Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Július Árvay

35 Origanum vulgare as a Possible Modulator of Testicular Endocrine Function in Mice

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Barbora Babečková, Michal Ďuračka, Róbert Kirchner, Július Árvay

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess the in vitro effects of Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) extract on the testicular steroidogenesis. We focused on identifying major biomolecules present in the oregano extract, as well as to investigate its in vitro impact on the secretion of cholesterol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione by murine testicular fragments. The extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which identified cyranosid, daidzein, thymol, rosmarinic and trans-caffeic acid among the predominant biochemical components of oregano. For the in vitro experiments, testicular fragments from 20 sexually mature Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were incubated in the absence (control group) or presence of the oregano extract at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cholesterol levels were quantified using photometry and the hormones were assessed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Our data revealed that the release of cholesterol and androstenedione (but not dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone) by the testicular fragments was significantly impacted by the oregano extract in a dose-dependent fashion. Supplementation of the extract resulted in a significant decline of cholesterol (P < 0.05 in case of 100 μg/mL; P < 0.01 with respect 100 μg/mL extract), as well as androstenedione (P < 0.01 with respect to 100 and 1000 μg/mL extract). Our results suggest that the biomolecules present in Origanum vulgare L. could exhibit a dose-dependent impact on the secretion of male steroids, playing a role in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.

Keywords: mice, Origanum vulgare L., steroidogenesis, testes

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34 Democracy and Human Rights in Nigeria's Fourth Republic: An Assessment

Authors: Kayode Julius Oni

Abstract:

Without mincing words, democracy is by far the most popular form of government in the world today. No matter how we look at it, and regardless of the variant, most leaders in the world today wish to be seen or labeled as Democrats. Perhaps, its attractions in terms of freedom of allocation, accountability, smooth successions of leadership and a lot more, account for its appeal to the ordinary people. The governance style in Nigeria since 1999 cannot be said to be different from the military. Elections are manipulated, judicial processes abused, and the ordinary people do not have access to the dividends of democracy. The paper seeks to address the existing failures experienced under democratic rule in Nigeria which have to transcend into violation of human rights in the conduct of government business. The paper employs the primary and secondary sources of data collection, and it is highly descriptive and critical.

Keywords: democracy, human rights, Nigeria, politics, republic

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
33 Data Management and Analytics for Intelligent Grid

Authors: G. Julius P. Roy, Prateek Saxena, Sanjeev Singh

Abstract:

Power distribution utilities two decades ago would collect data from its customers not later than a period of at least one month. The origin of SmartGrid and AMI has subsequently increased the sampling frequency leading to 1000 to 10000 fold increase in data quantity. This increase is notable and this steered to coin the tern Big Data in utilities. Power distribution industry is one of the largest to handle huge and complex data for keeping history and also to turn the data in to significance. Majority of the utilities around the globe are adopting SmartGrid technologies as a mass implementation and are primarily focusing on strategic interdependence and synergies of the big data coming from new information sources like AMI and intelligent SCADA, there is a rising need for new models of data management and resurrected focus on analytics to dissect data into descriptive, predictive and dictatorial subsets. The goal of this paper is to is to bring load disaggregation into smart energy toolkit for commercial usage.

Keywords: data management, analytics, energy data analytics, smart grid, smart utilities

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32 Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System (IEVCS)

Authors: Prateek Saxena, Sanjeev Singh, Julius Roy

Abstract:

The security of the power distribution grid remains a paramount to the utility professionals while enhancing and making it more efficient. The most serious threat to the system can be maintaining the transformers, as the load is ever increasing with the addition of elements like electric vehicles. In this paper, intelligent transformer monitoring and grid management has been proposed. The engineering is done to use the evolving data from the smart meter for grid analytics and diagnostics for preventive maintenance. The two-tier architecture for hardware and software integration is coupled to form a robust system for the smart grid. The proposal also presents interoperable meter standards for easy integration. Distribution transformer analytics based on real-time data benefits utilities preventing outages, protects the revenue loss, improves the return on asset and reduces overall maintenance cost by predictive monitoring.

Keywords: electric vehicle charging, transformer monitoring, data analytics, intelligent grid

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31 Enterpreneurial Orientation Dimensions for Sustainable Development in Construction Firms

Authors: Kudirat I. Zakariyyah, Iniobong B. John, Julius O. Faremi, David Adio-Moses

Abstract:

One of the key contributors to firms’ growth, performance, and sustainability is entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Most studies on EO, however, are in other industries than construction and, more often, exploratory. The purpose of this study is thus to create an awareness on entrepreneurial orientation and its dimensions in contracting firms. Considering the need for sustainability, the study thus examined contracting firms’ entrepreneurial orientation dimensions that are required in order to keep pace with the demands for sustainable development. This was done by giving out questionnaires to a sample of 116 respondents from a population of 166 construction firms in Lagos state. Data were collected through a survey and analysed using mean scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result revealed the prevalence of the four dimensions of EO, though in moderate proportion. In addition, the study identified review of organisational structure as the top entrepreneurial orientation dimension needed for sustainable development. The study concludes that the firms should identify the existing orientation dimensions and its relevance with sustainability so as to be able to know the required review that will be appropriate in the industry. It is recommended that the firms need to do more on raising the level of prevalence of the various orientation dimensions in order to achieve the merits of the different constructs of sustainability.

