Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: callus

39 Callus Induction of Segmented Corm Explant of Gladiolus cv. White Prosperity and Regeneration in vitro Condition

Authors: M. Sepahvand, M. Khorushy

Abstract:

Gladiolus, being a cormous plant, it is principally propagated by the natural multiplication of new corms and cormels. In order to obtain callus from segmented corm which was obtained from in vitro culture, callus formation media were MS media supplemented with 4 levels of hormones such as 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, 0.5 mg l-1 NAA + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP, 1.0 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, and 0.5 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP. The results showed that the most weight of callus (2.28 g) was produced in MS callus formation media which were supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP. This experiment was carried out in randomized completely design with 3 replications and each treatment with six jars. In second experiment for regeneration of callus, a factorial experiment in the form of randomized complete design with 12 treatments and 3 replications and each replication with six jars was carried out. The treatments consisted of callus culture media in 4 levels and regeneration culture media in 3 levels [control (no PGRs), MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA, and MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.05 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA]. The results showed that the best regeneration media were MS media which were supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin. + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA that had the highest number of shoots (7/83 N), and shoot length (7/3 cm).

Keywords: regeneration, Segmented corm explant, callus, in vitro, gladiolus cv. white prosperity

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38 Recovering Taraxacum Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin via Seed and Callus Culture

Authors: K. Uteulin, S. Mukhambetzhanov, I. Rakhimbaiev

Abstract:

This experiment was performed to optimize the medium for tissue culture of Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin. Different tissue culture approaches such as shoot regeneration from seed, callus formation from leaf explants and plant regeneration from callus were investigated in this study. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose, 7 g/l agar and different plant growth regulators. Seeds of Taraxacum kok-saghyz were cultured on media containing different levels of BA and 2,4-D (0,5 and 1,0 and 3,0 mg/L) to direct shoot regeneration study. Leaf explants were cultured in different combination of BA (at three levels: 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L) and zeatin (at two levels: 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) to examine callus formation. After the callus formation the formed calli were cultured on different combinations of BA and NAA for shoot regeneration. BA at three levels (0.5 and 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L) and NAA at two levels (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) in all possible combinations were used for shoot regeneration from callus. The results showed that the treatment containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D in combination with 1.0 mg/L BA was found to be the best one for shoot regeneration from seeds. The treatment with 1.0 mg/L BA in combination with 1.0 mg/L zeatin were found to be suitable treatments for callus production from leaf explants, as well. Moreover, 0.5 mg/L BA alone or in combination with 1.0 mg/L NAA were found to be the best treatments for shoot regeneration from callus.

Keywords: Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin, shoot regeneration, callus, plant

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37 Induction of Callus and Somatic Embryogenesis from Seeds of Taraxacum Kok-Saghyz Rodin

Authors: Kairat Uteulin, Serik Mukhambetzhanov, Izbasar Rakhimbaiev

Abstract:

The effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators including 2, 4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and Kin (kinetin) was investigated for primary callus induction, embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of two elite Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS) lines, TKS1 and TKS2. Mature seeds were used as explants for primary callus induction. Different concentrations of 2, 4-D were investigated to study its effect on callus induction and callus growth frequency (CGF). Compact, whitish, healthy and fluffy calli were induced in TKS1 and TKS2 in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l and 4 mg/l 2, 4-D respectively. The calli produced were subjected to somatic embryogenesis and regeneration studies. For this purpose, MS Medium was supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators like IAA and BAP. Maximum embryogenic callus formation was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA in combination with 1.5 mg/l BAP and it resulted in 73.51% and 62.33% embryogenic callus formation in TKS1 and TKS2 respectively. These optimum concentrations of IAA and BAP were further experimented with different concentrations of Kin for efficient regeneration and it was observed that 1 mg/l Kin was optimum for this purpose. Such studies help in understanding the response of TKS to tissue culture conditions and ultimately promise in improving yield by employing various biotechnological techniques.

Keywords: taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin, callus, somatic embryogenesis

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36 Enhancement of Growth Regulators to Callus Formation and Silymarin Content from Different Explants of Silybum marianum Seedling

Authors: M. A. Hamza, H. A. Bosila, M. A. Zewil, I. M. Harridy

Abstract:

Silymarin is one active component extracted from milk thistle Silybum marianum; it is flavonoid recognized for its ability to benefit people with liver disorders and as a protective compound against liver damaging agents. For this reason, this research aims to study the effect of growth regulators (BA+NAA) and explant type (cotyledon, hypocotyl, and root) to increase the growth and active ingredients (silymarin) in callus of S. mariaum plant. The results showed that cotyledon explant which have been cultured in MS medium supplemented with BA 0.4 mg/l. +NAA 0.25 mg/l. Led to obtain the best results in callus fresh weight (1.847a) and callus dry weight (0.155a). On the other hand, the same explant (cotyledon) cultured in MS medium supplemented with BA 1.6 mg/l. + NAA 0.5 mg/l. The suitable condition to silymarin content (0.132 mg/100 mg dry weight). And also, it turned out, lack of importance of the use of hypocotyl and root in the production of callus and silymarin compared to cotyledon.

