Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Hordeum vulgare L.

42 Interaction of between Cd and Zn in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Plant for Phytoextraction Method

Authors: S. Adiloğlu, K. Bellitürk, Y. Solmaz, A. Adiloğlu


The aim of this research is to remediation of the cadmium (Cd) pollution in agricultural soils by using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plant. For this purpose, a pot experiment was done in greenhouse conditions. Cadmium (100 mg/kg) as CdSO4.8H2O forms was applied to each pot and incubated during 30 days. Then Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelate was applied to each pot at five doses (0, 3, 6, 8 and 10 mmol/kg) 20 days before harvesting time of the barley plants. The plants were harvested after two months planting. According to the pot experiment results, Cd and Zn amounts of barley plant increased with increasing EDTA application and Zn and Cd contents of barley 20,13 and 1,35 mg/kg for 0 mmol /kg EDTA; 58,61 and 113,24 mg/kg for 10 mmol/kg EDTA doses, respectively. On the other hand, Cd and Zn concentrations of experiment soil increased with EDTA application to the soil samples. Zinc and Cd concentrations of soil 0,31 and 0,021 mg/kg for 0 mmol /kg EDTA; 2,39 and 67,40 mg/kg for 10 mmol/kg EDTA doses, respectively. These increases were found to be statistically significant at the level of 1 %. According to the results of the pot experiment, some heavy metal especially Cd pollution of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plant province can be remediated by the phytoextraction method.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., cadmium, zinc, phytoextraction, soil pollution

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41 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar


Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: barley, callus, embryo culture, mature embryo

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40 Analysis of Endogenous Sirevirus in Germinating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Authors: Nermin Gozukirmizi, Buket Cakmak, Sevgi Marakli


Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant and has been studied as a model plant regarding its short annual life cycle and seven chromosome pairs. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE1 retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (gag, env and rt) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for gag, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for rt and env. The sequencing of SIRE1 gag, env and rt domains revealed 79% similarity for gag, 95% for env and 84% for rt to Ty1-copia retrotransposons. SIRE1 retrotransposon was identified in the soybean genome and has been studied on other plants (maize, rice, tomatoe etc.). This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

Keywords: barley, polymorphism, retrotransposon, SIRE1 virus

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39 RNA-Seq Analysis of the Wild Barley (H. spontaneum) Leaf Transcriptome under Salt Stress

Authors: Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Nour O. Gadalla, Sherif Edris, Ahmed M. Alzohairy, Nezar A. Radhwan, Mohammed N. Baeshen, Ahmed M. Ramadan, Hala F. Eissa, Sabah M. Hassan, Nabih A. Baeshen, Osama Abuzinadah, Magdy A. Al-Kordy, Fotouh M. El-Domyati, Robert K. Jansen


Wild salt-tolerant barley (Hordeum spontaneum) is the ancestor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare or H. vulgare). Although the cultivated barley genome is well studied, little is known about genome structure and function of its wild ancestor. In the present study, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on young leaves of wild barley treated with salt (500 mM NaCl) at four different time intervals. Transcriptome sequencing yielded 103 to 115 million reads for all replicates of each treatment, corresponding to over 10 billion nucleotides per sample. Of the total reads, between 74.8 and 80.3% could be mapped and 77.4 to 81.7% of the transcripts were found in the H. vulgare unigene database (unigene-mapped). The unmapped wild barley reads for all treatments and replicates were assembled de novo and the resulting contigs were used as a new reference genome. This resultedin94.3 to 95.3%oftheunmapped reads mapping to the new reference. The number of differentially expressed transcripts was 9277, 3861 of which were uni gene-mapped. The annotated unigene- and de novo-mapped transcripts (5100) were utilized to generate expression clusters across time of salt stress treatment. Two-dimensional hierarchical clustering classified differential expression profiles into nine expression clusters, four of which were selected for further analysis. Differentially expressed transcripts were assigned to the main functional categories. The most important groups were ‘response to external stimulus’ and ‘electron-carrier activity’. Highly expressed transcripts are involved in several biological processes, including electron transport and exchanger mechanisms, flavonoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, ethylene production, signaling network and protein refolding. The comparisons demonstrated that mRNA-Seq is an efficient method for the analysis of differentially expressed genes and biological processes under salt stress.

Keywords: electron transport, flavonoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species, rnaseq

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38 In silico Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) and Some Individual Genes (rbcL and trnH-psbA) in Pooideae Subfamily Members

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Ilhan Dogan


An in silico analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum aestivum, Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne, Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare of the Pooideaea was performed based on complete chloroplast genomes including rbcL coding and trnH-psbA intergenic spacer regions alone to compare phylogenetic resolving power. Neighbor-joining, Minimum Evolution, and Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies with the highest bootstrap supported the obtained data from whole chloroplast genome sequence. The highest and lowest values from nucleotide diversity (π) analysis were found to be 0.315813 and 0.043495 in rbcL coding region in chloroplast genome and complete chloroplast genome, respectively. The highest transition/transversion bias (R) value was recorded as 1.384 in complete chloroplast genomes. F. arudinacea-L. perenne clade was uncovered in all phylogenies. Sequences of rbcL and trnH-psbA regions were not able to resolve the Pooideae phylogenies due to lack of genetic variation.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, Pooideae, phylogenetic analysis, rbcL, trnH-psbA