Keywords: construction, culture, entrepreneurial-orientation, dimension, sustainability

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30 Livelihood and Willingness to Accept Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation by Local People in the Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo John Julius, Emmanuel Imoagene

Abstract:

Mitigating global warming through reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been given increasing attentions in government-to-government negotiations while discussions among decision-makers have been going on, it is important to learn about the perception of local people in relation to REDD because the implementation will affect their lives. A survey was conducted using questionnaires to examine the livelihood and forest dependency of the local people in the vicinity of Onigambari and Ido area. Respondents’ income from forest activities and forest resources are collected. Participation in tourism related activities among the household members was also investigated to measure the potential of this “eco-friendly” income generation activity in the local communities. There was a general indication of reducing slash-and-burn activities with distance from the park and involvement in tourism-related job. Most of the local people were willing to accept compensation as alternative for slash-and-burn activities. The compensation preferred is in various form of development and different level of forest and environmental activities

Keywords: livelihood, emission, deforestation, degradation, local people, southwest Nigeria

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29 Assessing the Effects of Community Informatics on Livelihoods Sustainability in Nigeria: a Model for Rural Communities

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. This thus raises a very important question as to how can there be so much poverty in Nigeria with all its natural endowments. This study focused comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics , model, rural community, livelihoods sustainability, Nigeria

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28 An Assessment on Awareness of Public Transport Policies for Persons with Disabilities in Three South-West Nigerian States

Authors: Julius A. Ademokoya, Grace C. Ilori

Abstract:

Extreme public transport difficulty for persons with disabilities (PWDs) has always been one of the challenges which these individuals experience on a daily basis in Nigeria. Private and public transport vehicles are not disability- friendly. Operators of public transport are often very intolerant of PWDs' conditions. Indeed, many Nigerians believe it is luxury for PWDs to engage in public transport. They are rarely expected to be seen in public much less going to places via public transport means. Initiatives by a few Nigerian states to develop and implement public transport policies for PWDs, therefore, were a huge relief for them and some concerned Nigerians. A few years ago, three southwest Nigerian states (Lagos, Ondo, and Ekiti) came up with some legislative welfare provisions (including transport programmes) for PWDs. This study, therefore, sought to ascertain levels of awareness and implementation of public policies among the PWDs and those expected to implement the policies. The study adopted a mixed method research. Findings across the three states showed that: (1) awareness of public policies among PWDs is low and (2) a considerable scope of the policies is not yet implemented. Recommendations are, therefore, made on how to improve on awareness and implementation of transport policies for PWDs in three south-west Nigerian states.

Keywords: awareness, disability rights, implementation persons with disability, transport policies

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27 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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26 The Effects of Different Types of Herbicides Used for Lawn Maintenance on the Dynamics of Weeds in an Urban Environment

Authors: Yetunde I. Bulu, Moses B. Adewole, Julius O. Faluyi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of aggressive application of herbicide on weed succession in an urban environment in Ile-Ife, Osun State. An inspection of the communities was carried out to identify sites maintained by herbicides (test plots) and those without herbicide history (control plots). Four different experimental plots located at Olasode, Eleweran, Ife City and Parakin within Ile-Ife town were monitored during the study. Comprehensive enumeration and identification of plant populations to species level was carried out on each of the plots and at every visit to determine the direction of succession. Index of similarities was used to determine the relationship in plant species composition between plots treated with herbicide and the untreated plots. The trend of increasing plant species was observed in all the study plots. Low Similarity Index between the treated plots and the control vegetation was observed at all visitations. Low similarity was also observed between the above-ground vegetation and the seed bank in all the plots. The study concluded that the weed population observed from the experimental plots showed an increase in species richness and diversity when the plots were left to recover compared to the control plots.

Keywords: herbicide, index of similarity, population, soil seed bank, succession

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25 Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: Eka Maulana, Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Dody Fanditya, M. Julius

Abstract:

In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material. Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode. TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/ tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes and counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption measurements using a spectrophotometer at 200-800 nm light spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence were obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.