Keywords: silybum, callus, tissue culture, cotyledon

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35 Influence of Elicitors on Callus Growth and Active Ingredient in Echinacea purpurea

Authors: Mohamed Abdelfattah Meawad Hamza, H. A. Bosila, M. A. Zewil

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This research aims to study the effect of different sources of elicitors for increase growth and active ingredients in callus of Echinacea purpurea plant. Callus that have been obtained from leaf explant, was used to conduct the following studies. A study of the impact of both the phenylalanine and tyrosine (50, 100,150 and 200 mg/l.) individually and casein hydrolysate (100, 200 and 300 mg/l.) supplemented to MS medium. Results show that Casein hydrolysate 100 mg/l. has achieved the better results in both callus fresh weight 1.881 g/explant after 8 weeks of the incubation period and callus growth rate 0.398 g/explant after 6 weeks of the incubation period, while gave add 200 mg/l. The best results in total carbohydrate 2.444 mg/ 100 mg dry weight. Phenylalanine 150 mg/l. has achieved the best results in callus dry weight 0.156 g/explant after 8 weeks of incubation period. Tyrosine 200 mg/l. recorded the best result for positive production of caffeic acid 0.460 mg/ 100 mg dry weight after 4 weeks incubation period.

Keywords: tissue culture, echinacea, tyrosine, casein

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34 Induction of Callus and Expression of Compounds in Capsicum Frutescens Supplemented with of 2, 4-D

Authors: Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Muhammad Aiman Ramli

Abstract:

Cili padi or Capsicum frutescens is one of capsicum species from nightshade family, Solanaceae. It is famous in Malaysia and is widely used as a food ingredient. Capsicum frutescens also possess vast medicinal properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the most optimum 2,4-D hormone concentration for callus induction from stem explants C. frutescens and the effects of different 2,4-D concentrations on expression of compounds from C. frutescens. Seeds were cultured on MS media without hormones (MS basal media) to yield aseptic seedlings of this species, which were then used to supply explant source for subsequent tissue culture experiments. Stem explants were excised from aseptic seedlings and cultured on MS media supplemented with various concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L) of 2,4-D to induce formation of callus. Fresh weight, dry weight and callus growth percentage in all samples were recorded. The highest mean of dry weight was observed in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, where 0.4499 ± 0.106 g of callus was produced. The highest percentage of callus growth (16.4%) was also observed in cultures supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. The callus samples were also subjected to HPLC-MS to evaluate the effect of hormone concentration on expression of bio active compounds in different samples. Results showed that caffeoylferuloylquinic acids were present in all samples, but was most abundant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 & 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Interestingly, there was an unknown compound observed to be highly expressed in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, but its presence was less significant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Furthermore, there was also a compound identified as octadecadienoic acid, which was uniquely expressed in callus supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, but absent in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D. The results obtained in this study indicated that plant growth regulators played a role in expression of secondary metabolites in plants. The increase or decrease of these growth regulators may have triggered a change in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, thus causing differential expression of compounds in this plant.

Keywords: callus, in vitro, secondary metabolite, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

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33 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar

Abstract:

Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: barley, callus, embryo culture, mature embryo

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32 Biosynthesis of Tumor Inhibitory Podophyllotoxin, Quercetin and Kaempferol from Callogenesis of Dysosma Pleiantha (Hance) Woodson

Authors: Palaniyandi Karuppaiya, Hsin Sheng Tsay, Fang Chen

Abstract:

Medicinal herbs do represent a huge and noteworthy reservoir for novel anticancer drugs discovery. Dysosma pleiantha (Hance) Woodson (Berberidaceae), one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herb, highly prized by the mountain tribes of Taiwan and China for its medicinal properties contained pharmaceutically important antitumor compounds podophyllotoxin, quercetin and kaempferol. Among lignans, podophyllotoxin is an active antitumor compound and has now been modified to produce clinically useful drugs etoposide and teniposide. In recent years, natural populations of D. peliantha have declined considerably due to anthropogenic activities such as habitat destruction and commercial exploitation for medicinal applications. As to its overall conservation status, D. pleiantha has been ranked as threatened on the China Species Red List. In the present study, an efficient in vitro callus culture system of D. pleiantha was established on Gamborg’s medium with various combinations and concentrations of different auxins and cytokinins under dark condition. Best callus induction was recorded in 2 mg/L 2, 4 - Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) along with 0.2 mg/L kinetin and the maximum callus proliferation was achieved at 1 mg/L 2,4-D. Among the explants tested, maximum callus induction (86 %) was achieved from tender leaves. Hence, in subsequent experiments, leaf callus was further investigated for suitable callus biomass and production level of anticancer compounds under the influence of different additives. A maximum fresh callus biomass (8.765 g) was recorded in callus proliferation medium contained 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate. High performance liquid chromatography results revealed that the addition of different concentrations of peptone (1, 2 and 4 g/L) in callus proliferation medium enhanced podophyllotoxin (16 fold), quercetin (12 fold) and kaempferol (5 fold) accumulation than control. Thus, the established in vitro callus culture under the influence of different additives may offer an alternative source of enhanced production of podophyllotoxin, kaempferol and quecertin without harming natural plant population.

