Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: clove

14 Clove Oil Incorporated Biodegradable Film for Active Food Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Sandra Barkauskaite, Brendan Duffy, Swarna Jaiswal, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Food packaging protects food from temperature, light, and humidity; preserves food and guarantees the safety and the integrity of the food. Advancement in packaging research leads to development of active packaging system with numerous properties such as oxygen scavengers, carbon-dioxide generating systems, antimicrobial active packaging, moisture control packaging, ethylene scavengers etc. In the active packaging, several additives such as essential oils, polyphenols etc. are incorporated into packaging film or within the packaging material to achieve the desired properties. This study investigates the effect on the structural, thermal and functional properties of different poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) blend films incorporated with clove essential oil. The PLA-PBAT films were prepared by a solution casting method and then characterized based on their optical, mechanical properties, surface hydrophobicity, chemical composition, antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli, and inhibition of biofilm formation of E. coli. Results showed that, the developed packaging film containing clove oil has significant UV-blocking property (80%). However, incorporation of clove oil resulted in reduced transparency and tensile strength of the film as the concentration of clove oil increased. The surface hydrophobicity of packaging film was improved with the increasing concentration of essential oil. Similarly, thickness of the clove oil containing films increased from 36.71 µm to 106.67 µm as the concentration increases. The antimicrobial activity and biofilm inhibition study showed that the clove-incorporated PLA-PBAT composite film was effective against tested bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. This study showed that the PLA-PBAT – Clove oil composite film has significant antimicrobial and UV-blocking properties and can be used as an active food packaging film.

Keywords: active packaging, clove oil, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), poly(lactide)

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13 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

Abstract:

Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

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12 Identification of the Most Effective Dosage of Clove Oil Solution as an Alternative for Synthetic Anaesthetics on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: D. P. N. De Silva, N. P. P. Liyanage

Abstract:

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the family Cyprinidae, is a tropical freshwater fish widely used as a model organism in scientific research. Use of effective and economical anaesthetic is very important when handling fish. Clove oil (active ingredient: eugenol) was identified as a natural product which is safer and economical compared to synthetic chemicals like methanesulfonate (MS-222). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the most effective dosage of clove oil solution as an anaesthetic on mature Zebrafish. Clove oil solution was prepared by mixing pure clove oil with 94% ethanol at a ratio of 1:9 respectively. From that solution, different volumes were selected as (0.4 ml, 0.6 ml and 0.8 ml) and dissolved in one liter of conditioned water (dosages : 0.4 ml/L, 0.6 ml/L and 0.8 ml/L). Water quality parameters (pH, temperature and conductivity) were measured before and after adding clove oil solution. Mature Zebrafish with similar standard length (2.76 ± 0.1 cm) and weight (0.524 ± 0.1 g) were selected for this experiment. Time taken for loss of equilibrium (initiation phase) and complete loss of movements including opercular movement (anaesthetic phase) were measured. To detect the efficacy on anaesthetic recovery, time taken to begin opercular movements (initiation of recovery phase) until swimming (post anaesthetic phase) were observed. The results obtained were analyzed according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukeys’ method using SPSS version 17.0 at 95% confidence interval (p<0.5). According to the results, there was no significant difference at the initiation phase of anaesthesia in all three doses though the time taken was varied from 0.14 to 0.41 minutes. Mean value of the time taken to complete the anaesthetic phase at 0.4 ml/L dosage was significantly different with 0.6 ml/L and 0.8 ml/L dosages independently (p=0.01). There was no significant difference among recovery times at all dosages but 0.8 ml/L dosage took longer time compared to 0.6 ml/L dosage. The water quality parameters (pH and temperature) were stable throughout the experiment except conductivity, which increased with the higher dosage. In conclusion, the best dosage need to anaesthetize Zebrafish using clove oil solution was 0.6 ml/L due to its fast initiation of anaesthesia and quick recovery compared to the other two dosages. Therefore clove oil can be used as a good substitute for synthetic anaesthetics because of its efficacy at a lower dosage with higher safety at a low cost.

Keywords: anaesthetics, clove oil, zebrafish, Cyprinidae

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11 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, Y. M. Goh, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, fillet, fish, fortification, lipid peroxidation

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10 Insecticidal and Repellent Efficacy of Clove and Lemongrass Oils Against Museum Pest, Lepisma Saccharina (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae)

Authors: Suboohi Nasrin, MHD. Shahid, Abduraheem K.

