. Seismic hazard assessment carried out for 48 grid points. Eventually, two seismic hazard maps based PGA for 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 year are presented.

Keywords: Sumatra fault, west Malaysia, PGA, seismic parameters

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1127 Calculation of Instrumental Results of the Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0) on March 11, 2011 and Other Destructive Earthquakes during Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: J. K. Karapetyan


In this paper seismological-statistical analysis of actual instrumental data on the main tremor of the Great Japan earthquake 11.03.2011 is implemented for finding out the dependence between maximal values of peak ground accelerations (PGA) and epicentric distances. A number of peculiarities of manifestation of accelerations' maximum values at the interval of long epicentric distances are revealed which do not correspond with current scales of seismic intensity.

Keywords: earthquakes, instrumental records, seismic hazard, Japan

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1126 Seismic Hazard Analysis for a Multi Layer Fault System: Antalya (SW Turkey) Example

Authors: Nihat Dipova, Bulent Cangir


This article presents the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Antalya (SW Turkey). South west of Turkey is characterized by large earthquakes resulting from the continental collision between the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and crustal faults. Earthquakes around the study area are grouped into two; crustal earthquakes (D=0-50 km) and subduction zone earthquakes (50-140 km). Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw=6.0. Maximum magnitude of crustal earthquakes is Mw=6.6. Sources for crustal earthquakes are faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. A new earthquake catalogue for Antalya, with unified moment magnitude scale has been prepared and seismicity of the area around Antalya city has been evaluated by defining ‘a’ and ‘b’ parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. The Standard Cornell-McGuire method has been used for hazard computation utilizing CRISIS2007 software. Attenuation relationships proposed by Chiou and Youngs (2008) has been used for 0-50 km earthquakes and Youngs et. al (1997) for deep subduction earthquakes. Finally, Seismic hazard map for peak horizontal acceleration on a uniform site condition of firm rock (average shear wave velocity of about 1130 m/s) at a hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years has been prepared.

Keywords: Antalya, peak ground acceleration, seismic hazard assessment, subduction

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1125 Implementation of Integrated Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves and Waveform Inversion Techniques for Seismic Hazard Estimation with Emphasis on Associated Uncertainty: A Case Study at Zafarana Wind Turbine Towers Farm, Egypt

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal, Yuji Yagi, Heba Kamal


In this study, an integrated multi-channel analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique is applied to explore the geotechnical parameters of subsurface layers at the Zafarana wind farm. Moreover, a seismic hazard procedure based on the extended deterministic technique is used to estimate the seismic hazard load for the investigated area. The study area includes many active fault systems along the Gulf of Suez that cause many moderate and large earthquakes. Overall, the seismic activity of the area has recently become better understood following the use of new waveform inversion methods and software to develop accurate focal mechanism solutions for recent recorded earthquakes around the studied area. These earthquakes resulted in major stress-drops in the Eastern desert and the Gulf of Suez area. These findings have helped to reshape the understanding of the seismotectonic environment of the Gulf of Suez area, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on the collected new information and data, this study uses an extended deterministic approach to re-examine the seismic hazard for the Gulf of Suez region, particularly the wind turbine towers at Zafarana Wind Farm and its vicinity. Alternate seismic source and magnitude-frequency relationships were combined with various indigenous attenuation relationships, adapted within a logic tree formulation, to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. We select two desired exceedance probabilities (10 and 20%) that any of the applied scenarios may exceed the largest median ground acceleration. The ground motion was calculated at 50th, 84th percentile levels.

Keywords: MASW, seismic hazard, wind turbine towers, Zafarana wind farm

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1124 Seismic Hazard Assessment of Offshore Platforms

Authors: F. D. Konstandakopoulou, G. A. Papagiannopoulos, N. G. Pnevmatikos, G. D. Hatzigeorgiou


This paper examines the effects of pile-soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of offshore platforms under the action of near-fault earthquakes. Two offshore platforms models are investigated, one with completely fixed supports and one with piles which are clamped into deformable layered soil. The soil deformability for the second model is simulated using non-linear springs. These platform models are subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions. The role of fault mechanism on platforms’ response is additionally investigated, while the study also examines the effects of different angles of incidence of seismic records on the maximum response of each platform.

