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Paper Count: 13

Search results for: chloroplast DNA

13 In silico Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) and Some Individual Genes (rbcL and trnH-psbA) in Pooideae Subfamily Members

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Ilhan Dogan

Abstract:

An in silico analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum aestivum, Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne, Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare of the Pooideaea was performed based on complete chloroplast genomes including rbcL coding and trnH-psbA intergenic spacer regions alone to compare phylogenetic resolving power. Neighbor-joining, Minimum Evolution, and Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies with the highest bootstrap supported the obtained data from whole chloroplast genome sequence. The highest and lowest values from nucleotide diversity (π) analysis were found to be 0.315813 and 0.043495 in rbcL coding region in chloroplast genome and complete chloroplast genome, respectively. The highest transition/transversion bias (R) value was recorded as 1.384 in complete chloroplast genomes. F. arudinacea-L. perenne clade was uncovered in all phylogenies. Sequences of rbcL and trnH-psbA regions were not able to resolve the Pooideae phylogenies due to lack of genetic variation.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, Pooideae, phylogenetic analysis, rbcL, trnH-psbA

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12 Complete Chloroplast DNA Sequences of Georgian Endemic Polyploid Wheats

Authors: M. Gogniashvili, I. Maisaia, A. Kotorashvili, N. Kotaria, T. Beridze

Abstract:

Three types of plasmon (A, B and G) is typical for genus Triticum. In polyploid species - Triticum turgidum L. and Triticum aestivum L. plasmon B is detected. In the forthcoming paper, complete nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA of 11 representatives of Georgian wheat polyploid species, carrying plasmon B was determined. Sequencing of chloroplast DNA was performed on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Chloroplast DNA molecules were assembled using the SOAPdenovo computer program. All contigs were aligned to the reference chloroplast genome sequence using BLASTN. For detection of SNPs and Indels and phylogeny tree construction computer programs Mafft and Blast were used. Using Triticum aestivum L. subsp. macha (Dekapr. & Menabde) Mackey var. paleocolchicum Dekapr. et Menabde as a reference, 5 SNPs can be identified in chloroplast DNA of Georgian endemic polyploid wheat. The number of noncoding substitutions is 2, coding substitutions - 3. In comparison with reference DNA two - 38 bp and 56 bp inversions were observed in paleocolchicum subspecies. There were six 1 bp indels detected in Georgian polyploid wheats, all of them at microsatellite stretches. The phylogeny tree shows that subspecies macha, carthlicum and paleocolchicum occupy different positions. According to the simplified scheme based on SNP and indel data, the ancestral, female parent of the all studied polyploid wheat is unknown X predecesor, from which four lines were formed. 1 SNP and two inversions (38 bp and 56 bp) caused the formation of subsp. paleocolchicum. Three other lines are macha, durum and carthlicum lines. Macha line is further divided into two sublines (M_1 and M_4). Carthlicum line includes subsp.carthlicum and T.aestivum - C_1 - C_2 - A_1. One of the central question of wheat domestication is which people(s) participated in wheat domestication? It is proposed that the predecessors of Georgian peoples (Proto-Kartvelians) must be placed, on the evidence of archaic lexical and toponymic data, in the mountainous regions of the western and central part of the Little Caucasus (the Transcaucasian foothills) at least 4,000 years ago. One of the possibility to explain the ‘wheat puzzle’ is that Kartvelian speakers brought domesticated wheat species and subspecis from Fertile Crescent further north to South Caucasus.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, sequencing, SNP, triticum

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11 Analysis of Nitrogenase Fe Protein Activity in Transplastomic Tobacco

Authors: Jose A. Aznar-Moreno, Xi Jiang, Stefan Burén, Luis M. Rubio

Abstract:

Integration of prokaryotic nitrogen fixation (nif) genes into the plastid genome for expression of functional nitrogenase components could render plants capable of assimilating atmospheric N2 making their crops less dependent of nitrogen fertilizers. The nitrogenase Fe protein component (NifH) has been used as proxy for expression and targeting of Nif proteins within plant and yeast cells. Here we use tobacco plants with the Azotobacter vinelandii nifH and nifM genes integrated into the plastid genome. NifH and its maturase NifM were constitutively produced in leaves, but not roots, during light and dark periods. Nif protein expression in transplastomic plants was stable throughout development. Chloroplast NifH was soluble, but it only showed in vitro activity when isolated from leaves collected at the end of the dark period. Exposing the plant extracts to elevated temperatures precipitated NifM and apo-NifH protein devoid of [Fe4S4] clusters, dramatically increasing the specific activity of remaining NifH protein. Our data indicate that the chloroplast endogenous [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis was insufficient for complete NifH maturation, albeit a negative effect on NifH maturation due to excess NifM in the chloroplast cannot be excluded. NifH and NifM constitutive expression in transplastomic plants did not affect any of the following traits: seed size, germination time, germination ratio, seedling growth, emergence of the cotyledon and first leaves, chlorophyll content and plant height throughout development.

Keywords: NifH, chloroplast, nitrogen fixation, crop improvement, transplastomic plants, fertilizer, biotechnology

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10 Improving the Efficiency of Wheat and Triticale Androgenesis: Ultrastructural and Transcriptomic Study

Authors: M. Szechynska-Hebda, M. Sobczak, E. Rozanska, J. Troczynska, Z. Banaszak, N. Hordyńska, M. Dyda, M. Wedzony

Abstract:

Chloroplasts, as essential organelles for photosynthesis, play a critical role in plant development. However, disturbances in the proper functioning of chloroplasts, in the extreme case manifesting as albinism of tissues and whole plants, are a phenomenon often occurring in conditions deviating from natural (e.g., in vitro cultures applied in breeding programs). Using whole-transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) together with light, fluorescent and electron microscopy, it was shown, that development of chloroplasts and formation of green or albino plants in the androgenesis process are genotype-dependent; however, they could be modulated by sub-optimal temperature treatment. The reprogramming of the microspore development from gametophytic to sporophytic, and then regeneration of green plant can be positively regulated by cold stress (4 ⁰C). A high temperature stress (32 ⁰C) can induce androgenesis, but it is a factor negatively influencing green plant regeneration (promoting albinism). A similar effect on microspores, androgenesis, and subsequent chloroplast formation, is elicited as a result of postponing the date of spike collection from spring to summer in field conditions (natural temperature rise). It is determined in both environmental or genotypic manner. The delay of the sowing date (environmental effect) or growing of late genotypes (genotypic effect) result in spike maturation at higher temperatures and significantly enhance albino plant formation in androgenesis process. Such a temperature system (4 ⁰C vs. 32 ⁰C) was used to study the chloroplast biogenesis process in wheat and triticale. It was shown, that efficiency of physiological processes differentiates microspore development during cold reprograming in genotypes susceptible and resistant to androgenesis. Moreover, a great variation in developmental stages of the microspores in one anther is observed for susceptible genotypes. Microspores that are more physiologically active under cold conditions can activate signaling pathways and processes, which provide an appropriate supply of metabolites to cell compartments. This, in turn, fully correlates with the genotype-dependent efficiency of chloroplast formation (or different types of plastid) at particular steps of androgenesis. The effect obtained after applying a high temperature stress is different. High temperature causes a significant acceleration of microspore development and less variation in developmental stages at the end of the treatment. Therefore, the developmental diversity of the microspores in one anther seems to be a critical factor for subsequent cell and chloroplast differentiation. The work was financed by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development within Program: 'Biological Progress in Plant Production', project no HOR.hn.802.15.2018

Keywords: androgenesis, chloroplast biogenesis, temperature stress, wheat

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9 Optimising Light Conditions for Recombinant Protein Production in the Microalgal Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplast

Authors: Saskya E. Carrera P., Ben Hankamer, Melanie Oey

Abstract:

The green alga C. reinhardtii provides a platform for the cheap, scalable, and safe production of complex proteins. Despite gene expression in photosynthetic organisms being tightly regulated by light, most expression studies have analysed chloroplast recombinant protein production under constant light. Here the influence of illumination time and intensity on GFP and a GFP-PlyGBS (bacterial-lysin) fusion protein expression was investigated. The expression of both proteins was strongly influenced by the light regime (6-24 hr illumination per day), the light intensity (0-450 E m⁻²s⁻¹) and growth condition (photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic). Heterotrophic conditions resulted in relatively low recombinant protein yields per unit volume, despite high protein yields per cell, due to low growth rates. Mixotrophic conditions exhibited the highest yields at 6 hrs illumination at 200µE m⁻²s⁻¹ and under continuous low light illumination (13-16 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 1.2-1.6 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS), as these conditions supported good cell growth and cellular protein yields. A ~23-fold increase in protein accumulation per cell and ~9-fold increase L⁻¹ culture was observed compared to standard constant 24 hr illumination for GFP-PlyGBS. The highest yields under photoautotrophic conditions were obtained under 9 hrs illumination (6 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 2.1 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS). This represents a ~4-fold increase in cellular protein accumulation for GFP-PlyGBS. On a volumetric basis the highest yield was at 15 hrs illumination (~2-fold increase L⁻¹ over the constant light for GFP-PlyGBS). Optimising illumination conditions to balance growth and protein expression can thus significantly enhance overall recombinant protein production in C. reinhardtii cultures.

Keywords: chlamydomonas reinhardtii, light, mixotrophic, recombinant protein

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8 Metabolic Changes during Reprogramming of Wheat and Triticale Microspores

Authors: Natalia Hordynska, Magdalena Szechynska-Hebda, Miroslaw Sobczak, Elzbieta Rozanska, Joanna Troczynska, Zofia Banaszak, Maria Wedzony

Abstract:

Albinism is a common problem encountered in wheat and triticale breeding programs, which require in vitro culture steps e.g. generation of doubled haploids via androgenesis process. Genetic factor is a major determinant of albinism, however, environmental conditions such as temperature and media composition influence the frequency of albino plant formation. Cold incubation of wheat and triticale spikes induced a switch from gametophytic to sporophytic development. Further, androgenic structures formed from anthers of the genotypes susceptible to androgenesis or treated with cold stress, had a pool of structurally primitive plastids, with small starch granules or swollen thylakoids. High temperature was a factor inducing andro-genesis of wheat and triticale, but at the same time, it was a factor favoring the formation of albino plants. In genotypes susceptible to albinism or after heat stress conditions, cells formed from anthers were vacuolated, and plastids were eliminated. Partial or complete loss of chlorophyll pigments and incomplete differentiation of chloroplast membranes result in formation of tissues or whole plant unable to perform photosynthesis. Indeed, susceptibility to the andro-genesis process was associated with an increase of total concentration of photosynthetic pigments in anthers, spikes and regenerated plants. The proper balance of the synthesis of various pigments, was the starting point for their proper incorporation into photosynthetic membranes. In contrast, genotypes resistant to the androgenesis process and those treated with heat, contained 100 times lower content of photosynthetic pigments. In particular, the synthesis of violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and chlorophyll b was limited. Furthermore, deregulation of starch and lipids synthesis, which led to the formation of very complex starch granules and an increased number of oleosomes, respectively, correlated with the reduction of the efficiency of androgenesis. The content of other sugars varied depending on the genotype and the type of stress. The highest content of various sugars was found for genotypes susceptible to andro-genesis, and highly reduced for genotypes resistant to androgenesis. The most important sugars seem to be glucose and fructose. They are involved in sugar sensing and signaling pathways, which affect the expression of various genes and regulate plant development. Sucrose, on the other hand, seems to have minor effect at each stage of the androgenesis. The sugar metabolism was related to metabolic activity of microspores. The genotypes susceptible to androgenesis process had much faster mitochondrium- and chloroplast-dependent energy conversion and higher heat production by tissues. Thus, the effectiveness of metabolic processes, their balance and the flexibility under the stress was a factor determining the direction of microspore development, and in the later stages of the androgenesis process, a factor supporting the induction of androgenic structures, chloroplast formation and the regeneration of green plants. The work was financed by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development within Program: ‘Biological Progress in Plant Production’, project no HOR.hn.802.15.2018.