Keywords: DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell), natural dye, chlorophyll, absorption

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24 Evaluating the Effects of Community Informatics on Sustainable Livelihoods: a Case Model for Rural Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. Rural communities adopted for this study are Ido, Omi-Adio, Onigambari, Okija and Lambata, 500 questionnaires were administered to solicit information from the respondents. This study focused on comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on the sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics, model, rural community, livelihood, Nigeria

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23 Empirical Investigation into Climate Change and Climate-Smart Agriculture for Food Security in Nigeria

Authors: J. Julius Adebayo

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the agro-climatic condition of Ibadan in the rain forest ecological zone of Nigeria, using rainfall pattern and temperature between 1978-2018. Data on rainfall and temperature in Ibadan, Oyo State for a period of 40 years were obtained from Meteorological Section of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan and Oyo State Meteorology Centre. Time series analysis was employed to analyze the data. The trend revealed that rainfall is decreasing slowly and temperature is averagely increasing year after year. The model for rainfall and temperature are Yₜ = 1454.11-8*t and Yₜ = 31.5995 + 2.54 E-02*t respectively, where t is the time. On this basis, a forecast of 20 years (2019-2038) was generated, and the results showed a further downward trend on rainfall and upward trend in temperature, this indicates persistence rainfall shortage and very hot weather for agricultural practices in the southwest rain forest ecological zone. Suggestions on possible solutions to avert climate change crisis and also promote climate-smart agriculture for sustainable food and nutrition security were also discussed.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall pattern, temperature, time series analysis, food and nutrition security

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22 Impact of Zeolite NaY Synthesized from Kaolin on the Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived from Used Tire

Authors: Julius Ilawe Osayi, Peter Osifo

Abstract:

Solid waste disposal, such as used tires is a global challenge as well as energy crisis due to rising energy demand amidst price uncertainty and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Therefore, the effectiveness of pyrolysis as a disposal method that can transform used tires into liquid fuel and other end-products has made the process attractive to researchers. Although used tires have been converted to liquid fuel using pyrolysis, there is the need to improve on the liquid fuel properties. Hence, this paper reports the investigation of zeolite NaY synthesized from kaolin, a locally abundant soil material in the Benin metropolis as a suitable catalyst and its effect on the properties of pyrolytic oil produced from used tires. The pyrolysis process was conducted for a range of 1 to 10 wt.% of catalyst concentration to used tire at a temperature of 600 oC, a heating rate of 15oC/min and particle size of 6mm. Although no significant increase in pyrolytic oil yield was observed compared to the previously investigated non-catalytic pyrolysis of a used tire. However, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization results revealed the pyrolytic oil to possess an improved physicochemical and fuel properties alongside valuable industrial chemical species. This confirms the possibility of transforming kaolin into a catalyst suitable for improved fuel properties of the liquid fraction obtainable from thermal cracking of hydrocarbon materials.

Keywords: catalytic pyrolysis, fossil fuel, kaolin, pyrolytic oil, used tyres, Zeolite NaY

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21 Noise Reduction in Web Data: A Learning Approach Based on Dynamic User Interests

Authors: Julius Onyancha, Valentina Plekhanova

Abstract:

One of the significant issues facing web users is the amount of noise in web data which hinders the process of finding useful information in relation to their dynamic interests. Current research works consider noise as any data that does not form part of the main web page and propose noise web data reduction tools which mainly focus on eliminating noise in relation to the content and layout of web data. This paper argues that not all data that form part of the main web page is of a user interest and not all noise data is actually noise to a given user. Therefore, learning of noise web data allocated to the user requests ensures not only reduction of noisiness level in a web user profile, but also a decrease in the loss of useful information hence improves the quality of a web user profile. Noise Web Data Learning (NWDL) tool/algorithm capable of learning noise web data in web user profile is proposed. The proposed work considers elimination of noise data in relation to dynamic user interest. In order to validate the performance of the proposed work, an experimental design setup is presented. The results obtained are compared with the current algorithms applied in noise web data reduction process. The experimental results show that the proposed work considers the dynamic change of user interest prior to elimination of noise data. The proposed work contributes towards improving the quality of a web user profile by reducing the amount of useful information eliminated as noise.

Keywords: web log data, web user profile, user interest, noise web data learning, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
20 Economic Valuation of Forest Landscape Function Using a Conditional Logit Model

Authors: A. J. Julius, E. Imoagene, O. A. Ganiyu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to estimate the economic value of the services and functions rendered by the forest landscape using a conditional logit model. For this study, attributes and levels of forest landscape were chosen; specifically, attributes include topographical forest type, forest type, forest density, recreational factor (side trip, accessibility of valley), and willingness to participate (WTP). Based on these factors, 48 choices sets with balanced and orthogonal form using statistical analysis system (SAS) 9.1 was adopted. The efficiency of the questionnaire was 6.02 (D-Error. 0.1), and choice set and socio-economic variables were analyzed. To reduce the cognitive load of respondents, the 48 choice sets were divided into 4 types in the questionnaire, so that respondents could respond to 12 choice sets, respectively. The study populations were citizens from seven metropolitan cities including Ibadan, Ilorin, Osogbo, etc. and annual WTP per household was asked by using the interview questionnaire, a total of 267 copies were recovered. As a result, Oshogbo had 0.45, and the statistical similarities could not be found except for urban forests, forest density, recreational factor, and level of WTP. Average annual WTP per household for forest landscape was 104,758 Naira (Nigerian currency) based on the outcome from this model, total economic value of the services and functions enjoyed from Nigerian forest landscape has reached approximately 1.6 trillion Naira.