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37 Molecular Characterization of Grain Storage Proteins in Some Hordeum Species

Authors: Manar Makhoul, Buthainah Alsalamah, Salam Lawand, Hassan Azzam


The major storage proteins in endosperm of 33 cultivated and wild barley genotypes (H.vulgare, H. spontaneum, H. bulbosum, H. murinum, H. marinum) were analyzed to demonstrate the variation in the hordein polypeptides encoded by multigene families in grains. The SDS-PAGE revealed 13 and 17 alleles at the Hor1 and the Hor2 loci respectively, with frequencies from 0.83 to 14 and 0.56 to 13.41% respectively, while seven alleles at the Hor3 locus with frequencies from 3.63 to 30.91% were recognized. The phylogenetic analysis indicated to relevance of the polymorphism in hordein patterns as successful tool in identifying the individual genotypes and discriminating the species according to genome type. We also reported in this research complete nucleotide sequence B-hordein genes of seven wild and cultivated barley genotypes. A 152bp upstream sequence of B-hordein promoter contained a TATA box, CATC box, AAAG motif, N-motif and E-motif. In silico analysis of B-Hordein sequences demonstrated that the coding regions were not interrupted by any intron, and included the complete ORF which varied between 882 and 906 bp, and encoded mature proteins with 293-301 residues characterized by high contents of glutamine (29%), and proline (18%). Comparison of the predicted polypeptide sequences with the published ones suggested that all S-rich prolamins genes are descended from common ancestor. The sequence started at N-terminal with a signal peptide, and then followed directly by two domains; a repetitive one based on the repetition of the repeat unit PQQPFPQQ and C-terminal domain. Also, it was found that positions of the eight cysteine residues were highly conserved in all the B-hordein sequences, but Hordeum bulbosum had additional unpaired one. The phylogenetic tree of B-hordein polypeptide separated the genotypes in distinct seven subgroups. In general, the high homology between B-hordeins and LMW glutenin subunits suggests similar bread-making influences for these B-hordeins.

Keywords: hordeum, phylogenetic tree, sequencing, storage protein

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36 Assessment of Hemostatic Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.: A Mediterranean Lamiaceae Algeria

Authors: Nabil Ghedadba, Abdessemed Samira, Leila Hambaba, Sidi Mohamed Ould Mokhtar, Nassima Fercha, Houas Bousselsela


The overall objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the hemostatic activity of secondary metabolites (polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins) of Marrubium vulgare leaves, aromatic plant widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, cough, diabetes (by its effect on the pancreas to secrete insulin), heart disease, fever has a high efficiency as against inflammation. Qualitative analysis of the aqueous extract (AQE) by thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of quercetin, kaempferol and rutin. Quantification of total phenols by Folin Ciocalteu method and flavonoids by AlCl3 method gave high values with AQE: 175±0.80 mg GAE per 100g of the dry matter, 23.86±0.36 mg QE per 100g of dry matter. Moreover, the assay of condensed tannins by the vanillin method showed that AQE contains the highest value: 16.55±0.03 mg e-catechin per 100 g of dry matter. Assessment of hemostatic activity by the plasma recalcification method (time of Howell) has allowed us to discover the surprising dose dependent anticoagulant effect of AQE lyophilized from leaves of M. vulgare. A positive linear correlation between the two parameters studied: the content of condensed tannins and hemostatic activity (r=0.96) were used to highlight a possible role of these compounds that are potent vasoconstrictor activity in hemostatic. From these results we can see that Marrubium vulgre could be used for the treatment of health.

Keywords: Marrubium vulgare L., aqueous extract, phenolic compounds dosing, hemostatic activity, condensed tannins

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35 Origanum vulgare as a Possible Modulator of Testicular Endocrine Function in Mice

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Barbora Babečková, Michal Ďuračka, Róbert Kirchner, Július Árvay


This study was designed to assess the in vitro effects of Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) extract on the testicular steroidogenesis. We focused on identifying major biomolecules present in the oregano extract, as well as to investigate its in vitro impact on the secretion of cholesterol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione by murine testicular fragments. The extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which identified cyranosid, daidzein, thymol, rosmarinic and trans-caffeic acid among the predominant biochemical components of oregano. For the in vitro experiments, testicular fragments from 20 sexually mature Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were incubated in the absence (control group) or presence of the oregano extract at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cholesterol levels were quantified using photometry and the hormones were assessed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Our data revealed that the release of cholesterol and androstenedione (but not dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone) by the testicular fragments was significantly impacted by the oregano extract in a dose-dependent fashion. Supplementation of the extract resulted in a significant decline of cholesterol (P < 0.05 in case of 100 μg/mL; P < 0.01 with respect 100 μg/mL extract), as well as androstenedione (P < 0.01 with respect to 100 and 1000 μg/mL extract). Our results suggest that the biomolecules present in Origanum vulgare L. could exhibit a dose-dependent impact on the secretion of male steroids, playing a role in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.