Keywords: androgenesis, chloroplast, metabolism, temperature stress

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7 Expression Profiling of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathways in Chlorophyll B-Lacking Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Khiem M. Nguyen, Ming C. Yang

Abstract:

Chloroplast pigments are extremely important during photosynthesis since they play essential roles in light absorption and energy transfer. Therefore, understanding the efficiency of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis could facilitate enhancement in photo-assimilates accumulation, and ultimately, in crop yield. The Chl-deficient mutants have been used extensively to study the Chl biosynthetic pathways and the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most leading food crops, serving as staple food for many parts of the world. To author’s best knowledge, Chl b–lacking rice has been found; however the molecular mechanism of Chl biosynthesis still remains unclear compared to wild-type rice. In this study, the ultrastructure analysis, photosynthetic properties, and transcriptome profile of wild-type rice (Norin No.8, N8) and its Chl b-lacking mutant (Chlorina 1, C1) were examined. The finding concluded that total Chl content and Chl b content in the C1 leaves were strongly reduced compared to N8 leaves, suggesting that reduction in the total Chl content contributes to leaf color variation at the physiological level. Plastid ultrastructure of C1 possessed abnormal thylakoid membranes with loss of starch granule, large number of vesicles, and numerous plastoglobuli. The C1 rice also exhibited thinner stacked grana, which was caused by a reduction in the number of thylakoid membranes per granum. Thus, the different Chl a/b ratio of C1 may reflect the abnormal plastid development and function. Transcriptional analysis identified 23 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 671 transcription factors (TFs) that were involved in Chl metabolism, chloroplast development, cell division, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome profile and DEGs revealed that the gene encoding PsbR (PSII core protein) was down-regulated, therefore suggesting that the lower in light-harvesting complex proteins are responsible for the lower photosynthetic capacity in C1. In addition, expression level of cell division protein (FtsZ) genes were significantly reduced in C1, causing chloroplast division defect. A total of 19 DEGs were identified based on KEGG pathway assignment involving Chl biosynthesis pathway. Among these DEGs, the GluTR gene was down-regulated, whereas the UROD, CPOX, and MgCH genes were up-regulated. Observation through qPCR suggested that later stages of Chl biosynthesis were enhanced in C1, whereas the early stages were inhibited. Plastid structure analysis together with transcriptomic analysis suggested that the Chl a/b ratio was amplified both by the reduction in Chl contents accumulation, owning to abnormal chloroplast development, and by the enhanced conversion of Chl b to Chl a. Moreover, the results indicated the same Chl-cycle pattern in the wild-type and C1 rice, indicating another Chl b degradation pathway. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that normal grana stacking, along with the absence of Chl b and greatly reduced levels of Chl a in C1, provide evidence to support the conclusion that other factors along with LHCII proteins are involved in grana stacking. The findings of this study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie different Chl a/b ratios in rice.

Keywords: Chl-deficient mutant, grana stacked, photosynthesis, RNA-Seq, transcriptomic analysis

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6 Photosynthesis Metabolism Affects Yield Potentials in Jatropha curcas L.: A Transcriptomic and Physiological Data Analysis