Keywords: dysosma pleiantha, kaempferol, podophyllotoxin, quercetin

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31 In vitro Callus Production from Lantana Camara: A Step towards Biotransformation Studies

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture practices are presented nowadays as the most promising substitute to a whole plant in the terms of secondary metabolites production. They offer the advantages of high production, tunability and they have less effect on plant ecosystems. Lantana camara is a weed, which is common all over the world as an ornamental plant. Weeds can adapt to any type of soil and climate due to their rich cellular machinery for secondary metabolites’ production. This characteristic is found in Lantana camara as a plant of very rich diversity of secondary metabolites with no dominant class of compounds. Aim: This trait has encouraged the author to develop tissue culture experiments for Lantana camara to be a platform for production and manipulation of secondary metabolites through biotransformation. Methodology: The plant was collected in its flowering stage in September 2014, from which explants were prepared from shoot tip, auxiliary bud and leaf. Different types of culture media were tried as well as four phytohormones and their combinations; NAA, 2,4-D, BAP and kinetin. Explants were grown in dark or in 12 hours dark and light cycles at 25°C. A metabolic profile for the produced callus was made and then compared to the whole plant profile. The metabolic profile was made using GC-MS for volatile constituents (extracted by n-hexane) and by HPLC-MS and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for non-volatile constituents (extracted by ethanol and water). Results: The best conditions for the callus induction was achieved using MS media supplied with 30 gm sucrose and NAA/BAP (1:0.2 mg/L). Initiation of callus was favoured by incubation in dark for 20 day. The callus produced under these conditions showed yellow colour, which changed to brownish after 30 days. The rate of callus growth was high, expressed in the callus diameter, which reached to 1.15±0.2 cm in 30 days; however, the induction of callus delayed for 15 days. The metabolic profile for both volatile and non-volatile constituents of callus showed more simple background metabolites than the whole plant with two new (unresolved) peaks in the callus’ nonvolatile constituents’ chromatogram. Conclusion: Lantana camara callus production can be itself a source of new secondary metabolites and could be used for biotransformation studies due to its simple metabolic background, which allow easy identification of newly formed metabolites. The callus production gathered the simple metabolic background with the rich cellular secondary metabolite machinery of the plant, which could be elicited to produce valuable medicinally active products.

Keywords: capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, metabolic profile, plant tissue culture

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30 Induction of Different Types of Callus and Somatic Embryogenesis in Various Explants of Taraxacum Kok-Saghyz Rodin

Authors: Kairat Uteulin, Azhar Iskakova, Serik Mukhambetzhanov, Bayan Yesbolayeva, Gabit Bari, Aslan Zheksenbai, Kabyl Zhambakin, Chingis Dzhabykbayev, Vladimir Piven, Izbasar Rakhimbaiev

Abstract:

To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin), different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) and BAP combined with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were evaluated for their effects on the induction of somatic embryos from leaf, seed stem and root explants. Different explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 mg/l) of each kind of hormone. Callus induction percentage, fresh weight, color and texture of the callus were assessed after 14 and 28 days of culture. The optimum medium for the proliferation of embryogenic calli from leaf and root explants was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L 2.4-D. Concentrations of 2.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L IAA also had a remarkable effect on root and stem explants. The best concentration to produce callus from stem explants was 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L IAA. Results of mean comparison showed that BAP and 2.4-D were more effective on different explants than BAP and IAA. Results of the double staining method proved that somatic embryogenesis occurred in the most concentrations of BAP and 2.4-D. Under microscopic observations, the different developmental stages of the embryos (globular, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were revealed together in callus cells, indicating that the most tested hormone combinations were effective for somatic embryogenesis formation in this species. Seed explants formed torpedo and cotyledonary stages faster than leaf and root explants in the most combinations. Most calli from seed explants were cream colored and friable, while calli were compact and light green from leaf and root explants. Some combinations gave direct regeneration and (3 mg/L BAP and 2 mg/L IAA) in seed explants and (0.5 mg/L BAP and 2.5 mg/L IAA) in leaf explants had the highest number of shoots with average of 21 and 27 shoots per callus. The developed protocol established the production of different callus types from seed, leaf, and root explants and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis.

Keywords: taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin, callus, somatic embryogenesis

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29 Indirect Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Leaf and Stem Explants of Crassula ovata 42-45 (Mill.) Druce: An Ornamental Medicinal Plant

Authors: A. B. A. Ahmed, D. I. Amar, R. M. Taha

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and indirect plant regeneration of Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce – the famous ornamental plant. Experiment no.1: Callus induction was obtained from leaf and stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators (PGRs). Effects of different PGRs, plant regeneration and subsequent plantlet conversion were also assessed. Indirect plant regeneration was achieved from the callus of stem explants by the addition of 1.5 mg/L Kinetin (KN) alone. Best shoot induction was achieved (6.5 shoots/per explant) after 60 days. For successful rooting, regenerated plantlets were sub-cultured on the same MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg/L KN alone. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized and the survival rate was 90%. Experiment no.2: Results revealed that 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D alone and in combination with 1.0 mg/L 6-Benzyladenine (BA) gave 89.8% callus from the stem explants as compared to leaf explants. Callus proliferation and somatic embryo formation were also evaluated by ‘Double Staining Method’ and different stages of somatic embryogenesis were revealed by scanning electron microscope. Full Strength MS medium produced the highest number (49.6%) of cotyledonary stage somatic embryos (SEs). Mature cotyledonary stage SEs developed into plantlets after 12 weeks of culture. Well-rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized at the survival rate of 85%. Indirectly regenerated plants did not show any detectable variation in morphological and growth characteristics when compared with the donor plant.