Keywords: hazard analysis, offshore platforms, earthquakes, safety

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1123 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

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1122 Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni Irrigation Project Site Located in Assam, India

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Kasturi Bhuyan


In the present paper, Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni irrigation project has been thoroughly investigated. Surface level seismic hazard is mainly used by the practical Engineers for designing the important structures. Surface level seismic hazard can be obtained accounting the soil factor. Structures on soft soil will show more ground shaking than the structure located on a hard soil. The Surface level ground motion depends on the type of soil. Density and shear wave velocity is different for different types of soil. The intensity of the soil amplification depends on the density and shear wave velocity of the soil. Rukni irrigation project is located in the North Eastern region of India, near the Dauki fault (550 Km length) which has already produced earthquakes of magnitude (Mw= 8.5) in the past. There is a probability of a similar type of earthquake occuring in the future. There are several faults also located around the project site. There are 765 recorded strong ground motion time histories available for the region. These data are used to determine the soil amplification factor by incorporation of the engineering properties of soil. With this in view, three of soil bore holes have been studied at the project site up to a depth of 30 m. It has been observed that in Soil bore hole 1, the shear wave velocity vary from 99.44 m/s to 239.28 m/s. For Soil Bore Hole No 2 and 3, shear wave velocity vary from 93.24 m/s to 241.39 m/s and 93.24m/s to 243.01 m/s. In the present work, surface level seismic hazard at the project site has been calculated based on the Probabilistic seismic hazard approach accounting the soil factor.

Keywords: Ground Response Analysis, shear wave velocity, soil amplification, surface level seismic hazard

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1121 Seismic Resistant Columns of Buildings against the Differential Settlement of the Foundation

Authors: Romaric Desbrousses, Lan Lin


The objective of this study is to determine how Canadian seismic design provisions affect the column axial load resistance of moment-resisting frame reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the differential settlement of their foundation. To do so, two four-storey buildings are designed in accordance with the seismic design provisions of the Canadian Concrete Design Standards. One building is located in Toronto, which is situated in a moderate seismic hazard zone in Canada, and the other in Vancouver, which is in Canada’s highest seismic hazard zone. A finite element model of each building is developed using SAP 2000. A 100 mm settlement is assigned to the base of the building’s center column. The axial load resistance of the column is represented by the demand capacity ratio. The analysis results show that settlement-induced tensile axial forces have a particularly detrimental effect on the conventional settling columns of the Toronto buildings which fail at a much smaller settlement that those in the Vancouver buildings. The results also demonstrate that particular care should be taken in the design of columns in short-span buildings.

Keywords: Columns, Demand, Foundation differential settlement, Seismic design, Non-linear analysis

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1120 Seismic Activity in the Lake Kivu Basin: Implication for Seismic Risk Management

Authors: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo


The Kivu Lake Basin is located in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. In this basin is located a multitude of active faults, on which earthquakes occur regularly. The most recent earthquakes date from 2008, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019. The cities of Bukabu and Goma in DR Congo and Giseyi in Rwanda are the most impacted by this intense seismic activity in the region. The magnitude of the strongest earthquakes in the region is 6.1. The 2008 earthquake was particularly destructive, killing several people in DR Congo and Rwanda. This work aims to complete the distribution of seismicity in the region, deduce areas of weakness and establish a hazard map that can assist in seismic risk management. Using the local seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory, the earthquakes were relocated, and their focus mechanism was studied. The results show that most of these earthquakes occur on active faults described by Villeneuve in 1938. The alignment of the earthquakes shows a pace that follows directly the directions of the faults described by this author. The study of the focus mechanism of these earthquakes, also shows that these are in particular normal faults whose stresses show an extensive activity. Such study can be used for the establishment of seismic risk management tools.

Keywords: earthquakes, hazard map, faults, focus mechanism

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1119 Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Masonry Buildings in Seismic Prone Regions: The Case of Annaba City, Algeria

Authors: Allaeddine Athmani, Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Tiago Ferreira, Romeu Vicente


Seismic vulnerability assessment of masonry buildings is a fundamental issue even for moderate to low seismic hazard regions. This fact is even more important when dealing with old structures such as those located in Annaba city (Algeria), which the majority of dates back to the French colonial era from 1830. This category of buildings is in high risk due to their highly degradation state, heterogeneous materials and intrusive modifications to structural and non-structural elements. Furthermore, they are usually shelter a dense population, which is exposed to such risk. In order to undertake a suitable seismic risk mitigation strategies and reinforcement process for such structures, it is essential to estimate their seismic resistance capacity at a large scale. In this sense, two seismic vulnerability index methods and damage estimation have been adapted and applied to a pilot-scale building area located in the moderate seismic hazard region of Annaba city: The first one based on the EMS-98 building typologies, and the second one derived from the Italian GNDT approach. To perform this task, the authors took the advantage of an existing data survey previously performed for other purposes. The results obtained from the application of the two methods were integrated and compared using a geographic information system tool (GIS), with the ultimate goal of supporting the city council of Annaba for the implementation of risk mitigation and emergency planning strategies.