Authors: Nisha Govender, Siju Senan, Zeti-Azura Hussein, Wickneswari Ratnam

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Jatropha curcas, a well-described bioenergy crop has been extensively accepted as future fuel need especially in tropical regions. Ideal planting material required for large-scale plantation is still lacking. Breeding programmes for improved J. curcas varieties are rendered difficult due to limitations in genetic diversity. Using a combined transcriptome and physiological data, we investigated the molecular and physiological differences in high and low yielding Jatropha curcas to address plausible heritable variations underpinning these differences, in regard to photosynthesis, a key metabolism affecting yield potentials. A total of 6 individual Jatropha plant from 4 accessions described as high and low yielding planting materials were selected from the Experimental Plot A, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi. The inflorescence and shoots were collected for transcriptome study. For the physiological study, each individual plant (n=10) from the high and low yielding populations were screened for agronomic traits, chlorophyll content and stomatal patterning. The J. curcas transcriptomes are available under BioProject PRJNA338924 and BioSample SAMN05827448-65, respectively Each transcriptome was subjected to functional annotation analysis of sequence datasets using the BLAST2Go suite; BLASTing, mapping, annotation, statistical analysis and visualization Large-scale phenotyping of the number of fruits per plant (NFPP) and fruits per inflorescence (FPI) classified the high yielding Jatropha accessions with average NFPP =60 and FPI > 10, whereas the low yielding accessions yielded an average NFPP=10 and FPI < 5. Next generation sequencing revealed genes with differential expressions in the high yielding Jatropha relative to the low yielding plants. Distinct differences were observed in transcript level associated to photosynthesis metabolism. DEGs collection in the low yielding population showed comparable CAM photosynthetic metabolism and photorespiration, evident as followings: phosphoenolpyruvate phosphate translocator chloroplastic like isoform with 2.5 fold change (FC) and malate dehydrogenase (2.03 FC). Green leaves have the most pronounced photosynthetic activity in a plant body due to significant accumulation of chloroplast. In most plants, the leaf is always the dominant photosynthesizing heart of the plant body. Large number of the DEGS in the high-yielding population were found attributable to chloroplast and chloroplast associated events; STAY-GREEN chloroplastic, Chlorophyllase-1-like (5.08 FC), beta-amylase (3.66 FC), chlorophyllase-chloroplastic-like (3.1 FC), thiamine thiazole chloroplastic like (2.8 FC), 1-4, alpha glucan branching enzyme chloroplastic amyliplastic (2.6FC), photosynthetic NDH subunit (2.1 FC) and protochlorophyllide chloroplastic (2 FC). The results were parallel to a significant increase in chlorophyll a content in the high yielding population. In addition to the chloroplast associated transcript abundance, the TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) at 2.9 FC, which code for distant stomatal distribution and patterning in the high-yielding population may explain high concentration of CO2. The results were in agreement with the role of TMM. Clustered stomata causes back diffusion in the presence of gaps localized closely to one another. We conclude that high yielding Jatropha population corresponds to a collective function of C3 metabolism with a low degree of CAM photosynthetic fixation. From the physiological descriptions, high chlorophyll a content and even distribution of stomata in the leaf contribute to better photosynthetic efficiency in the high yielding Jatropha compared to the low yielding population.

Keywords: chlorophyll, gene expression, genetic variation, stomata

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5 Comparative Analysis of Short and Long Term Salt Stress on the Photosynthetic Apparatus and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Thellungiella salsuginea

Authors: Rahma Goussi, Walid Derbali, Arafet Manaa, Simone Cantamessa, Graziella Berta, Chedly Abdelly, Roberto Barbato

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary processes to be affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salinity stress on the primary processes of photosynthesis in a model halophyte Thellungiella Salsuginea. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic system with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM) during 2 weeks. The obtained results showed an obvious change in the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem I (PSI) and phostosytem II (PSII), related to NaCl concentration supplemented to the medium and the stress duration considered. With moderate salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl), no significant variation was observed in photosynthetic parameters of PSI and PSII and Chl fluorescence whatever the time of stress application. Also, the photosynthesis apparatus Fo, Fm and Fv fluorescence, as well as Fv/Fm were not affected by salt stress. While a significant decrease was observed on quantum yields Y(I), Y(II) and electron transport rate ETR(I), ETR(II) under high salt treatment (400 mM NaCl) with prolonged period (15 days). This reduction is quantitatively compensated by a corresponding increase of energy dissipation Y(NPQ) and a progressive decrease in Fv/Fm under salt treatment. The intensity of the OJIP fluorescence transient decreased with increase in NaCl concentration, with a major effect observed during prolonged period of salt stress. Ultrastructural analysis with Light Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy of T. salsuginea chloroplasts showed some cellular changes, such as the shape of the mesophyll cells and number of chloroplast/cell only under higher NaCl concentration. Salt-stress caused the swelling of thylakoids in T. Salsuginea mesophyll with more accumulation of starch as compared to control plant.