Keywords: mice, Origanum vulgare L., steroidogenesis, testes

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34 The Role of Time-Dependent Treatment of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Endogenous Phytohormone Levels under Salinity Stress

Authors: Hülya Torun, Ondřej Novák, Jaromír Mikulík, Miroslav Strnad, Faik A. Ayaz


World climate is changing. Millions of people in the world still face chronic undernourishment for conducting a healthy life and the world’s population is growing steadily. To meet this growing demand, agriculture and food systems must adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and become more resilient, productive and sustainable. From this perspective, to determine tolerant cultivars for undesirable environmental conditions will be necessary food production for sustainable development. Among abiotic stresses, soil salinity is one of the most detrimental global fact restricting plant sources. Development of salt-tolerant lines is required in order to increase the crop productivity and quality in salt-treated lands. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of barley cultivars accessions to salinity stress by NaCl. For this purpose, it was aimed to determine the crosstalk between some endogenous phytohormones and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in two different vegetative parts (leaves and roots) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poaceae; 2n=14; Ince-04) which is detected salt-tolerant. The effects of SA on growth parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC), endogenous phytohormones; including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene were investigated in barley cultivars under salinity stress. SA was applied to 17-day-old seedlings of barley in two different ways including before (pre-treated for 24 h) and simultaneously with NaCl stress treatment. NaCl (0, 150, 300 mM) exposure in the hydrophonic system was associated with a rapid decrease in growth parameters and RWC, which is an indicator of plant water status, resulted in a strong up-regulation of ABA as a stress indicator. Roots were more dramatically affected than leaves. Water conservation in 150 mM NaCl treated-barley plants did not change, but decreased in 300 mM NaCl treated plants. Pre- and simultaneously treatment of SA did not significantly alter growth parameters and RWC. ABA, JA and ethylene are known to be related with stress. In the present work, ethylene also increased, similarly to ABA, but not with the same intensity. While ABA and ethylene increased by the increment of salt concentrations, JA levels rapidly decreased especially in roots. Both pre- and simultaneously SA applications alleviated salt-induced decreases in 300 mM NaCl resulted in the increment of ABA levels. CKs and IAA are related to cell growth and development. At high salinity (300 mM NaCl), CKs (cZ+cZR) contents increased in both vegetative organs while IAA levels stayed at the same level with control groups. However, IAA increased and cZ+cZR rapidly decreased in leaves of barley plants with SA treatments before salt applications (in pre- SA treated groups). Simultaneously application of SA decreased CKs levels in both leaves and roots of the cultivar. Due to increasing concentrations of NaCl in association with decreasing ABA, JA and ethylene content and increments in CKs and IAA were recorded with SA treatments. As results of the study, in view of all the phytohormones that we tested, exogenous SA induced greater tolerance to salinity particularly when applied before salinity stress.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare, phytohormones, salicylic acid, salinity

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33 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

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32 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ambient Particle Industrial Complex Upon Vegetation Near Settling at El-Fatyah,Libya

Authors: Ashraf M. S. Soliman, Mohsen Elhasadi


The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of ambient particles emitted from an industrial complex located at El-Fatyah on growth, phytomass partitioning and accumulation, pigment content and nutrient uptake of two economically important crop species; barley (Hordeum vulgare L.Family: Poaceae) and broad bean (Vicia faba L. Family: Fabaceae) growing in the region. It was obvious from the present investigation that chlorophyll and carotenoid content showed significant responses to the industrial dust. Generally, the total pigment content of the two investigated crops in the two locations continually increased till the plant age reached 70 days after sowing then begins to decrease till the end of the growing season..The total uptake of N, P and K in the two studied species decreased in response to industrial dust in the study area compared to control location. In conclusion, barley and broad bean are very sensitive to air pollutants, and may consider as bioindicators for atmospheric pollution. Pollutants caused damage of their leaves, impair plant growth, hindered nutrient uptake and consequently limit primary productivity.

Keywords: Effect of Industrial Complex on barley and broad bean

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31 Seasonal Variation of the Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L. Cultivated in Algerian Sahara

Authors: K. Fyad, A. Cheriti, Y. Bourmita, N. Belboukhari


Many industries are involved by using essential oils such as food, flavour, and beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance. Apiaceae species are usually herbs, rarely schrubs characterized particularly by its inflorescence typical umbel. Many species of this family have been widely used in folk medicine throughout the world. The most characteristic natural compounds in this family are the essential oils secreted in schizogenous canals in all organs with remarkable variability chemical composition. As a part of our investigation into medicinal plants growing in Algerian Sahara. In this study, we investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from two Apiaceae species: Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L cultivated in the Sahara. The plants were selected on the basis of their use by local people to treat infectious diseases as determined in our previous ethnopharmacological study. Wild samples of Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L cultivated in an experimental field at the university. The harvest was made during the year 2011 according to the growth cycle stage of the plants. The essential oils of different fresh aerial parts, obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC. The results showed that the essential oils yields are not uniform among the different cycle stage. The percentage of components is significantly affected by the harvesting period of the plant material.