Keywords: Annaba city, EMS98 concept, GNDT method, old city center, seismic vulnerability index, unreinforced masonry buildings

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1118 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

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1117 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centres and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, Unreinforced Masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening

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1116 Data-Driven Surrogate Models for Damage Prediction of Steel Liquid Storage Tanks under Seismic Hazard

Authors: Laura Micheli, Majd Hijazi, Mahmoud Faytarouni


The damage reported by oil and gas industrial facilities revealed the utmost vulnerability of steel liquid storage tanks to seismic events. The failure of steel storage tanks may yield devastating and long-lasting consequences on built and natural environments, including the release of hazardous substances, uncontrolled fires, and soil contamination with hazardous materials. It is, therefore, fundamental to reliably predict the damage that steel liquid storage tanks will likely experience under future seismic hazard events. The seismic performance of steel liquid storage tanks is usually assessed using vulnerability curves obtained from the numerical simulation of a tank under different hazard scenarios. However, the computational demand of high-fidelity numerical simulation models, such as finite element models, makes the vulnerability assessment of liquid storage tanks time-consuming and often impractical. As a solution, this paper presents a surrogate model-based strategy for predicting seismic-induced damage in steel liquid storage tanks. In the proposed strategy, the surrogate model is leveraged to reduce the computational demand of time-consuming numerical simulations. To create the data set for training the surrogate model, field damage data from past earthquakes reconnaissance surveys and reports are collected. Features representative of steel liquid storage tank characteristics (e.g., diameter, height, liquid level, yielding stress) and seismic excitation parameters (e.g., peak ground acceleration, magnitude) are extracted from the field damage data. The collected data are then utilized to train a surrogate model that maps the relationship between tank characteristics, seismic hazard parameters, and seismic-induced damage via a data-driven surrogate model. Different types of surrogate algorithms, including naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, decision tree, and random forest, are investigated, and results in terms of accuracy are reported. The model that yields the most accurate predictions is employed to predict future damage as a function of tank characteristics and seismic hazard intensity level. Results show that the proposed approach can be used to estimate the extent of damage in steel liquid storage tanks, where the use of data-driven surrogates represents a viable alternative to computationally expensive numerical simulation models.

Keywords: damage prediction , data-driven model, seismic performance, steel liquid storage tanks, surrogate model

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1115 Formulation of a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria for National Bridges in the National Capital Region Affected by the West Valley Fault Using GIS Data Integration

Authors: George Mariano Soriano


In this study, a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria was formulated by integrating various existing maps and databases by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) software, the above-mentioned maps and databases were used in extracting seismic hazard parameters and bridge vulnerability characteristics in order to rank the seismic damage risk rating of bridges in the National Capital Region.

Keywords: bridge, earthquake, GIS, hazard, risk, vulnerability

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1114 On the Development of a Homogenized Earthquake Catalogue for Northern Algeria

Authors: I. Grigoratos, R. Monteiro


Regions with a significant percentage of non-seismically designed buildings and reduced urban planning are particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. In this context, the project ‘Improved Tools for Disaster Risk Mitigation in Algeria’ (ITERATE) aims at seismic risk mitigation in Algeria. Past earthquakes in North Algeria caused extensive damages, e.g. the El Asnam 1980 moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 and Boumerdes 2003 Mw 6.8 earthquakes. This paper will address a number of proposed developments and considerations made towards a further improvement of the component of seismic hazard. In specific, an updated earthquake catalog (until year 2018) is compiled, and new conversion equations to moment magnitude are introduced. Furthermore, a network-based method for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the minimum magnitude of completeness is applied. We found relatively large values for Mc, due to the sparse network, and a nonlinear trend between Mw and body wave (mb) or local magnitude (ML), which are the most common scales reported in the region. Lastly, the resulting b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution is sensitive to the declustering method.