Keywords: economic valuation, urban cities, services, forest landscape, logit model, nigeria

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19 Implementation of Industrial Ecology Principles in the Production and Recycling of Solar Cells and Solar Modules

Authors: Julius Denafas, Irina Kliopova, Gintaras Denafas

Abstract:

Three opportunities for implementation of industrial ecology principles in the real industrial production of c-Si solar cells and modules are presented in this study. It includes: material flow dematerialisation, product modification and industrial symbiosis. Firstly, it is shown how the collaboration between R&D institutes and industry helps to achieve significant reduction of material consumption by a) refuse from phosphor silicate glass cleaning process and b) shortening of silicon nitride coating production step. Secondly, it was shown how the modification of solar module design can reduce the CO2 footprint for this product and enhance waste prevention. It was achieved by implementing a frameless glass/glass solar module design instead of glass/backsheet with aluminium frame. Such a design change is possible without purchasing new equipment and without loss of main product properties like efficiency, rigidity and longevity. Thirdly, industrial symbiosis in the solar cell production is possible in such case when manufacturing waste (silicon wafer and solar cell breakage) also used solar modules are collected, sorted and supplied as raw-materials to other companies involved in the production chain of c-Si solar cells. The obtained results showed that solar cells produced from recycled silicon can have a comparable electrical parameters like produced from standard, commercial silicon wafers. The above mentioned work was performed at solar cell producer Soli Tek R&D in the frame of H2020 projects CABRISS and Eco-Solar.

Keywords: manufacturing, process optimisation, recycling, solar cells, solar modules, waste prevention

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18 The Use of Industrial Ecology Principles in the Production of Solar Cells and Solar Modules

Authors: Julius Denafas, Irina Kliopova, Gintaras Denafas

Abstract:

Three opportunities for implementation of industrial ecology principles in the real industrial production of c-Si solar cells and modules are presented in this study. It includes: material flow dematerialisation, product modification and industrial symbiosis. Firstly, it is shown how the collaboration between R&D institutes and industry helps to achieve significant reduction of material consumption by a) refuse from phosphor silicate glass cleaning process and b) shortening of SiNx coating production step. This work was performed in the frame of Eco-Solar project, where Soli Tek R&D is collaborating together with the partners from ISC-Konstanz institute. Secondly, it was shown how the modification of solar module design can reduce the CO2 footprint for this product and enhance waste prevention. It was achieved by implementing a frameless glass/glass solar module design instead of glass/backsheet with aluminium frame. Such a design change is possible without purchasing new equipment and without loss of main product properties like efficiency, rigidity and longevity. Thirdly, industrial symbiosis in the solar cell production is possible in such case when manufacturing waste (silicon wafer and solar cell breakage) are collected, sorted and supplied as raw-materials to other companies involved in the production chain of c-Si solar cells. The obtained results showed that solar cells produced from recycled silicon can have a comparable electrical parameters like produced from standard, commercial silicon wafers. The above mentioned work was performed at solar cell producer Soli Tek R&D in the frame of H2020 projects CABRISS and Eco-Solar.

Keywords: solar cells and solar modules, manufacturing, waste prevention, recycling

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17 Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Alkaloids Contents and Inhibited Properties against α-Amylase and Invertase Enzymes of Stem Bark Extracts Coula edulis B

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: It is clearly that phytochemical constituents of plants in relation exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and glycosylation properties. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging, inhibited activities against α-amylase and invertase enzymes of stem bark extracts C. edulis (Olacaceae). Methods: Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) from the barks of C. edulis were used in this study. Colorimetric in vitro methods were using for evaluate free radical scavenging activity DPPH, ABTS, NO, OH, antioxidant capacity, glycosylation activity, inhibition of α-amylase and invertase activities, phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents. Results: C. edulis extracts (CEE) had a higher scavenging potential on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and glucose scavenging with the IC50 varied between 41.95 and 36694.43 µg/ml depending on the solvent of extraction. The ethanol extract of C. edulis stem bark (CE EtOH) showed the highest polyphenolic (289.10 + 30.32), flavonoid (1.12 + 0.09) and alkaloids (18.47 + 0.16) content. All the tested extracts demonstrated a relative high inhibition potential against α-amylase and invertase digestive enzymes activities. Conclusion: This study suggests that CEE exhibited higher antioxidant potential and significant inhibition potential against digestive enzymes.