Keywords: fluorescence, halophyte, photosynthesis, salt stress

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4 Engineering C₃ Plants with SbtA, a Cyanobacterial Transporter, for Enhancing CO₂ Fixation

Authors: Vandana Deopanée Tomar, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Panchsheela Nogia, Rajesh Mehrotra, Sandhya Mehrotra

Abstract:

The cyanobacterial CO₂ concentrating mechanism (CCM) operates to raise the levels of CO₂ in the vicinity of the main carboxylation enzyme Rubisco which is encapsulated in protein micro compartments called carboxysomes. Thus, due to the presence of CCM, cyanobacterial cells are able to work with high photosynthetic efficiency even at low Ci conditions and can accumulate 1000 folds high internal concentrations of Ci than external environment. Engineering of some useful CCM components into higher plants is one of the plausible approaches to improve their photosynthetic performance. The first step and the simplest approach for attaining this objective would be the transfer of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter such as SbtA to inner chloroplast envelope of C₃ plants. For this, SbtA transporter gene from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 was fused to a transit peptide element to generate chimeric constructs in order to direct it to chloroplast inner envelope. Two transit peptides namely, TnaXTP (transit peptide from AT3G56160) and TMDTP (transit peptide from AT2G02590) were shortlisted from Arabidopsis thaliana genome and cloned in plant expression vector pCAMBIA1302 having mgfp5 as a reporter gene. Plant transformation was done by agro infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated co-culture. DNA, RNA, and protein were isolated from the leaves four days post infiltration, and the presence of transgene was confirmed by gene specific PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis and by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction). The expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting using anti-GFP primary antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibody. The localization of the protein was detected by confocal microscopy of isolated protoplasts. We observed chloroplastic expression for both the fusion constructs which suggest that the transit peptide sequences are capable of taking the cargo protein to the chloroplasts. These constructs are now being used to generate stable transgenic plants by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The stability of transgene expression will be analyzed from T₀ to T₂ generation.

Keywords: agro infiltration, bicarbonate transporter, carbon concentrating mechanisms, cyanobacteria, SbtA

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3 Subfamilial Relationships within Solanaceae as Inferred from atpB-rbcL Intergenic Spacer

Authors: Syeda Qamarunnisa, Ishrat Jamil, Abid Azhar, Zabta K. Shinwari, Syed Irtifaq Ali

Abstract:

A phylogenetic analysis of family Solanaceae was conducted using sequence data from the chloroplast intergenic atpB-rbcL spacer. Sequence data was generated from 17 species representing 09 out of 14 genera of Solanaceae from Pakistan. Cladogram was constructed using maximum parsimony method and results indicate that Solanaceae is mainly divided into two subfamilies; Solanoideae and Cestroideae. Four major clades within Solanoideae represent tribes; Physaleae, Capsiceae, Datureae and Solaneae are supported by high bootstrap value and the relationships among them are not corroborating with the previous studies. The findings established that subfamily Cestroideae comprised of three genera; Cestrum, Lycium, and Nicotiana with high bootstrap support. Position of Nicotiana inferred with atpB-rbcL sequence is congruent with traditional classification, which placed the taxa in Cestroideae. In the current study Lycium unexpectedly nested with Nicotiana with 100% bootstrap support and identified as a member of tribe Nicotianeae. Expanded sampling of other genera from Pakistan could be valuable towards improving our understanding of intrafamilial relationships within Solanaceae.