Keywords: callus induction, indirect plant regeneration, double staining, somatic embryogenesis, Crassula ovata

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28 Callus Induction, In-Vitro Plant Regeneration and Acclimatization of Lycium barbarum L. (Goji)

Authors: Rosna Mat Taha, Sakinah Abdullah, Sadegh Mohajer, Asmah Awal

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Lycium barbarum L. (Goji) belongs to Solanaceae family and native to some areas of China. Ethnobotanical studies have shown that this plant has been consumed by the Chinese since ancient times. It has been used as medicine in providing excellent effects on cardiovascular system and cholesterol level, besides contains high antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. In the present study, some tissue culture work has been carried out to induce callus, in vitro regeneration from various explants of Goji and also some acclimatization protocols were followed to transfer the regenerated plants to soil. The main aims being to establish high efficient regeneration system for mass production and commercialization for future uses, since the growth of this species is very limited in Malaysia. The optimum hormonal regime and the most suitable and responsive explants were identified. It was found that leaves and stems gave good responses. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BAP was the best for callus induction and MS media fortified with 1.0 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BAP was optimum for in vitro regeneration. The survival rates of plantlets after acclimatization was 63±1.5 % on black soil and 50±1.3 % on mixed soil (combination of black and red soil at a ratio of 2 to 1), respectively.

Keywords: callus, acclimatization, in vitro culture, regeneration

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27 Influence of Genotype, Explant, and Hormone Treatment on Agrobacterium-Transformation Success in Salix Callus Culture

Authors: Lukas J. Evans, Danilo D. Fernando

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Shrub willows (Salix spp.) have many characteristics which make them suitable for a variety of applications such as riparian zone buffers, environmental contaminant sequestration, living snow fences, and biofuel production. In some cases, these functions are limited due to physical or financial obstacles associated with the number of individuals needed to reasonably satisfy that purpose. One way to increase the efficiency of willows is to bioengineer them with the genetic improvements suitable for the desired use. To accomplish this goal, an optimized in vitro transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumefaciens is necessary to reliably express genes of interest. Therefore, the aim of this study is to observe the influence of tissue culture with different willow cultivars, hormones, and explants on the percentage of calli expressing reporter gene green florescent protein (GFP) to find ideal transformation conditions. Each callus was produced from 1 month old open-pollinated seedlings of three Salix miyabeana cultivars (‘SX61’, ‘WT1’, and ‘WT2’) from three different explants (lamina, petiole, and internodes). Explants were cultured for 1 month on an MS media with different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (No hormones, 1 mg⁻¹L BAP only, 3 mg⁻¹L NAA only, 1 mg⁻¹L BAP and 3 mg⁻¹L NAA, and 3 mg⁻¹L BAP and 1 mg⁻¹L NAA) to produce a callus. Samples were then treated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens at an OD600 of 0.6-0.8 to insert the transgene GFP for 30 minutes, co-cultivated for 72 hours, and selected on the same media type they were cultured on with added 7.5 mg⁻¹L of Hygromycin for 1 week before GFP visualization under a UV dissecting scope. Percentage of GFP expressing calli as well as the average number of fluorescing GFP units per callus were recorded and results were evaluated through an ANOVA test (α = 0.05). The WT1 internode-derived calli on media with 3 mg-1L NAA+1 mg⁻¹L BAP and mg⁻¹L BAP alone produced a significantly higher percentage of GFP expressing calli than each other group (19.1% and 19.4%, respectively). Additionally, The WT1 internode group cultured with 3 mg⁻¹L NAA+1 mg⁻¹L BAP produced an average of 2.89 GFP units per callus while the group cultivated with 1 mg⁻¹L BAP produced an average of 0.84 GFP units per callus. In conclusion, genotype, explant choice, and hormones all play a significant role in increasing successful transformation in willows. Future studies to produce whole callus GFP expression and subsequent plantlet regeneration are necessary for a complete willow transformation protocol.

Keywords: agrobacterium, callus, Salix, tissue culture

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26 Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Ajuga genevensis L. in in vitro Culture and Intact Plants

Authors: Naira Sahakyan, Margarit Petrosyan, Armen Trchounian

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One of the tasks in contemporary biotechnology, pharmacology and other fields of human activities is to obtain biologically active substances from plants. They are very essential in the treatment of many diseases due to their actually high therapeutic value without visible side effects. However, sometimes the possibility of obtaining the metabolites is limited due to the reduction of wild-growing plants. That is why the plant cell cultures are of great interest as alternative sources of biologically active substances. Besides, during the monitored cultivation, it is possible to obtain substances that are not synthesized by plants in nature. Isolated culture of Ajuga genevensis with high growth activity and ability of regeneration was obtained using MS nutrient medium. The agar-diffusion method showed that aqueous extracts of callus culture revealed high antimicrobial activity towards various gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis A1WT; B. mesentericus WDCM 1873; Staphylococcus aureus WDCM 5233; Staph. citreus WT) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli WKPM M-17; Salmonella typhimurium TA 100) microorganisms. The broth dilution method revealed that the minimal and half maximal inhibitory concentration values against E. coli corresponded to the 70 μg/mL and 140 μg/mL concentration of the extract respectively. According to the photochemiluminescent analysis, callus tissue extracts of leaf and root origin showed higher antioxidant activity than the same quantity of A. genevensis intact plant extract. A. genevensis intact plant and callus culture extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on K-562 suspension cell line of human chronic myeloid leukemia. The GC-MS analysis showed deep differences between the qualitative and quantitative composition of callus culture and intact plant extracts. Hexacosane (11.17%); n-hexadecanoic acid (9.33%); and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (4.28%) were the main components of intact plant extracts. 10-Methylnonadecane (57.0%); methoxyacetic acid, 2-tetradecyl ester (17.75%) and 1-Bromopentadecane (14.55%) were the main components of A. genevensis callus culture extracts. Obtained data indicate that callus culture of A. genevensis can be used as an alternative source of biologically active substances.