Keywords: Coula edulis, antioxidant, scavenging activity, amylase, invertase

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16 Status of Mangrove Wetlands and Implications for Sustainable Livelihood of Coastal Communities on the Lagos Coast (West Africa)

Authors: I. Agboola Julius, Christopher A. Kumolu-Johnson, O. Kolade Rafiu, A. Saba Abdulwakil

Abstract:

This work elucidates on mangrove diversity, trends of change, factors responsible for loss over the years and implications for sustainable livelihoods of locals in four villages (Ajido (L1), Tarkwa bay (L2), University of Lagos (L3), and Ikosi (L4)) along the coast of Lagos, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through field survey, questionnaires, interviews, and review of existing literature. Field observation and data analysis reveals mangrove diversity as low and varied on a spatial scale, where Margalef’s Diversity Index (D) was 0.368, 0.269, 0.326, and 0.333, respectively for L1, L2, L3, and L4. Shannon Weiner’s Index (H) was estimated to be 1.003, 1.460, 1.160, 1.046, and Specie Richness (E) 0.913, 0.907, 0.858, and 0.015, respectively, for the four villages. Also, The Simpson’s index of diversity was analyzed to be 0.632, 0. 731, 0.647, 0.667, and Simpson’s reciprocal index 2.717, 3.717, 3.060, and 3.003, respectively, for the four villages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the impact of mangrove loss on the sustainable livelihood of coastal communities. Calculated Chi-square (X2) value (5) was higher than tabulated value (4.30), suggesting that loss of mangrove wetlands impacted on local communities’ livelihood at the four villages. Analyses of causes and trends of mangrove wetland loss over the years suggest that urbanization, fuel wood and agricultural activities are major causes. Current degradation observed in mangrove wetlands on the Lagos coast suggest a reduction in mangroves biodiversity and associated fauna with potential cascading effects on higher trophic levels such as fisheries. Low yield in fish catch, reduction in income and increasing cases of natural disaster has culminated in threats to sustainable livelihoods of local communities along the coast of Lagos.

Keywords: Mangroves, lagos coast, fisheries, management

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15 Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Recipients of Antiretroviral Therapy at HIV Clinics in Botswana

Authors: Jose G. Tshikuka, Goabaone Rankgoane-Pono, Mgaywa G. M. D. Magafu, Julius C. Mwita, Tiny Masupe, Fortunat M. Kandanda, Shimeles G. Hamda, Roy Tapera, Mooketsi Molefi, John T. Tlhakanelo

Abstract:

Background: Factors associated with overweight and obesity among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients have not been sufficiently studied in Botswana. We aimed to study (i) the prevalence and trends in overweight/obesity by duration of exposure to ART among recipients, (ii) changes in body mass index (BMI) categories among recipients before ART initiation (BMI-1) and after ART initiation (BMI-2), (iii) associations between ART and overweight/obesity and (iv) factors associated with BMI changes among ART recipients. Methods: A 12 years retrospective record-based review was conducted. Factors potentially associated with BMI change among patients after at least three years of ART exposure were examined using multiple regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. ART regimens, duration of exposure to ART, and recipients’ demographic and biomedical characteristics including the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus related comorbidities (DRC) were investigated as potential factors associated with overweight/obesity. Results: Twenty-nine percent of recipients were overweight, 16.6% had obesity of whom 2.4% were morbidly-obese at the last clinic visit. Overweight/obesity recipients were more likely to be female, to have DRC and less likely to have nadir CD4 count or CD4 count between 201 – 249 cells/mm³. Neither the first-line nor the second-, third-line ART regimens predicted overweight/obesity more than the other and neither did the duration of exposure to ART. No significant linear trends were observed in the prevalence of overweight/obesity by the duration of exposure to ART. Conclusions: These results indicate that overweight/obesity seen among ART recipients is not directly induced by ART. ART used CD4 and/or DRC pathway to induce overweight/obesity seen among recipients; suggesting that, weight gain documented herein is likely a reflection of improved health status that mirrors trends in the general population or a DRC related effect. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

Keywords: overweight/obesity, recipients of antiretroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS, Botswana

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14 Dietary Supplementation with Coula edulis B. Walnuts Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with African walnuts (Aw) could have an effect on adipogenesis and others dysfunctions associated with obesity in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (SD) or high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFS) and HFS with supplemented (HFS-Aw) for eight weeks. Results: HFS diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to SD. In addition HFS-fed rats developed fasting hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia as well as insulin resistance. Aw supplementation in HFS rats had a protective effect against adipose tissues weigh gain but slightly against body weight gain and major study related disorders. This could be mainly due to decreased food intake dependently of effect in food intake in central nervous system, which decreased in HFS rats supplemented with African walnut compared to the HFS-diet group. Interestingly, African walnut supplementation induced a slight decrease of fasting glycaemia, insulinaemia and Nitric Oxide which could partially explain its minor protective effect against diet-induced insulin resistance. Additionally a decrease in hepatic TG and transaminases levels suggesting a protective effect against liver injury. Conclusion: Taken together these data suggested that supplementation of African walnut could be used to prevent adipose weight gain and related disorders on the other hand, minimally reduced insulin resistance.