Abstract:

India is a tropical country, and it is estimated that biological and abiological agents are the major factors in the destruction and deterioration of archival materials like herbarium, paper, cellulose, bookbinding, etc. Silverfish, German Cockroaches, Termites, Booklice, Tobacco beetle and Carpet beetles are the common insect's pests in the museum, which causes deterioration to collections of museum specimens. Among them, silverfish is one of the most notorious pests and primarily responsible for the deterioration of Archival materials. So far, the investigation has been carried to overcome this existing problem as different management strategies such as chemical insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, etc., have been applied. Moreover, Synthetic molecules lead to affect the ecological balance, have a detrimental effects on human health, reduce the beneficial microbial flora and fauna, etc. With a view, numbers of chemicals have been banned and advised not to be used due to their long-lasting persistency in soil ecosystem, water and carcinogenic. That’s why the authors used natural products with biocidal activity, cost-effective and eco-friendly approaches. In this study, various concentrations (30, 60 and 90 ml/L) of clove and lemongrass essential oil at different treatment duration (30, 60, 90 and 120-minutes) were investigated to test its properties as a silverfish repellent and insecticidal effect. The result of two ways ANOVA revealed that the mortality was significantly influenced by oil concentration, treatment duration and interaction between two independent factors was also found significant. The mortality rate increased with increasing the oil concentration in clove oil, and 100 % mortality was recorded in 0.9 ml at 120-minute. It was also observed that the treatment duration has the highest effect on the mortality rate of silverfish. The clove oil had the greatest effect on the silverfish in comparison to lemongrass. While in the case of percentage, repellency of adult silverfish was oil concentration and treatment duration-dependent, i.e., increase in concentration and treatment duration resulted in higher repellency percentage. The clove oil was found more effective, showing maximum repellency of 80.00% at 0.9ml/cm2 (highest) concentration, and in lemongrass highest repellency was observed at 33.4% at 0.9 ml/cm2 concentration in the treated area.

Keywords: adult silverfish, oils, oil concentration, treatment duration, mortality (%) and repellency

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9 Synergistic Studies of Liposomes of Clove and Cinnamon Oil in Oral Health Care

Authors: Sandhya Parameswaran, Prajakta Dhuri

Abstract:

Despite great improvements in health care, the world oral health report states that dental problems still persist, particularly among underprivileged groups in both developing and developed countries. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are identified as the most important oral health problems globally. Acidic foods and beverages can affect natural teeth, and chronic exposure often leads to the development of dental erosion, abrasion, and decay. In recent years, there has been an increased interest toward essential oils. These are secondary metabolites and possess antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Essential oils are volatile and chemically unstable in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperature. Hence many novel methods like a liposomal encapsulation of oils have been introduced to enhance the stability and bioavailability. This research paper focuses on two essential oils, clove and cinnamon oil. Clove oil was obtained from Syzygium aromaticum Linn using clavengers apparatus. It contains eugenol and β caryophyllene. Cinnamon oil, from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, contains cinnamaldehyde, The objective of the current research was to develop a liposomal carrier system containing clove and cinnamon oil and study their synergistic activity against dental pathogens when formulated as a gel. Methodology: The essential oil were first tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens, Lactobacillus acidophillus (MTCC No. 10307, MRS broth) and Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC No .890, Brain Heart Infusion agar). The oils were analysed by UV spectroscopy for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde content. Standard eugenol was linear between 5ppm to 25ppm at 282nm and standard cinnamaldehde from 1ppm to 5pmm at 284nm. The concentration of eugenol in clove oil was found to be 62.65 % w/w, and that of cinnamaldehyde was found to be 5.15%s w/w. The oils were then formulated into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and other oils dissolved in a chloroform methanol (3:1) mixture. The organic solvent was evaporated in a rotary evaporator above lipid transition temperature. The film was hydrated with phosphate buffer (pH 5.5).The various batches of liposomes were characterized and compared for their size, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The prepared liposomes when evaluated for entrapment efficiency showed 65% entrapment for clove and 85% for cinnamon oil. They were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens and their synergistic activity studied. Based on the activity and the entrapment efficiency the amount of liposomes required to prepare 1gm of the gel was calculated. The gel was prepared using a simple ointment base and contained 0.56% of cinnamon and clove liposomes. A simultaneous method of analysis for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.was then developed using HPLC. The prepared gels were then studied for their stability as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: It was found that liposomes exhibited spherical shaped vesicles and protected the essential oil from degradation. Liposomes, therefore, constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile, unstable essential oil constituents.