Keywords: Ajuga genevensis, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, callus cultures

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25 Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on in vitro Biosynthesis of Antioxidative Compounds in Callus Culture and Regenerated Plantlets Derived from Taraxacum officinale

Authors: Neha Sahu, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar, K. R. Arya

Abstract:

Taraxacum officinale Weber or dandelion (Asteraceae) is an important Indian traditional herb used to treat liver detoxification, digestive problems, spleen, hepatic and kidney disorders, etc. The plant is well known to possess important phenolic and flavonoids to serve as a potential source of antioxidative and chemoprotective agents. Biosynthesis of bioactive compounds through in vitro cultures is a requisite for natural resource conservation and to provide an alternative source for pharmaceutical applications. Thus an efficient and reproducible protocol was developed for in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive antioxidative compounds from leaf derived callus and in vitro regenerated cultures of Taraxacum officinale using MS media fortified with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins. MS media containing 0.25 mg/l 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro phenoxyacetic acid) with 0.05 mg/l 2-iP [N6-(2-Isopentenyl adenine)] was found as an effective combination for the establishment of callus with 92 % callus induction frequency. Moreover, 2.5 mg/l NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid) with 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-Benzyl aminopurine) and 1.5 mg/l NAA showed the optimal response for in vitro plant regeneration with 80 % regeneration frequency and rooting respectively. In vitro regenerated plantlets were further transferred to soil and acclimatized. Quantitative variability of accumulated bioactive compounds in cultures (in vitro callus, plantlets and acclimatized) were determined through UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry) and compared with wild plants. The phytochemical determination of in vitro and wild grown samples showed the accumulation of 6 compounds. In in vitro callus cultures and regenerated plantlets, two major antioxidative compounds i.e. chlorogenic acid (14950.0 µg/g and 4086.67 µg/g) and umbelliferone (10400.00 µg/g and 2541.67 µg/g) were found respectively. Scopoletin was found to be highest in vitro regenerated plants (83.11 µg/g) as compared to wild plants (52.75 µg/g). Notably, scopoletin is not detected in callus and acclimatized plants, but quinic acid (6433.33 µg/g) and protocatechuic acid (92.33 µg/g) were accumulated at the highest level in acclimatized plants as compared to other samples. Wild grown plants contained highest content (948.33 µg/g) of flavonoid glycoside i.e. luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Our data suggests that in vitro callus and regenerated plants biosynthesized higher content of antioxidative compounds in controlled conditions when compared to wild grown plants. These standardized cultural conditions may be explored as a sustainable source of plant materials for enhanced production and adequate supply of oxidative polyphenols.

Keywords: anti-oxidative compounds, in vitro cultures, Taraxacum officinale, UPLC-MS/MS

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24 Transcriptomic Analysis for Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Secondary Metabolite Production in Narcissus Bulb and in vitro Callus

Authors: Aleya Ferdausi, Meriel Jones, Anthony Halls

Abstract:

The Amaryllidaceae genus Narcissus contains secondary metabolites, which are important sources of bioactive compounds such as pharmaceuticals indicating that their biological activity extends from the native plant to humans. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) is an effective platform for the identification and functional characterization of candidate genes as well as to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The biotechnological production of secondary metabolites in plant cell or organ cultures has become a tempting alternative to the extraction of whole plant material. The biochemical pathways for the production of secondary metabolites require primary metabolites to undergo a series of modifications catalyzed by enzymes such as cytochrome P450s, methyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, and acyltransferases. Differential gene expression analysis of Narcissus was obtained from two conditions, i.e. field and in vitro callus. Callus was obtained from modified MS (Murashige and Skoog) media supplemented with growth regulators and twin-scale explants from Narcissus cv. Carlton bulb. A total of 2153 differentially expressed transcripts were detected in Narcissus bulb and in vitro callus, and 78.95% of those were annotated. It showed the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids were present in both conditions i.e. cytochrome P450s, O-methyltransferase (OMTs), NADP/NADPH dehydrogenases or reductases, SAM-synthetases or decarboxylases, 3-ketoacyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, cinnamoyl-CoA, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid, N-methyltransferase, and NADPH-cytochrome P450s. However, cytochrome P450s and OMTs involved in the later stage of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids biosynthesis were mainly up-regulated in field samples. Whereas, the enzymes involved in initial biosynthetic pathways i.e. fructose biphosphate adolase, aminotransferases, dehydrogenases, hydroxyl methyl glutarate and glutamate synthase leading to the biosynthesis of precursors; tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan for secondary metabolites were up-regulated in callus. The knowledge of probable genes involved in secondary metabolism and their regulation in different tissues will provide insight into the Narcissus plant biology related to alkaloid production.

Keywords: narcissus, callus, transcriptomics, secondary metabolites

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23 Simultaneous Production of Forskolin and Rosmarinic Acid in vitro Cultures of Coleus Forskohlii Briq

Authors: Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Madhukar Garg, Mohd. Mujeeb, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

An efficient protocol for simultaneous production of forskolin and rosmarinic acid in in vitro callus derived from the leaves of Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been developed. MS media was used for the establishment of cultures and NAA + 6-BA (1.0 ppm) was found best for callus growth. The callus was further subjected to treatment with various elicitor/precursors viz. chitosan, thidiazuron and methyl jasmonate to observe their effect on production of biomass and accumulation of secondary metabolites. The content of forskolin and rosmarinic acid were estimated by HPTLC, in comparison to natural explant which showed 2 fold and 10 fold rise in forskolin and rosmarinic acid content, respectively. Methy1 jasmonate 50 µM was found best for production of forskolin, whereas thidiazuron showed best results in the yield of rosmarinic acid, separately in static culture. However, combined treatment in suspension culture showed moderated effect for increase in secondary metabolites but the biomass increased significantly as compared to static culture.