Keywords: essential oils, Apiaceae, growth cycle, Sahara, GC

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30 Response of Barley Quality Traits, Yield and Antioxidant Enzymes to Water-Stress and Chemical Inducers

Authors: Emad Hafez, Mahmoud Seleiman


Two field experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of chemical inducers [benzothiadiazole 0.9 mM L-1, oxalic acid 1.0 mM L-1, salicylic acid 0.2 mM L-1] on physiological and technological traits as well as on yields and antioxidant enzyme activities of barley grown under abiotic stress (i.e. water surplus and deficit conditions). Results showed that relative water content, leaf area, chlorophyll and yield as well as technological properties of barley were improved with chemical inducers application under water surplus and water-stress conditions. Antioxidant enzymes activity (i.e. catalase and peroxidase) were significantly increased in barley grown under water-stress and treated with chemical inducers. Yield and related parameters of barley presented also significant decrease under water-stress treatment, while chemical inducers application enhanced the yield-related traits. Starch and protein contents were higher in plants treated with salicylic acid than in untreated plants when water-stress was applied. In conclusion, results show that chemical inducers application have a positive interaction and synergetic influence and should be suggested to improve plant growth, yield and technological properties of water stressed barley. Salicylic acid application was better than oxalic acid and benzothiadiazole in terms of plant growth and yield improvement.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, drought stress, Hordeum vulgare L., quality, yield

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29 Antihyperglycemic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller in Diabetic Mice

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet


Foeniculum vulgare Miller is a biennial medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferaceae). It is a hardy, perennial–umbelliferous herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. The aim is to study the control of blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Method used for extraction was continuous hot percolation method in which Soxhlet apparatus was used.95%ethanol was used as solvent. Male albino mice weighing about 20-25 g obtained from Guru Angad Dev University of Veterinary Science, Ludhiana were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of 125 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in sterile saline (11). After 48 h, animals with serum glucose level above 200 mg/dl (diabetic) were selected for the study. Blood samples from mice were collected by retro-orbital puncture (ROP) technique. Serum glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. Single administration (single dose) of aqueous extract of fennel (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in diabetic Swiss albino mice, showed reduction in serum glucose level after 45 min. Maximum reduction in serum glucose level was seen at doses of 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of fennel in all doses except 25 mg/kg did not cause any significant decrease in blood glucose. It may be said that the aqueous extract of fennel decreased the serum glucose level and improved glucose tolerance owing to the presence of aldehyde moiety. The aqueous extract of fennel has antihyperglycemic activity as it lowers serum glucose level in diabetic mice.

Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare Miller, antihyperglycemic, diabetic mice, Umbelliferaceae

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28 Effects of Essential Oils on the Intestinal Microflora of Termite (Heterotermes indicola)

Authors: Ayesha Aihetasham, Najma Arshad, Sobia Khan


Damage causes by subterranean termites are of major concern today. Termites majorly treated with pesticides resulted in several problems related to health and environment. For this reason, plant-derived natural products specifically essential oils have been evaluated in order to control termites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitermitic potential of six essential oils on Heterotermes indicola subterranean termite. No-choice bioassay was used to assess the termiticidal action of essential oils. Further, gut from each set of treated termite group was extracted and analyzed for reduction in number of protozoa and bacteria by protozoal count method using haemocytometer and viable bacterial plate count (dilution method) respectively. In no-choice bioassay it was found that Foeniculum vulgare oil causes high degree of mortality 90 % average mortality at 10 mg oil concentration (10mg/0.42g weight of filter paper). Least mortality appeared to be due to Citrus sinensis oil (43.33 % average mortality at 10 mg/0.42g). The highest activity verified to be of Foeniculum vulgare followed by Eruca sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Peganum harmala, Syzygium cumini and Citrus sinensis. The essential oil which caused maximum reduction in number of protozoa was P. harmala followed by T. foenum-graecum and E. sativa. In case of bacterial count E. sativa oil indicated maximum decrease in bacterial number (6.4×10⁹ CFU/ml). It is concluded that F. vulgare, E. sativa and P. harmala essential oils are highly effective against H. indicola termite and its gut microflora.

Keywords: bacterial count, essential oils, Heterotermes indicola, protozoal count

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27 Effect of Two Different Biochars on Germination and Seedlings Growth of Salad, Cress and Barley

Authors: L. Bouqbis, H.W. Koyro, M. C. Harrouni, S. Daoud, L. F. Z. Ainlhout, C. I. Kammann


The application of biochar to soils is becoming more and more common. Its application which is generally reported to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils, has an indirect effect on soil health and increased crop yields. However, many of the previous results are highly variable and dependent mainly on the initial soil properties, biochar characteristics, and production conditions. In this study, two biochars which are biochar II (BC II) derived from a blend of paper sludge and wheat husks and biochar 005 (BC 005) derived from sewage sludge with a KCl additive, are used, and the physical and chemical properties of BC II are characterized. To determine the potential impact of salt stress and toxic and volatile substances, the second part of this study focused on the effect biochars have on germination of salad (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and cress (Lepidium sativum) respectively. Our results indicate that Biochar II showed some unique properties compared to the soil, such as high EC, high content of K, Na, Mg, and low content of heavy metals. Concerning salad and barley germination test, no negative effect of BC II and BC 005 was observed. However, a negative effect of BC 005 at 8% level was revealed. The test of the effect of volatile substances on germination of cress revealed a positive effect of BC II, while a negative effect was observed for BC 005. Moreover, the water holding capacities of biochar-sand mixtures increased with increasing biochar application. Collectively, BC II could be safely used for agriculture and could provide the potential for a better plant growth.