Keywords: systematics, solanaceae, phylogenetics, intergenic spacer, tribes

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2 Ergosterol Regulated Functioning of Rubisco in Tomato

Authors: Prabir Kumar Paul, Joyeeta Mitra

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Ergosterol, is an important fungal metabolite on phylloplane which is not synthesised by plants. However, the functional requirement of ergosterol to the plants is still an enigma. Being ubiquitously present in all plants except algae needs an insight into its physiological implication. The present study aimed at understanding if and how ergosterol influences the physiology of chloroplast particularly the activity of RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase. The concept of the study was based on one of our earlier observation of enhanced Hills reaction in plants treated with fungal metabolites which contained ergosterol. The fungal metabolite treated plants had a significantly high concentration of photosynthetic pigments. Eight-week-old tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions at 25 + 10 C, 75 % relative humidity and 12 hour L/D photoperiod. Metabolites of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum were sprayed on plants either singly or in a 1: 1 combination. A separate group of plants was also treated with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0. 7.0 mg ergosterol / ml of n- heptane. Control plants were treated with sterile distilled water only. Plants were sampled at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of treatment. RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase was estimated from sampled leaves. RuBisCo was separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and subjected to MALDI – TOF- TOF – MS analysis. The presence of ergosterol in fungal metabolites was confirmed. Fungal metabolites significantly enhanced the concentration and activity of RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase. The Vmax activity of the enzymes was significantly high in metabolite treated plants. 1:1 mix of metabolite was more effective than when applied individually. Insilico analysis revealed, RuBisCo subunits had a binding site for ergosterol and in its presence affinity of Co2 to the enzyme increased by several folds. Invivo activity of RuBisCo was significantly elicited by ergosterol. Results of the present study indicate that ergosterol from phylloplane microfungi probably regulates the binding of Co2 to RuBisCo along with activity of carbonic anhydrase thereby modulating the physiology of choloroplast.

Keywords: carbonic anhydrase, ergosterol, phylloplane, RuBisCo

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1 Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice bri1 Mutant Leaves at Jointing-Booting Stage

Authors: Jiang Xu, Daoping Wang, Yinghong Pan

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The jointing-booting stage is a critical period of both vegetative growth and reproductive growth in rice. Therefore, the proteomic analysis of the mutant Osbri1, whose corresponding gene OsBRI1 encodes the putative BRs receptor OsBRI1, at jointing-booting stage is very important for understanding the effects of BRs on vegetative and reproductive growth. In this study, the proteomes of leaves from an allelic mutant of the DWARF 61 (D61, OsBRI1) gene, Fn189 (dwarf54, d54) and its wild-type variety T65 (Taichung 65) at jointing-booting stage were analysed by using a Q Exactive plus orbitrap mass spectrometer, and more than 3,100 proteins were identified in each sample. Ontology analysis showed that these proteins distribute in various space of the cells, such as the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus, they functioned as structural components and/or catalytic enzymes and involved in many physiological processes. Moreover, quantitative analysis displayed that 266 proteins were differentially expressed in two samples, among them, 77 proteins decreased and 189 increased more than two times in Fn189 compared with T65, the proteins whose content decreased in Fn189 including b5-like Heme/Steroid binding domain containing protein, putative retrotransposon protein, putative glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, and higher content proteins such as mTERF, putative Oligopeptidase homologue, zinc knuckle protein, and so on. A former study founded that the transcription level of a mTERF was up-regulated in the leaves of maize seedling after EBR treatment. In our experiments, it was interesting that one mTERF protein increased, but another mTERF decreased in leaves of Fn189 at jointing-booting stage, which suggested that BRs may have differential regulation mechanisms on the expression of various mTERF proteins. The relationship between other differential proteins with BRs is still unclear, and the effects of BRs on rice protein contents and its regulation mechanisms still need further research.

Keywords: bri1 mutant, jointing-booting stage, proteomic analysis, rice

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