Keywords: African walnut, dietary fiber, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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13 Phenotypic Characterisation of Bapedi Sheep Breed

Authors: Fhulufhelo Ramukhithi, Kgothatso Masethe, Tlou Chokoe, Ayanda Maqhashu, Julius Sebei, Tshililo Raphulu, Joseph Mugwabana

Abstract:

Phenotypic characterisation ensures that the physical appearance of an animal is well documented. The information provided by this phenotypic characterisation study is important for planning management and the use of animal genetic resources. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic characteristics of Bapedi sheep. Bapedi sheep are at risk of extinction like most of the indigenous breeds. As a result, a total of 196 Bapedi ewes and 35 rams were used. Phenotypic-qualitative characteristics were evaluated through visual appraisal. Phenotypic-quantitative characteristics such as body parts measurements were obtained using a flexible tape (cm), while body weight were obtained by using a weighing scale (kg). Bapedi rams (97 %) had higher satisfactory body condition when compared to ewes (75 %). A higher proportion of Bapedi sheep that did not have ticks observed (ewes = 87 % and rams = 91 %). Brown and white colour combination (head x body) was dominating in Bapedi sheep (80 % ewes and 91 % rams). Bapedi ewes did not have any horns; however, 3 % of rams had them. Bapedi sheep had a higher proportion of brown eyes, moderate neck, stiff sideways ears and normal front legs. Bapedi rams had a higher proportion of well-balanced and good attached testicles. Bapedi ewes had average (45 %), small (40 %) and big udders (15 %). Bapedi rams had a significantly higher body weight, height, depth, hearth girth circumference, rump width, hind leg width and length compared to ewes. However, both Bapedi rams and ewes had similar age, body condition score, tail length, length below hock and knee. In conclusion, Bapedi sheep had a higher satisfactory body condition and brown and white colour combination. Some of Bapedi rams’ quantitative characteristics were higher compared to ewes.

Keywords: extinction, indigenous, phenotypic, smallstock

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12 Improving Traditional Methods of Handling Fish from Integrated Pond Culture Systems in Monai Village, New Bussa, Nigeria

Authors: Olokor O. Julius, Ngwu E. Onyebuchi, Ajani K. Emmanuel, Omitoyin O. Bamidele, Olokor O. Linda, Akomas Stella

Abstract:

The study assessed the quality changes of Clarias gariepenus obtained from integrated culture systems (rice, poultry and fish) which were displayed at 31-33oC average daily temperature on the traditional market table used by local fish farmers to sell fish harvested from their ponds and those on an improved table designed for this study. Unlike the conventional table, the improved table was screened against flies and indiscriminate touch by customers. The fishes were displayed on both tables for 9 hours and quality attributes were monitored hourly by trained panelists. For C. gariepinus, the gills, and intestine recorded faster deterioration starting from the fourth and fifth hours while those on the improved table were prolonged by one hour. Scores for skin brightness and texture did not indicate quality deterioration throughout the display period. However, at the end of the storage time, samples on the improved table recorded 1.5 x 104 cfu/g while samples in unscreened table recorded 3.7 x 10 7 cfu/g. The study shows how simple modifications of a traditional practice can help extend keeping qualities of farmed fish, reduce health hazards in local communities where there is no electricity to preserve fish in whatever form despite a boom in aquaculture. Monai community has a fish farm estate of over 200 small holder farmers with annual output capacity of over $10 million dollars. The simple improvement made to farmers practice in this study is to ensure Community hygiene and boost income of peasant fish farmers by improving the market quality of their products.

Keywords: fish spoilage, improved handling, income generation, retail table

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11 A Comparative Study of the Use of Medicinal Plants and Conventional Medicine for the Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus in Ibadan Metropolis

Authors: Julius Adebayo John

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The objective of this study is to compare the use of medicinal plants and Conventional medicine intervention in the management of HBV among Ibadan populace. A purposive sampling technique was used to administer questionnaires at 2 places, namely, the University College Hospital and Total Healthcare Diagnostic Centre, Ibadan, where viral loads are carried out. A EuroQol (EQ – 5D) was adopted to collect data. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Also, ANOVA, Correlation, charts, and tables were used. Findings revealed a high prevalence of HBV among female respondents and sample between ages 26years to 50years. Results showed that the majority discovered their health status through free HBV tests. Analysis indicated that the use of medicinal plant extract is cost-effective in 73% of cases. Rank order utility derived from medicinal plants is higher than other interventions. Correlation analysis performed for the current health status of respondents were significant at P<0.01 against the intervention management adopted (0.046), cost of treatment (0.549), utility (0.407) at P<0.00, duration of the treatment (0.604) at P<0.01; viral load before treatment (-0.142) not significant at P<0.01, the R2 (72.2%) showed the statistical variance in respondents current health status as explained by the independent variables. Respondents gained quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of between 1year to 3years. Suggestions were made for a public-private partnership effort against HBV with emphasis on periodic screening, viral load test subsidy, and free vaccination of people with –HBV status. Promoting phytomedicine through intensive research with strong regulation of herbal practitioners will go a long way in alleviating the burdens of the disease in society.