Keywords: biochar, phytotoxic tests, seedlings growth, water holding capacity

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26 Efficacy of Three Different Herbicides to the Control of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) in Relation to Plant Growth Stage and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additive

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, M. Moeeni, A. Farahbakhsh


To study the effect of nitrogenous additive spray solution on the efficacy of three herbicides i.e. pinoxaden (Trade name: Axial), sulfosulfuron+metsulfuron-methyl (Trade name: Total) and sulfosulfuron (Trade name: Apirus) in controlling wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch), in different growth stages, a greenhouse experiment as a split plot in a completely randomized design in three replications was conducted. One month after treatments, all plants were harvested and growth parameters were determined. The data were analyzed with computer. The results showed that the herbicide applications with and without nitrogen additive caused significant reductions in growth parameters of wild barley at 2-4 leaf stage. However, the plants were not killed by this herbicide. Plants were killed completely due to applications of the two other herbicides i.e. Apirus and Total at 2-4 leaf. There was no significant difference between the effect of these two herbicides. There was no significant difference between the highest rate of each herbicide used alone and that of the lowest rate with nitrogenous additive.

Keywords: growth stage, herbicide, nitrogen, wild barley

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25 The Source of Fibre and Roxazyme® G2 Interacted to Influence the Length of Villi in the Ileal Epithelium of Growing Pigs Fed Fibrous Maize-Soybean Diets

Authors: F. Fushai, M.Tekere, M. Masafu, F. Siebrits, A. Kanengoni, F. Nherera


The effects of dietary fibre source on the histomorphology of the ileal epithelium were examined in growing pigs fed high fibre (242-250 g total dietary fibre kg-1 dry matter) diets fortified with Roxazyme® G2. The control was a standard, low fibre (141 g total dietary fibre kg-1 dry matter) diet formulated from dehulled soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea Mays) meal and hominy chop. Five fibrous diets were evaluated in which fibre was increased by partial substitution of the grains in the control diet with maize cobs, soybean hulls, barley (Hordeum vulgare L) brewer’s grains, Lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay or wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran. Each diet was duplicated and 220 mg Roxazyme® G2 kg-1 dry mater was added to one of the mixtures. Seventy-two intact Large White X Landrace male pigs of weight 32 ± 5.6 kg pigs were randomly allocated to the diets in a complete randomised design with a 2 (fibre source) X (enzyme) factorial arrangement of treatments. The pigs were fed ad libitum for 10 weeks. Ileal tissue samples were taken at slaughter, at a point 50cm above the ileal-caecal valve. Villi length and area, and crypt depth were measured by computerised image analyses. The villi length: crypt ratio was calculated. The diet and the supplemental enzyme cocktail did not affect (p>0.05) any of the measured parameters. Significant (p=0.016) diet X enzyme interaction was observed for villi length whereby the enzyme reduced the villi length of pigs on the soy-hulls, standard and wheat bran diets, with an opposite effect on pigs on the maize cob, brewer’s grain, Lucerne diets. The results suggested fibre-source dependent changes in the morphology of the ileal epithelium of pigs fed high fibre, maize-soybean diets fortified with Roxazyme® G2.

Keywords: fibre, growing pigs, histomorphology, ileum, Roxazyme® G2

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24 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider


Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: clove, essential oils, fennel, potato

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23 Effectiveness of Essential Oils as Inhibitors of Quorum Sensing Activity Using Biomonitor Strain Chromobacterium Violaceum

Authors: Ivana Cabarkapa, Zorica Tomicic, Olivera Duragic


Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the major challenges facing humanity in the last decades. Increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens indicates the need for the development of alternative antibacterial drugs and new treatment strategies. One of the innovative emerging treatments in overcoming multidrug-resistant pathogens certainly represents the inhibition anti-quorum sensing system. For most of the food-borne pathogens, the expression of the virulence depends on their capability communication with other members of the population by means of quorum sensing (QS). QS represents a specific way of bacterial intercellular communication, which enabled owing to their ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation. QS mechanisms are responsible for controls the pathogenesis, virulence luminescence, motility, sporulation and biofilm formation of many organisms by regulating gene expression. Therefore, research in this field is being an attractive target for the development of new natural antibacterial agents. Anti-QS compounds are known to have the ability to prohibit bacterial pathogenicity. Considering the importance of quorum sensing during bacterial pathogenesis, this research has been focused on evaluation anti - QS properties of four essential oils (EOs) Origanum heracleoticum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgare, and Thymus serpyllum, using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Tests conducted on Luria Bertani agar supplemented with N hexanol DL homoserine lacton (HHL) 10µl/50ml of agar. The anti-QS potential of the EOs was assayed in a range of concentrations of 200 – 0.39 µl/ml using the disc diffusion method. EOs of Th. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were exhibited anti-QS activity indicated by a non- pigmented ring with a dilution-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum in which they exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 6.25 µl/ml for both tested EOs. EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare were displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by the outer non-pigmented ring, in a concentration-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare in which exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 1.56 and 3.25 µl/ml, respectively. Considering that, the main constituents of the tested EOs represented by monoterpenes (carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene), anti - QS properties of tested EOs can be mainly attributed to their activity. In particular, from the scientific literature, carvacrol and thymol show a sub-inhibitory effect against foodborne pathogens. Previous studies indicated that sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol reduced the mobility of bacteria due to the ability of interference using QS mechanism between the bacterial cells, and thereby reducing the ability of biofilm formation The precise mechanism by which carvacrol inhibits biofilm formation is still not fully understood. Our results indicated that EOs displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by an outer non- pigmented ring with visually detectable inhibition of violacein. Preliminary results suggest that EOs represent a promising alternative for effective control of the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens.