Keywords: plant tissue culture, secondary metabolites, coleus, forskolin, rosmarinic acid, HPTLC

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22 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Dioscorea Deltoidea Callus Extract and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Mujeeb Mohd, Aqil Mohd, A. K. Najmi, Akhtar MMohd, Vasim Mohd

Abstract:

Dioscorea deltoidea belongs to the Dioscoreaceae family, is usually found in the north-western Himalayas and some other parts of the world up to an altitude of 1000–3000 m. D. deltoidea commonly known as yam and is an extensively used medicinal plant in the indigenous system of medicine. It has been reported to contain dioscine a steroidal glycoside in higher concentration. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by a simple, efficient, environmentally benevolent and economic microwave-assisted method. Callus culture of D. deltoidea was developed and maintained on Murashige and skooge basal medium supplemented with different combination and concentration of plant growth regulators. Aqueous extract of callus culture was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band at 430 nm in UV–Vis reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Whereas FTIR analysis was performed to probe the possible functional group involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. Further extract and AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Dioscorea deltoidea, microwave, silver, nanoparticles

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21 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad

Abstract:

Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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20 Improval of Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Bone by Lovastatin-Incorporated Poly-(DL-Lactide)

Authors: Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Isa Naina Mohamed, Norazlina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Abstract:

Osteoporosis disease delays fracture healing. Statins have shown potential for osteoporosis and to promote fracture healing. The effects of statin can be further potentiated by combining it with a carrier known as poly-(DL-lactide), which would provide persistent release of statin to the fracture site. This study was designed to investigate the effects of direct injection of poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin on fracture healing of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomized-control rats (OVxC) and poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin (OVx+Lov) groups. The OVx+Lov group was given a single injection of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles incorporated with poly-(DL-lactide). After 4 weeks, the fractured tibiae were dissected out for biomechanical assessments of the callus. The OVx+Lov group showed significantly better callus strength than the OVxC group (p<0.05). In conclusion, a single injection of lovastatin-incorporated poly-(DL-lactide) was able to promote better fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: statins, fracture healing, osteoporosis, poly-(DL-lactide)

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19 Biotechnology Approach: A Tool of Enhancement of Sticky Mucilage of Pulicaria Incisa (Medicinal Plant) for Wounds Treatment

Authors: Djamila Chabane, Asma Rouane, Karim Arab

Abstract:

Depending of the chemical substances responsible for the pharmacological effects, a future therapeutic drug might be produced by extraction from whole plants or by callus initiated from some parts. The optimized callus culture protocols now offer the possibility to use cell culture techniques for vegetative propagation and open minds for further studies on secondary metabolites and drug establishment. In Algerian traditional medicine, Pulicaria incisa (Asteraceae) is used in the treatment of daily troubles (stomachache, headhache., cold, sore throat and rheumatic arthralgia). Field findings revealed that many healers use some fresh parts (leaves, flowers) of this plant to treat skin wounds. This study aims to evaluate the healing efficiency of artisanal cream prepared from sticky mucilage isolated from calluses on dermal wounds of animal models. Callus cultures were initiated from reproductive explants (young inflorescences) excised from adult plants and transferred to a MS basal medium supplemented with growth regulators and maintained under dark for for months. Many calluses types were obtained with various color and aspect (friable, compact). Several subcultures of calli were performed to enhance the mucilage accumulation. After extraction, the mucilage extracts were tested on animal models as follows. The wound healing potential was studied by causing dermal wounds (1 cm diameter) at the dorsolumbar part of Rattus norvegicus; different samples of the cream were applied after hair removal on three rats each, including two controls (one treated by Vaseline and one without any treatment), two experimental groups (experimental group 1, treated with a reference ointment "Madecassol® and experimental group 2 treated by callus mucilage cream for a period of seventeen days. The evolution of the healing activity was estimated by calculating the percentage reduction of the area wounds treated by all compounds tested compared to the controls by using AutoCAD software. The percentage of healing effect of the cream prepared from callus mucilage was (99.79%) compared to that of Madecassol® (99.76%). For the treatment time, the significant healing activity was observed after 17 days compared to that of the reference pharmaceutical products without any wound infection. The healing effect of Madecassol® is more effective because it stimulates and regulates the production of collagen, a fibrous matrix essential for wound healing. Mucilage extracts also showed a high capacity to heal the skin without any infection. According to this pharmacological activity, we suggest to use calluses produced by in vitro culture to producing new compounds for the skin care and treatment.

Keywords: calluses, Pulicaria incisa, mucilage, Wounds

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18 A Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of in vivo and in vitro Raised Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn.