Keywords: conversion equation, magnitude of completeness, seismic events, seismic hazard

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1113 Seismotectonics of Southern Haiti: A Faulting Model for the 12 January 2010 M7 Earthquake

Authors: Newdeskarl Saint Fleur, Nathalie Feuillet, Raphaël Grandin, Éric Jacques, Jennifer Weil-Accardo, Yann Klinger


The prevailing consensus is that the 2010 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake left the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden strike-slip Fault (EPGF) unruptured but broke unmapped blind north-dipping thrusts. Using high-resolution topography, aerial images, bathymetry and geology we identified previously unrecognized south-dipping NW-SE-striking active thrusts in southern Haiti. One of them, Lamentin thrust (LT), cuts across the crowded city of Carrefour, extends offshore into Port-au-Prince Bay and connects at depth with the EPGF. We propose that both faults broke in 2010. The rupture likely initiated on the thrust and propagated further along the EPGF due to unclamping. This scenario is consistent with geodetic, seismological and field data. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on the unruptured segments of the EPGF and on neighboring thrusts, significantly increasing the seismic hazard in the Port-au-Prince urban area. The numerous active thrusts recognized in that area must be considered for future evaluation of the seismic hazard.

Keywords: active faulting, enriquillo-plantain garden fault, Haiti earthquake, seismic hazard

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1112 Evaluation of Site Laboratory Conditions Effect on Seismic Design Characteristics in Ramhormoz

Authors: Sayyed Yaghoub Zolfegharifar, Khairul Anuar Kassim, Hossein Khoramrooz, Khodayar Farhadiasl, Sadegh Jahan


Iran is one of the world's seismically active countries so that it experiences many small to medium earthquakes annually and a large earthquake every ten years. Due to seism tectonic conditions and special geographical and climatic position, Iran has the potential to create numerous severe earthquakes. Therefore, seismicity studies and seismic zonation of seismic zones of the country are necessary. In this article, the effect of local site conditions on the characteristics of seismic design in Rahmormoz will be examined. After analyzing the seismic hazard for Rahmormoz through deterministic and statistical methods and preparing the necessary geotechnical models based on available data, the ground response will be analyzed for different parts of the city based on four inputs and acceleration level estimated for bedrock through the equivalent linear method and by means of Deep Soil program. Finally, through the analysis of the obtained results, the seismic profiles of the ground surface for different parts of the city will be presented.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, ground response, resonance spectrum, period, site conditions

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1111 Effects of Local Ground Conditions on Site Response Analysis Results in Hungary

Authors: Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Zsolt Szilvágyi, Ákos Wolf, Richard P. Ray


Local ground conditions have a substantial influence on the seismic response of structures. Their inclusion in seismic hazard assessment and structural design can be realized at different levels of sophistication. However, response results based on more advanced calculation methods e.g. nonlinear or equivalent linear site analysis tend to show significant discrepancies when compared to simpler approaches. This project's main objective was to compare results from several 1-D response programs to Eurocode 8 design spectra. Data from in-situ site investigations were used for assessing local ground conditions at several locations in Hungary. After discussion of the in-situ measurements and calculation methods used, a comprehensive evaluation of all major contributing factors for site response is given. While the Eurocode spectra should account for local ground conditions based on soil classification, there is a wide variation in peak ground acceleration determined from 1-D analyses versus Eurocode. Results show that current Eurocode 8 design spectra may not be conservative enough to account for local ground conditions typical for Hungary.

Keywords: 1-D site response analysis, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), seismic CPT, seismic hazard assessment

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1110 Landslide Hazard Zonation and Risk Studies Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making and Slope Stability Analysis

Authors: Ankit Tyagi, Reet Kamal Tiwari, Naveen James


In India, landslides are the most frequently occurring disaster in the regions of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats. The steep slopes and land use in these areas are quite apprehensive. In the recent past, many landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) works have been carried out in the Himalayas. However, the preparation of LHZ maps considering temporal factors such as seismic ground shaking, seismic amplification at surface level, and rainfall are limited. Hence this study presents a comprehensive use of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method in landslide risk assessment. In this research, we conducted both geospatial and geotechnical analysis to minimize the danger of landslides. Geospatial analysis is performed using high-resolution satellite data to produce landslide causative factors which were given weightage using the MCDM method. The geotechnical analysis includes a slope stability check, which was done to determine the potential landslide slope. The landslide risk map can provide useful information which helps people to understand the risk of living in an area.