Keywords: anti-quorum sensing activity, Chromobacterium violaceum, essential oils, violacein

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22 Production of Functional Crackers Enriched with Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Extract

Authors: Rosa Palmeri, Julieta I. Monteleone, Antonio C. Barbera, Carmelo Maucieri, Aldo Todaro, Virgilio Giannone, Giovanni Spagna


In recent years, considerable interest has been shown in the functional properties of foods, and a relevant role has been played by phenolic compounds, able to scavenge free radicals. A more sustainable agriculture has to emerge to guarantee food supply over the next years. Wheat, corn, and rice are the most common cereals cultivated, but also other cereal species, such as barley can be appreciated for their peculiarities. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a C3 winter cereal that shows high resistance at drought and salt stresses. There are growing interests in barley as ingredient for the production of functional foods due to its high content of phenolic compounds and Beta-glucans. In this respect, the possibility of separating specific functional fractions from food industry by-products looks very promising. Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of olive grove farming, and are an interesting source of phenolic compounds. In particular, oleuropein, which provide important nutritional benefits, is the main phenolic compound in olive leaves and ranges from 17% to 23% depending upon the cultivar and growing season period. Together with oleuropein and its derivatives (e.g. dimethyloleuropein, oleuropein diglucoside), olive leaves further contain tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and a series of secondary metabolities structurally related to them: verbascoside, ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol glucoside, tyrosol glucoside, oleuroside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, and nuzhenide. Several flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, and phenolic acids have also described in olive leaves. The aim of this work was the production of functional food with higher content of polyphenols and the evaluation of their shelf life. Organic durum wheat and barley grains contain higher levels of phenolic compounds were used for the production of crackers. Olive leaf extract (OLE) was obtained from cv. ‘Biancolilla’ by aqueous extraction method. Two baked goods trials were performed with both organic durum wheat and barley flours, adding olive leaf extract. Control crackers, made as comparison, were produced with the same formulation replacing OLE with water. Total phenolic compound, moisture content, activity water, and textural properties at different time of storage were determined to evaluate the shelf-life of the products. Our the preliminary results showed that the enriched crackers showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than control. Alternative uses of olive leaf extracts for crackers production could represent a good candidate for the addition of functional ingredients because bakery items are daily consumed, and have long shelf-life.

Keywords: barley, functional foods, olive leaf, polyphenols, shelf life

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21 Analogy in Microclimatic Parameters, Chemometric and Phytonutrient Profiles of Cultivated and Wild Ecotypes of Origanum vulgare L., across Kashmir Himalaya

Authors: Sumira Jan, Javid Iqbal Mir, Desh Beer Singh, Anil Sharma, Shafia Zaffar Faktoo


Background and Aims: Climatic and edaphic factors immensely influence crop quality and proper development. Regardless of economic potential, Himalayan Oregano has not subjected to phytonutrient and chemometric evaluation and its relationship with environmental conditions are scarce. The central objective of this research was to investigate microclimatic variation among wild and cultivated populations located in a microclimatic gradient in north-western Himalaya, Kashmir and analyse if such disparity was related with diverse climatic and edaphic conditions. Methods: Micrometeorological, Atomic absorption spectroscopy for micro elemental analysis was carried for soil. HPLC was carried out to estimate variation in phytonutrients and phytochemicals. Results: Geographic variation in phytonutrient was observed among cultivated and wild populations and among populations diverse within regions. Cultivated populations exhibited comparatively lesser phytonutrient value than wild populations. Moreover, our results observed higher vegetative growth of O. vulgare L. with higher pH (6-7), elevated organic carbon (2.42%), high nitrogen (97.41Kg/ha) and manganese (10-12ppm) and zinc contents (0.39-0.50) produce higher phytonutrients. HPLC data of phytonutrients like quercetin, betacarotene, ascorbic acid, arbutin and catechin revealed direct relationship with UV-B flux (r2=0.82), potassium (r2=0.97) displaying parallel relationship with phytonutrient value. Conclusions: Catechin was found as predominant phytonutrient among all populations with maximum accumulation of 163.8 ppm while as quercetin exhibited lesser value. Maximum arbutin (53.42ppm) and quercetin (2.87ppm) accumulated in plants thriving under intense and high UV-B flux. Minimum variation was demonstrated by beta carotene and ascorbic acid.