Authors: Gayatri Nahak, Satyajit Kanungo, Rajani Kanta Sahu

Abstract:

Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn. (Apocynaceae) is a typical Indian medicinal plant popularly known as “Indrajav”. Traditionally the plant has been considered a popular remedy for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms and the seeds of this plant are also used as an anti-diabetic remedy. In the present study axillary shoot multiplication, callus induction and shoot regeneration from callus culture were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Then in vivo and in vitro grown healthy plants were selected for study of antioxidant activity through DPPH and OH methods. Significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenol contents were observed in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants. The findings indicated the greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown in in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants which showed the ability to utilize tissue culture techniques towards development of desired bioactive metabolites from in vitro culture as an alternative way to avoid using endangered plants in pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: Holarrhena antidysenterica, in vitro, in vivo, antioxidant activity

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17 Evaluation of Compressive Mechanical Properties of the Radial Bone Defect Treated with Selected Bone Graft Substitute Materials in Rabbit

Authors: Omid Gholipoor Bashiri, Ghafur Mosavi, Aliasghar Behnamghader, Seyed Mahmood Rabiee

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the effect of selected bone graft on the compression properties of radial bone in rabbit. Design-Experimental in vivo study. Animals: A total of 45 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Procedures: The rabbits were anesthetized and a one-cm-full thickness piece of radial bone was removed using oscillating saw in the all rabbit. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups on the basis of the material used to fill the bone defect: group 1: the paste of bone cement calcium phosphate; group II: the paste of calcium phosphate mixture with type I collagen; group III: tricalcium phosphate mixed with hydroxyapatite (TCP & HP) with 5% porosity; group IV: the same scaffold as group III with 10% porosity; and group V: the same scaffold as group III and IV with 20% porosity, with 9 rabbits in each group. Subsequently subdivided into 3 subgroups of 3 rabbits each. Results: There was a significant increase in compression properties of radial bone in the group II and V in 2nd and 3rd months as compared with groups I, III and IV. The mean endurable crack-strength in group II and V were slightly higher than that of normal radius (P<0.05). Conclusion and clinical relevance: Application of calcium phosphate paste with type I collagen and scaffold of tricalcium phosphate with hydroxyapatite having 20% porosity indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.

Keywords: calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, radial bone, compressive properties, porosity, type i collagen, rabbit

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16 In Vitro Propagation in Barleria prionitis L. Via Callus Organogenesis

Authors: Rashmi Ranade, Neelu Joshi

Abstract:

Barleria prionitis L. is a well explored Indian medicinal plant valued for its stem and leaf which forms an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic formulations. It is used for the treatment of various disorders like toothache, bleeding gums, strengthening gums, whooping cough, inflammation, arthritis, enlargement of scrotum and sciatica etc. The plant is propagated vegetatively through stem cuttings. Frequent harvesting of this plant has led to the shortage of planting material, and it has acquired the status of vulnerable plant species. Plant tissue culture technology offers a very good alternative for propagation and conservation of such plant species. The present investigation was undertaken to develop in vitro regeneration protocol for B. prionitis L. via callus organogenesis pathway. Stem and leaf explants were used for this purpose. Different media and plant growth regulators were optimized to develop the protocol. The problem of phenol secretion and browning and in vitro cultures at the establishment phase was successfully curbed with the usage of antibrowning agents such as ascorbic acid and activated charcoal. Optimum shoot multiplication was achieved by the use of liquid media and incorporation of silver nitrate and TIBA (triiodobenzoic acid) into the media. High percent rooting (76%) was observed on WPM media supplemented with IBA (2.0 mg/l), IAA (0.5 mg/l), GA3(0.5) and activated charcoal(500 mg/l). The rooted plantlets were subjected to in vitro hardening on sterile potting mix (soil:farmyard manure:compost; 1:2:1) and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. Around 85% survival of plantlets was recorded upon acclimatization. This lab scale protocol would be tested for in vitro scaling up production of B. prionitis L.

Keywords: explant browning, liquid culture, micropropagation, shoot multiplication, phenolic secretion

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15 Effect of Operative Stabilization on Rib Fracture Healing in Porcine Experimental Model: A Pilot Study

Authors: Maria Stepankova, Lucie Vistejnova, Pavel Klein, Tereza Blassova, Marketa Slajerova, Radek Sedlacek, Martin Bartos, Jaroslav Chlupac

Abstract:

Background: Clinical outcome benefits of the segment rib fracture surgical therapy are well known and follow from better stabilization of the chest wall. Despite this, some authors still incline to conservative therapy and point out to possible rib fracture healing failure in connection with the bone vascular supply disturbance caused by metal plate implantation. This suggestion met neither experimental nor clinical verification and remains the object of discussion. In our pilot study we investigated the titanium plate fixation effect on the rib fracture healing in porcine model and its histological, biomechanical and radiological aspects. Materials and Method: Two porcine models (experimental group) underwent the operative chest wall stabilization with a titanium plate implantation after osteotomy. Two other porcine models (control group) were treated conservatively after osteotomy. Three weeks after surgery, all animals were sacrificed, treated ribs were explanted and the histological analysis, µCT imaging and biomechanical testing of the calluses tissue were performed. Results: In µCT imaging, experimental group showed a higher cortical bone volume compared to the control group. Histological analysis using the non-decalcified bone tissue blocks demonstrated more maturated callus with higher newly-formed osseous tissue ratio in experimental group in comparison to controls. In contrast, no significant differences in bone blood vessels supply in both groups were observed. This finding suggests that the bone blood supply in experimental group was not impaired. Biomechanical analysis using 3-point bending test demonstrated significantly higher bending stiffness and the maximum force in experimental group. Conclusion: Based on our observation, it could be concluded, that the titanium plate fixation of the rib fractures leads to faster bone callus maturation whereas does not cause the vascular supply impairment after 3 weeks and thus has a beneficial effect on the rib fracture healing.