Keywords: landslide hazard zonation, PHA, AHP, GIS

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1109 Reliability-Based Ductility Seismic Spectra of Structures with Tilting

Authors: Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Juan Bojorquez


A reliability-based methodology which uses structural demand hazard curves to consider the increment of the ductility demands of structures with tilting is proposed. The approach considers the effect of two orthogonal components of the ground motions as well as the influence of soil-structure interaction. The approach involves the calculation of ductility demand hazard curves for symmetric systems and, alternatively, for systems with different degrees of asymmetry. To get this objective, demand hazard curves corresponding to different global ductility demands of the systems are calculated. Next, Uniform Exceedance Rate Spectra (UERS) are developed for a specific mean annual rate of exceedance value. Ratios between UERS corresponding to asymmetric and to symmetric systems located in soft soil of the valley of Mexico are obtained. Results indicate that the ductility demands corresponding to tilted structures may be several times higher than those corresponding to symmetric structures, depending on several factors such as tilting angle and vibration period of structure and soil.

Keywords: asymmetric yielding, seismic performance, structural reliability, tilted structures

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1108 Seismic Microzoning and Resonant Map for Urban Planning

Authors: F. Tahiri, F. Grajçevci


The cities are coping with permanent demands to extend their residential and economical capacity. The new urban zones are sometimes induced to be developed in more vulnerable environments. This study is aimed to identify and mitigate the seismic hazards in the stage of urban planning for new settlements, including the existing urban environments which initially have not considered the seismic hazard. Seismic microzoning shall study the amplification/attenuation of seismic excitations from the bedrock to the ground surface. Modification of the seismic excitation is governed from the site specific ground conditions, presented on ground surface as mean values of the ratio of maximum accelerations at the surface versus acceleration of subsoil media – presented with dynamic amplification factors (DAF). The values shall be used to create the maps with isolines of DAF and then seismic microzoning with expected maximum mean surface acceleration as a product of DAF with maximum accelerations at bedrock. Development of resonant map shall conglomerate the information’s obtained from seismic microzoning in regard to expected predominant ground periods of seismic excitation and periods of vibrations of designed/built structures. These information’s shall be used as indispensible tool in early stages of urban planning to determine the most optimal zones for construction, the constructive materials, structural systems, range of buildings height, etc. so the resonance of soil media with built structures is avoided. The information’s could be used also for assessment of seismic risk and vulnerability-damageability of existing urban environments.

Keywords: vulnerable environment, mitigation, seismic microzoning, resonant map, urban planning

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1107 Using Seismic and GPS Data for Hazard Estimation in Some Active Regions in Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Monem Sayed Mohamed


Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

Keywords: b-value, Gumbel distribution, seismic and GPS data, strain parameters

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1106 Spatial Integrity of Seismic Data for Oil and Gas Exploration

Authors: Afiq Juazer Rizal, Siti Zaleha Misnan, M. Zairi M. Yusof


Seismic data is the fundamental tool utilized by exploration companies to determine potential hydrocarbon. However, the importance of seismic trace data will be undermined unless the geo-spatial component of the data is understood. Deriving a proposed well to be drilled from data that has positional ambiguity will jeopardize business decision and millions of dollars’ investment that every oil and gas company would like to avoid. Spatial integrity QC workflow has been introduced in PETRONAS to ensure positional errors within the seismic data are recognized throughout the exploration’s lifecycle from acquisition, processing, and seismic interpretation. This includes, amongst other tests, quantifying that the data is referenced to the appropriate coordinate reference system, survey configuration validation, and geometry loading verification. The direct outcome of the workflow implementation helps improve reliability and integrity of sub-surface geological model produced by geoscientist and provide important input to potential hazard assessment where positional accuracy is crucial. This workflow’s development initiative is part of a bigger geospatial integrity management effort, whereby nearly eighty percent of the oil and gas data are location-dependent.

Keywords: oil and gas exploration, PETRONAS, seismic data, spatial integrity QC workflow

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1105 Seismic Fragility Curves for Shallow Circular Tunnels under Different Soil Conditions

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Syed Mohd Ahmad


This paper presents a methodology to develop fragility curves for shallow tunnels so as to describe a relationship between seismic hazard and tunnel vulnerability. Emphasis is given to the influence of surrounding soil material properties because the dynamic behaviour of the tunnel mostly depends on it. Four ground properties of soils ranging from stiff to soft soils are selected. A 3D nonlinear time history analysis is used to evaluate the seismic response of the tunnel when subjected to five real earthquake ground intensities. The derived curves show the future probabilistic performance of the tunnels based on the predicted level of damage states corresponding to the peak ground acceleration. A comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature is provided to validate the reliability of the proposed fragility curves. Results show the significant role of soil properties and input motions in evaluating the seismic performance and response of shallow tunnels.

Keywords: fragility analysis, seismic performance, tunnel lining, vulnerability

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