Keywords: phytonutrient, ascorbic acid, beta carotene, quercetin, catechin

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20 Ruminal Fermentation of Biologically Active Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages

Authors: Robin Anderson, David Nisbet


Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) are biologically active chemicals that can accumulate naturally in rangeland grasses forages consumed by grazing cattle, sheep and goats. While toxic to livestock if accumulations and amounts consumed are high enough, particularly in animals having no recent exposure to the forages, these chemicals are known to be potent inhibitors of methane-producing bacteria inhabiting the rumen. Consequently, there is interest in examining their potential use as anti-methanogenic compounds to decrease methane emissions by grazing ruminants. Presently, rumen microbes, collected freshly from a cannulated Holstein cow maintained on 50:50 corn based concentrate:alfalfa diet were mixed (10 mL fluid) in 18 x 150 mm crimp top tubes with 0.5 of high nitrate-containing barley (Hordeum vulgare; containing 272 µmol nitrate per g forage dry matter), and NPA- or NPOH- containing milkvetch forages (Astragalus canadensis and Astragalus miser containing 80 and 174 soluble µmol NPA or NPOH/g forage dry matter respectively). Incubations containing 0.5 g alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were used as controls. Tubes (3 per each respective forage) were capped and incubated anaerobically (using oxygen free carbon dioxide) for 24 h at 39oC after which time amounts of total gas produced were measured via volume displacement and headspace samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to determine concentrations of hydrogen and methane. Fluid samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to measure accumulations of fermentation acids. A completely randomized analysis of variance revealed that the nitrate-containing barley and both the NPA- and the NPOH-containing milkvetches significantly decreased methane production, by > 50%, when compared to methane produced by populations incubated similarly with alfalfa (70.4 ± 3.6 µmol/ml incubation fluid). Accumulations of hydrogen, which are typically increased when methane production is inhibited, by incubations with the nitrate-containing barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches did not differ from accumulations observed in the alfalfa controls (0.09 ± 0.04 µmol/mL incubation fluid). Accumulations of fermentation acids produced in the incubations containing the high-nitrate barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches likewise did not differ from accumulations observed in incubations containing alfalfa (123.5 ± 10.8, 36.0 ± 3.0, 17.1 ± 1.5, 3.5 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mL incubation fluid for acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, respectively). This finding indicates the microbial populations did not compensate for the decreased methane production via compensatory changes in production of fermentative acids. Stoichiometric estimation of fermentation balance revealed that > 77% of reducing equivalents generated during fermentation of the forages were recovered in fermentation products and the recoveries did not differ between the alfalfa incubations and those with the high-nitrate barley or the NPA- or NPOH-containing milkvetches. Stoichiometric estimates of amounts of hexose fermented similarly did not differ between the nitrate-, NPA and NPOH-containing incubations and those with the alfalfa, averaging 99.6 ± 37.2 µmol hexose consumed/mL of incubation fluid. These results suggest that forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH may be useful to reduce methane emissions of grazing ruminants provided risks of toxicity can be effectively managed.

Keywords: nitrate, nitropropanol, nitropropionic acid, rumen methane emissions

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19 Investigating the Effects of Density and Different Nitrogen Nutritional Systems on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.)

Authors: Mohammadreza Delfieh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy, Rouzbeh Farhoudi


Fennel is of most important medicinal plants which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In order to investigate the effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems including chemical, organic and biologic ones at different plant densities on yield, yield components and seed essential oil content and yield of this valuable medicinal plant, a field experiment was carried out in 2013-2014 agricultural season at Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar agricultural college in split plot design with 18 treatments and based on completely randomized blocks design. Different nitrogen system treatments consisting of: 1. N1 or control (Uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot, 50% at planting time and 50% at stem elongation), 2. N2 (Uniformly spreading 50% of urea fertilizer in the plot at planting time and spraying the other 50% of urea fertilizer at stem elongation on fennel foliage), 3. N3 or cow manure, 4. N4 or biofertilizer (Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum), 5. N5 or Integrated-1 (Cow manure + uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot at stem elongation), 6. N6 or Integrated-2 (Cow manure + Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum) were applied to the main plots. Three fennel densities consisting of: 1. FD1 (60 plant/m2), 2. FD2 (80 plant/m2) and 3. FD3 (100 plant/m2) were applied to subplots. Results showed that all of the traits were significantly affected by applied treatments (P 0.01). The interaction between treatments also were significant at 5 percent level for shoot dry weight and at 1 percent level for other traits. Based on the results, using the Integrated-1 treatment at 100 plant per m2 produced 94.575 g/m2 seed yield containing 3.375 percent of essential oil. Utilization of such combination not only could lead to a desirable fennel quantity and quality, but also is more consistent with environment.