Keywords: bone vascular supply, chest wall stabilization, fracture healing, histological analysis, titanium plate implantation

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14 Effect of Interaction between Colchicine Concentrations and Treatment Time Duration on the Percentage of Chromosome Polyploidy of Crepis capillaris (with and without 2B Chromosome) in vitro Culture

Authors: Payman A. A. Zibari, Mosleh M. S. Duhoky

Abstract:

These experiments were conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory/ Faculty of Agriculture / University of Duhok during the period from January 2011 to May 2013. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of interaction between colchcine concentrations and treatment time duration of Creps capilaris (with and without 2B chromosome) on chromosome polyploidy during fifteen passages until regeneration of plants from the callus. Data showed that high percentage of chromosome polyploidy approximately can be obtained from high concentration of colchicin and long time of duration.

Keywords: polyploidy, Crepis capilaris, colchicine, B chromosome

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13 Somatic Hybridization of between Citrus and Murraya paniculata Cells Applied by Electro-Fusion

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Citrus sinensis were electrically used with mesophyll protoplasts isolated from seedless Citrus relatives. Hybrid of somatic embryos plantlets was obtained after 7 months of culture. Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated into normal seedlings and successfully transferred to soil after strictly acclimatization in the glass pot. The somatic hybrid plants were obtained by screening on the basis of chromosomes count. The number of chromosome of root tip counting revealed plantlets tetraploids (2n = 4x = 36) and the other were diploids (2n = 2x = 18) morphologically resembling the mesophyll parent. This somatic hybrid will be utilized as a possible pollen parent for improving the Citrus sinensis. A complete protoplast-to-plant system of somatic hybrid was developed for Citrus sinensis and Citrus relatives which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from this species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion.

Keywords: chromosome, Murraya paniculata, protoplast fusion, somatic hybrid, tetrapoliod

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12 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing with Targeted Delivery of Tocotrienol in Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Isa Naina Mohamed, Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Norazlina Mohamed

Abstract:

Studies have shown that oral tocotrienol, a potent vitamin E, promoted fracture healing of osteoporotic bone. In this study, tocotrienol was combined with a polymer carrier (PLGA), and injected to the fracture site. The slow and constant release of tocotrienol particles would promote fracture healing of post-menopausal osteoporosis rat model. Fracture healing was assessed using micro-CT. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised or sham-operated and the left tibiae were fractured and fixed with plate and screws. The fractures were created at the upper third of the left tibiae. The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomised-control (OVxC) and PLGA-incorporated tocotrienol treatment (OVx + TT) groups. After 4 weeks, the OVx + TT group showed significantly better callus fracture healing than the OVxC group. In conclusion, tocotrienol-incorporated PLGA was able to promote fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: osteoporosis, micro-CT, tocotrienol, PLGA, fracture

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11 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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10 Enhanced Bioproduction of Moscatilin in Dendrobium ovatum through Hairy Root Culture

Authors: Ipsita Pujari, Abitha Thomas, Vidhu S. Babu, K. Satyamoorthy

Abstract:

Orchids are esteemed as celebrities in cut flower industry globally, due to their long-lasting fragrance and freshness. Apart from splendor, the unique metabolites endowed with pharmaceutical potency have made them one of the most hunted in plant kingdom. This had led to their trafficking, resulting in habitat loss, subsequently making them occupiers of IUCN red list as RET species. Many of the orchids especially wild varieties still remain undiscovered. In view to protect and conserve the wild germplasm, researchers have been inventing novel micropropagation protocols; thereby conserving Orchids. India is overflowing with exclusive wild cultivars of Orchids, whose pharmaceutical properties remain untapped and are not marketed owing to relatively small flowers. However, their germplasm is quite pertinent to be preserved for making unusual hybrids. Dendrobium genus is the second largest among Orchids exists in India and has highest demand attributable to enduring cut flowers and significant therapeutic uses in traditional medicinal system. Though the genus is quite endemic in Western Ghat regions of the country, many species are still anonymous with their unknown curative properties. A standard breeding cycle in Orchids usually takes five to seven years (Dendrobium hybrids taking a long juvenile phase of two to five years reaching maturity and flowering stage) and this extensive life cycle has always hindered the development of Dendrobium breeding. Dendrobium is reported with essential therapeutic plant bio-chemicals and ‘Moscatilin’ is one, found exclusive to this famous Dendrobium genus. Moscatilin is reported to have anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer properties, whose positive action has very recently been demonstrated against a range of cancers. Our preliminary study here established a simple and economic small-scale propagation protocol of Dendrobium ovatum describing in vitro production of Moscatilin. Subsequently for enhancing the content of Moscatilin, an efficient experimental related to the organization of transgenic (hairy) D. ovatum root cultures through infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 2364 strain on MS basal medium is being reported in the present study. Hairy roots generated on almost half of the explants used (spherules, in vitro plantlets and calli) maintained through suspension cultures, after 8 weeks of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. GFP assay performed with isolated hairy roots has confirmed the integrative transformation which was further positively confirmed by PCR using rolB gene specific primers. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used for quantification and accurate identification of Moscatilin respectively from transgenic systems. A noticeable ~3 fold increase in contents were observed in transformed D. ovatum root cultures as compared to the simple in vitro culture, callus culture and callus regeneration plantlets. Role of elicitors e.g., Methyl jasmonate, Salicylic acid, Yeast extract and Chitosan were tested for elevating the Moscatilin content to obtain a comprehensive optimized protocol facilitating the in vitro production of valuable Moscatilin with larger yield. This study would provide evidence towards the in vitro assembly of Moscatilin within a short time-period through not a so-expensive technology for the first time. It also serves as an appropriate basis for bioreactor scale-up resulting in commercial bioproduction of Moscatilin.

Keywords: bioproduction, Dendrobium ovatum, hairy root culture, moscatilin

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