Keywords: medicinal plant, HBV management interventions, utility, QALYs, ibadan metropolis

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10 The Effect of Season, Fire and Slope Position on Seriphium plumosum L. Forage Quality in South African Grassland Communities

Authors: Hosia T. Pule, Julius T. Tjelele, Michelle J. Tedder, Dawood Hattas

Abstract:

Acceptability of plant material to herbivores is influenced by, among other factors; nutrients, plant secondary metabolites and growth stage of the plants. However, the effect of these factors on Seriphium plumosum L. acceptability to livestock is still not clearly understood, despite its importance in managing its encroachment in grassland communities. The study used 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance to investigate the effect of season (wet and dry), fire, slope position (top and bottom) and their interaction on Seriphium plumosum chemistry. We tested the hypothesis that S. plumosum chemistry varies temporally, spatially and pre- and post-fire treatment. Seriphium plumosum edible material was collected during the wet and dry season from burned and unburned areas on both top and bottom slopes before being analysed for protein (CP) content, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT). Season had a significant effect on S. plumosum protein content, neutral detergent fibre, total phenolics and condensed tannins. Fire had a significant effect on CP. Interaction of season x fire had a significant effect on NDF and CP (p < 0.05). Seriphium plumosum in the wet season (6.69% ± 0.20 (SE)) had significantly higher CP than in the dry season (5.22% ± 0.13). NDF was significantly higher (58.01% ± 0.41) in the dry season than in the wet season (53.17% ± 0.34), while TP were significantly higher in the dry season (14.44 mg/gDw ± 1.03) than in the wet season (11.08 mg/gDw ± 1.07). CT in the wet season were significantly higher (1.56 mg/gDw ± 0.13) than in the dry season (1 mg/gDw ± 0.03). CP was significantly higher in burned (6. 31 % ± 0.22) than in unburned S. plumosum edible material (5.60 % ± 0.15). Seriphium plumosum CP was significantly higher in wet season x burned (7.34 % ± 0.31) than wet season x unburned (6.08 % ± 0.20) material and dry season x burned (5.34 % ± 0.18) and unburned (5.09 % ± 0.18) material were similar. NDF was similar in dry season x burned (58.31% ± 0.54) and dry season x unburned (57.69 % ± 0.62) material and significantly higher than similar wet season x burned (52.43% ± 0.45) and wet season x post-unburned (53.88% ± 0.47) material. This study suggests integrating fire, browsers, and supplements as encroacher S. plumosum control agents, especially in the wet season, following fire due to high S. plumosum CP content.

Keywords: acceptability, chemistry, edible material, encroachment, phenolics, tannins

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9 Return to Work Rates of Participants in Medical Rehabilitation: The Role of Fitness and Health

Authors: Julius Steinkopf, Eric Rost, Aike Hessel, Sonia Lippke

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Objective: This study examined possible determinants of return to work (RTW) in individuals who participated in a medical rehabilitation program longitudinally over a time period of six months. Design/methodology/approach: N=1,044 rehabilitants were included in the baseline measurement in terms of completing a questionnaire during their medical rehabilitation. About 30% (n=350) have remained in the study in terms of participating in computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) six months later. Frequency analyses and Regression analyses were run. Findings: About 70% of the rehabilitants returned to work six months after rehabilitation. Regression analyses revealed that the RTW rates were significantly predicted by gender (OR=0.12, men were more likely to return), perceived social support (OR=3.01) and current physical functioning (OR=1.25). Furthermore RTW motives, like expected monetary rewards (OR=25.2) and feelings of being needed (OR=0.18) same as motives for not returning to work (nRTW), like the wish to stop working in order to spend time with the spouse (OR=0.13) or a lack of enjoyment of work (OR=3.81), significantly predicted return to work rates. Life satisfaction, self-efficacy beliefs, mental health, current income, educational background or age did not significantly increase explained variance (all ps > .05). Practical implications: Taking theses predictors into account provides options to increase the effectiveness of interventions aiming at increasing RTW: Medical rehabilitations should not only aim at improving the physical functioning but also to enhance beneficial motives and social support as well as support women specifically in order to improve the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation and public health interventions. Originality/value: Illness-caused work absences are related to high financial costs and individual burden. Despite of the public health and societal implications, this is one of the very few studies investigating systematically fitness and health for the return to work.