Keywords: fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.), nutritional system, nitrogen, biofertilizer, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, density

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18 Morphological Differentiation and Temporal Variability in Essential Oil Yield and Composition among Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum L., Origanum onites L. and Origanum x intercedens from Ikaria Island (Greece)

Authors: A.Assariotakis, P. Vahamidis, P. Tarantilis, G. Economou


Greece, due to its geographical location and the particular climatic conditions, presents high biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Among them, the genus Origanum not only presents a wide distribution, but it also has great economic importance. After extensive surveys in Ikaria Island (Greece), 3 species of the genus Origanum were identified, namely, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano), Origanum onites (Turkish oregano) and Origanum x intercedens (hybrid), a naturally occurring hybrid between O. hirtum and O. onites. The purpose of this study was to determine their morphological as well as their temporal variability in essential oil yield and composition under field conditions. For this reason, a plantation of each species was created using vegetative propagation and was established at the experimental field of the Agricultural University of Athens (A.U.A.). From the establishment year and for the following two years (3 years of observations), several observations were taken during each growing season with the purpose of identifying the morphological differences among the studied species. Each year collected plant (at bloom stage) material was air-dried at room temperature in the shade. The essential oil content was determined by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of essential oils was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC – MS). Significant differences were observed among the three oregano species in terms of plant height, leaf size, inflorescence features, as well as concerning their biological cycle. O. intercedens inflorescence presented more similarities with O. hirtum than with O. onites. It was found that calyx morphology could serve as a clear distinction feature between O. intercedens and O. hirtum. The calyx in O. hirtum presents five isometric teeth whereas in O. intercedens two high and three shorter. Essential oil content was significantly affected by genotype and year. O. hirtum presented higher essential oil content than the other two species during the first year of cultivation, however during the second year the hybrid (O. intercedens) recorded the highest values. Carvacrol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene were the main essential oil constituents of the three studied species. In O. hirtum carvacrol content varied from 84,28 - 93,35%, in O. onites from 86,97 - 91,89%, whereas in O. intercedens it was recorded the highest carvacrol content, namely from 89,25 - 97,23%.

Keywords: variability, oregano biotypes, essential oil, carvacrol

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17 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Carbamate, Carvacrol

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16 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova


Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: pollution, root system, micromycetes, identification

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15 Identification of Conserved Domains and Motifs for GRF Gene Family

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Nafiseh Noormohammadi, Sedegeh Fabriki Ourang


GRF, Growth regulating factor, genes encode a novel class of plant-specific transcription factors. The GRF proteins play a role in the regulation of cell numbers in young and growing tissues and may act as transcription activations in growth and development of plants. Identification of GRF genes and their expression are important in plants to performance of the growth and development of various organs. In this study, to better understanding the structural and functional differences of GRFs family, 45 GRF proteins sequences in A. thaliana, Z. mays, O. sativa, B. napus, B. rapa, H. vulgare, and S. bicolor, have been collected and analyzed through bioinformatics data mining. As a result, in secondary structure of GRFs, the number of alpha helices was more than beta sheets and in all of them QLQ domains were completely in the biggest alpha helix. In all GRFs, QLQ, and WRC domains were completely protected except in AtGRF9. These proteins have no trans-membrane domain and due to have nuclear localization signals act in nuclear and they are component of unstable proteins in the test tube.

Keywords: domain, gene family, GRF, motif

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14 Doubled Haploid Production in Wheat Using Imperata cylindrica Mediated Chromosome Elimination Technique

Authors: Madhu Patial, Dharam Pal, Jagdish Kumar, H. K. Chaudhary


Doubled haploid breeding serves as a useful technique in wheat improvement by providing instant and complete homozygosity. Of the various techniques employed for haploid production chromosome elimination has a large scale practical application in wheat improvement. Barclay (1975) initiated the technique in wheat by crossing wheat variety Chinese spring with Hordeum bulbosum, but due to presence of the dominant crossability inhibitor genes Kr7 and Kr2 in many wheat varieties, the technique was however genotypic specific. The discovery of wheat X maize system of haploid production being genotype non-specific is quite successful but still maize needs to be grown in greenhouse to coincide flowering with wheat crop. Recently, wheat X Imperate cylindrica has been identified as a new chromosome mediated DH approach for efficient haploid induction. An experiment to use this technique in wheat was set up by crossing six F1s and two three way F1s with Imperata cylindrica. The data was recorded for the three component traits of haploid induction viz., seed formation, embryo formation and regeneration frequency. Variation among wheat F1s was observed and higher frequency for all the traits were recorded in cross HD 2997/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL and KLE/BER/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL.

Keywords: wheat, haploid, imperata cylindrica, chromosome elimination technique

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13 Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizer Application on Yield of Herbaceous Crops in Succession

Authors: Tarantino E., Disciglio G., Gagliardi A., Gatta G., Tarantino A.


Fertilizer is a critical input for improving production and increasing crop yields. Consecutive experimental trials during six years (from 2010-2015) were carried out in Apulia region (south-eastern Italy) on seven crops grown in cylinder pots. The aim was to determinate the effects of chemical and organic fertilizer on marketable yield and other parameters of processing tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L., cv Docet), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv Canasta), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., cv Casper), pepper (Capsicum annum L., cv Akron), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L., cv Tarquinia), eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv Primato F1) and chard (Beta vulgaris L., Argentata). At harvest the quail-quantitative yield characteristics of each crop were determined. All of the experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the yields for all of these crops were greater under the chemical system than the organic system whereas quite variable results were generally observed for the other characteristics of the yield.

Keywords: fertilizers, herbaceous crops, yield characteristics, succession

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