Keywords: cinnamon oil, clove oil, dental caries, liposomes

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8 Novel Emulgel of Piroxicam for Topical Application with Mentha and Clove Oil

Authors: S. V. Patil, P. S. Dounde, S. S. Patil

Abstract:

Emulgels have emerged as one of the most interesting topical delivery system as it has dual release control system that is gel and emulsion. The major objective behind this formulation is delivery of hydrophobic drugs to systemic circulation via skin. In fact presence of a gelling agent in water phase converts a classical emulsion in to emulgel. The emulgel for dermatological use has several favorable properties such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, non-staining, water-soluble, longer shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent and pleasing appearance. Various penetration enhancers can potentiate the effect. So this can be used as better topical drug delivery systems over present conventional systems available in market. Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has major problems when administered orally; it is an insoluble drug and has irritant effect on gastro intestinal tract lead to ulceration and bleeding. The aim of this study was to overcoming these problems through preparation of topical emulgel of this drug. Emulgel of Piroxicam was prepared using Carbopol 940 along with mentha oil and clove oil as permeation enhancer. The prepared emulgel were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH determination, viscosity, spreadability, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation studies. All the prepared formulations showed acceptable physical properties, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, viscosity and pH value. The emulgel was found to be stable with respect to physical appearance, pH, rheological properties and drug content at all temperature and conditions for three month.

Keywords: emulgel, piroxicam, menthe oil, clove oil

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7 Effect of Citric Acid and Clove on Cured Smoked Meat: A Traditional Meat Product

Authors: Esther Eduzor, Charles A. Negbenebor, Helen O. Agu

Abstract:

Smoking of meat enhances the taste and look of meat, it also increases its longevity, and helps preserve the meat by slowing down the spoilage of fat and growth of bacteria. The Lean meat from the forequarter of beef carcass was obtained from the Maiduguri abattoir. The meat was cut into four portions with weight ranging from 525-545 g. The meat was cut into bits measuring about 8 cm in length, 3.5 cm in thickness and weighed 64.5 g. Meat samples were washed, cured with various concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, citric acid and clove for 30 min, drained and smoked in a smoking kiln at a temperature range of 55-600°C, for 8 hr a day for 3 days. The products were stored at ambient temperature and evaluated microbiologically and organoleptically. In terms of processing and storage there were increases in pH, free fatty acid content, a decrease in water holding capacity and microbial count of the cured smoked meat. The panelists rated control samples significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terms of colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The following organisms were isolated and identified during storage: Bacillus specie, Bacillus subtilis, streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus niger, Candida and Penicillium specie. The study forms a basis for new product development for meat industry.

Keywords: citric acid, cloves, smoked meat, bioengineering

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6 Quality Characteristics of Cured Dried Camel Meat Formulated with Different Medicinal Plants as Natural Preservatives

Authors: H. S. Aljabeili, E. A. Abd El-Hady, M. M. Abd El-Razik, M. Abd Elgadir

Abstract:

The aim of the study is determining the quality characteristics of produced curing and dried camel meat contained some medicinal plants of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger as natural preservatives. Camel meat samples were sliced and divided into five batches, one batch recorded as control sample was treated by the curing mixture (2.5%) contained the following ingredients: black pepper 1 gm, cumin 0.4 gm, spices mixture 0.5 gm, dried onion 3 gm, dried garlic 0.5 gm and salt 2 gm. To evaluate the effect of different natural preservatives sources of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger, 3.0% of the aforementioned natural preservatives was mixed with the aforementioned curing mixture and used for curing the four batches of sliced camel meat. After curing process, cured sliced camel meat (control and treated with the natural preservatives) were conducting to drying process at 35 ± 3 °C for 36 h in a drying cabinet. The quality characteristics of prepared dried camel meat were evaluated such as chemical composition, microbiological characteristics and sensory characteristics. Based on the microbiological and sensory characteristics, it could be suggested that the selected medicinal plants specially thyme and rosemary could be used as natural preservatives for preparing semi dry camel meat without negative effects.

Keywords: curing, dried camel meat, medicinal plants, natural preservatives, quality characteristics

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5 Assessing Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Midgutmicroflora of Aedesaegypti

Authors: V. Baweja, K. K. Gupta, V. Dubey, C. Keshavam

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activity of six indigenous plants such as Tulsi Ocimum sanctum, Neem Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, Turmeric Curcuma longa, Lantana Lantana camara, and Clove Syzygium aromaticum was assessed against the gut microbiota of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, keeping in view that the presence of midgut bacteria may affect the ability of the vector to transmit pathogens. Eleven different types of bacterial clones were isolated from the midgut of lab-reared fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and were grown on LB agar medium at an optimum temperature of 25 ºC. Identification of these bacteria was done on the basis of their colony characteristic such as colony size, shape, opacity, elevation, consistency, and growth. Light microscopic studies of the gut microbiota revealed dominance of Gram-negative cocci over gram positive cocci and bacilli and Gram-negative bacilli. Identification of species was done by chemical characterization of the colonies. Crude extracts of all test plants were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gut microbiota by disc diffusion assay. The zone of exclusion seen after 24 hr of incubation in different assays revealed the most potent antibacterial activities in neem followed by clove and turmeric. Lantana and Aloe vera were least effective.