Keywords: gender, fitness, health, physical functioning

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8 Preventive Effect of Stem Back Extracts of Coula edulis Baill. against High-Fat / High Sucrose Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress are associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other cardio metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Coula edulis extracts (CEE) on insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers in high-fat/high sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each fed, received daily oral administration of CE extracts for 8 weeks as follows: Group 1 or negative control group, fed with standard diet (SD); Group 2 fed with high-fat/high sucrose diet (HFHS) only; Group3 fed with HFHS + CEAq 200; Group 4 fed with HFHS + CEAq 400; Group 5 fed with HFHS + CEEt 200; Group 6 fed with HFHS + CEEt 400. At the end of the experiment (8 weeks), animals were sacrificed plasma lipid profile, glucose, insulin, oxidative marker and digestive enzyme activities were measured. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Results: Feedings with HFHS significantly (p < 0.01) induced plasma hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein levels, alterations of α amylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, and oxidative stress. Daily oral administration with CEE for eight weeks after insulin resistance induction had a hypolipidaemic action, antioxidative activities and modulated metabolic markers. Ethanolic extract at the higher dose had the best effect on body weight gain and insulin resistance, whereas aqueous extract showed the better activity on hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: These results suggest that CEAq and CEEt at 400mg/kg are promising complementary supplements that can be used to protect better from metabolic disorders associated with HFHS.

Keywords: Coula edulis Baill, high-fat / high sucrose diet, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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7 High Heating Value Bio-Chars from a Bio-Oil Upgrading Process

Authors: Julius K. Gane, Mohamad N. Nahil, Paul T. Williams

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In today’s world of rapid population growth and a changing climate, one way to mitigate various negative effects is via renewable energy solutions. Energy and power as basic requirements in almost all human endeavours are also the banes of the changing climate and the impacts thereof. Thus it is crucial to develop innovative and environmentally friendly energy options to ameliorate various negative repercussions. Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oil via hydro-treatment offers such opportunities, as quality renewable liquid transportation fuels can be produced. The process, however, is typically accompanied by bio-char formation as a by-product. The goal of this work was to study the yield and some properties of bio-chars formed from a hydrotreatment process, with an overall aim to promote the valuable utilization of wastes or by-products from renewable energy technologies. It is assumed that bio-chars that have comparable energy contents with coals will be more desirable as solid energy materials due to renewability and environmental friendliness. Therefore, the analytical work in this study focused mainly on determining the higher heating value (HHV) of the chars. The method involved the reaction of bio-oil in an autoclave supplied by the Parr Instrument Company, IL, USA. Two main parameters (different temperatures and resident times) were investigated. The chars were characterized using a Thermo EA2000 CHNS analyser, then oxygen contents and HHVs computed based on the literature. From the results, these bio-chars can readily serve as feedstocks for the production of renewable solid fuels. Their HHVs ranged between 29.26-39.18 MJ/kg, affected by different temperatures and retention times. There was an inverse relationship between the oxygen content and the HHVs of the chars. It can, therefore, be concluded that it is possible to optimize the process efficiency of the hydrotreatment process used through the production of renewable energy materials from the 'waste’ char by-products. Future work should consider developing a suitable balance between the primary objective of bio-oil upgrading processes (which is to improve the quality of the liquid fuels) and the conversion of its solid wastes into value-added products such as smokeless briquettes.

Keywords: bio-char, renewable solid biofuels, valorisation, waste-to-energy

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6 Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater Resources under Uncertainty: A Retrospective Optimization Approach

Authors: Julius M. Ndambuki, Gislar E. Kifanyi, Samuel N. Odai, Charles Gyamfi

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Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources is a challenging task due to the spatial and temporal variability nature of hydrology as well as hydrogeology of the water storage systems. Surface water-groundwater hydrogeology is highly uncertain; thus it is imperative that this uncertainty is explicitly accounted for, when managing water resources. Various methodologies have been developed and applied by researchers in an attempt to account for the uncertainty. For example, simulation-optimization models are often used for conjunctive water resources management. However, direct application of such an approach in which all realizations are considered at each iteration of the optimization process leads to a very expensive optimization in terms of computational time, particularly when the number of realizations is large. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to introduce and apply an efficient approach referred to as Retrospective Optimization Approximation (ROA) that can be used for optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater over a multiple hydrogeological model simulations. This work is based on stochastic simulation-optimization framework using a recently emerged technique of sample average approximation (SAA) which is a sampling based method implemented within the Retrospective Optimization Approximation (ROA) approach. The ROA approach solves and evaluates a sequence of generated optimization sub-problems in an increasing number of realizations (sample size). Response matrix technique was used for linking simulation model with optimization procedure. The k-means clustering sampling technique was used to map the realizations. The methodology is demonstrated through the application to a hypothetical example. In the example, the optimization sub-problems generated were solved and analysed using “Active-Set” core optimizer implemented under MATLAB 2014a environment. Through k-means clustering sampling technique, the ROA – Active Set procedure was able to arrive at a (nearly) converged maximum expected total optimal conjunctive water use withdrawal rate within a relatively few number of iterations (6 to 7 iterations). Results indicate that the ROA approach is a promising technique for optimizing conjunctive water use of surface water and groundwater withdrawal rates under hydrogeological uncertainty.

Keywords: conjunctive water management, retrospective optimization approximation approach, sample average approximation, uncertainty

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