Keywords: plant extract, aedes, dengue, antimicrobial activity

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4 Analysis of the Evolution of the Behavior of Land Users Linked to the Surge in the Prices of Cash Crops: Case of the Northeast Region of Madagascar

Authors: Zo Hasina Rabemananjara

Abstract:

The North-East of Madagascar is the pillar of Madagascar's foreign trade, providing 41% and 80% of world exports of cloves and vanilla, respectively, in 2016. For Madagascar, the north-eastern escarpment is home to the last massifs of humid forest in large scale of the island, surrounded by a small scale agricultural mosaic. In the sites where this study is taking place, located in the peripheral zones of protected areas, the production of rent aims to supply international markets. In fact, importers of the cash crops produced in these areas are located mainly in India, Singapore, France, Germany and the United States. Recently, the price of these products has increased significantly, especially from the year 2015. For vanilla, the price has skyrocketed, from an approximate price of 73 USD per kilo in 2015 to more than 250 USD per kilo in 2016. The value of clove exports increased sharply by 49.4% in 2017, largely to Singapore and India due to the sharp increase in exported volume (+47, 6%) in 2017. If the relationship between the rise in prices of rented products and the change in physical environments is known, the evolution of the behavior of land users linked to this aspect was not yet addressed by research. In fact, the consequence of this price increase in the organization of the use of space at the local level still raises questions. Hence, the research question is: to what extent does this improvement in the price of imported products affect user behavior linked to the local organization of access to the factor of soil production? To fully appreciate this change in behavior, surveys of 144 land user households were carried out, and group interviews were also carried out. The results of this research showed that the rise in the prices of annuity products from the year 2015 caused significant changes in the behavior of land users in the study sites. Young people, who have not been attracted to farming for a long time, have started to show interest in it since the period of rising vanilla and clove prices. They have set up their own fields of vanilla and clove cultivation. This revival of interest conferred an important value on the land and caused conflicts especially between family members because the acquisition of the cultivated land was done by inheritance or donation. This change in user behavior has also affected the farmers' life strategy since the latter have decided to abandon rain-fed rice farming, which has long been considered a guaranteed subsistence activity for cash crops. This research will contribute to nourishing scientific reflection on the management of land use and also to support political decision-makers in decision-making on spatial planning.

Keywords: behavior of land users, North-eastern Madagascar, price of export products, spatial planning

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3 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Ceratonia siliqua L. Growing in Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: N. Meziou-Chebouti, A. Merabet, Y. Chebouti N. Behidj

Abstract:

This work is a contribution to the knowledge of physicochemical characteristics of mature carob followed by evaluation of the activity, antimicrobial phenolics leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. physicochemical study shows that mature carob it has a considerable content of sugar (50.90%), but poor in proteins (7%), fat (8%) and also has a high mineral content. The results obtained from phenolic extracts of leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. show a wealth leaf phenolic extract especially flavonoids (0,545 mg EqQ/g) relative to the extract of green pods (0,226 mgEqQ/g). Polyphenols leaves have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoiae, Streptococcus sp and Sanmonella enteritidis, a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Pseudomonas strain aerogenosa. Moreover, polyphenols pod have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus sp strains, Pseudomonas and aerogenosa Sanmonella enteritidis, a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteria, clove, Ceratonia siliqua, polyphenols

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2 Micro/Nano-Sized Emulsions Exhibit Antifungal Activity against Cucumber Downy Mildew

Authors: Kai-Fen Tu, Jenn-Wen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin

Abstract:

Cucumber is a major economic crop in the world. The global production of cucumber in 2017 was more than 71 million tonnes. Nonetheless, downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a devastating and common disease on cucumber in around 80 countries and causes severe economic losses. The long-term usage of fungicide also leads to the occurrence of fungicide resistance and decreases host resistance. In this study, six types of oil (neem oil, moringa oil, soybean oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, and camellia oil) were selected to synthesize micro/nano-sized emulsions, and the disease control efficacy of micro/nano-sized emulsions were evaluated. Moreover, oil concentrations (0.125% - 1%) and droplet size of emulsion were studied. Results showed cinnamon-type emulsion had the best efficacy among these oils. The disease control efficacy of these emulsions increased as the oil concentration increased. Both disease incidence and disease severity were measured by detached leaf and pot experiment, respectively. For the droplet size effect, results showed that the 114 nm of droplet size synthesized by 0.25% cinnamon oil emulsion had the lowest disease incidence (6.67%) and lowest disease severity (33.33%). The release of zoospore was inhibited (5.33%), and the sporangia germination was damaged. These results suggest that cinnamon oil emulsion will be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to control cucumber downy mildew. The economic loss caused by plant disease could also be reduced.

Keywords: downy mildew, emulsion, oil droplet size, plant protectant

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1 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider

Abstract:

Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: clove, essential oils, fennel, potato

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