Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: Najma Arshad

87 Effects of Essential Oils on the Intestinal Microflora of Termite (Heterotermes indicola)

Authors: Ayesha Aihetasham, Najma Arshad, Sobia Khan

Abstract:

Damage causes by subterranean termites are of major concern today. Termites majorly treated with pesticides resulted in several problems related to health and environment. For this reason, plant-derived natural products specifically essential oils have been evaluated in order to control termites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitermitic potential of six essential oils on Heterotermes indicola subterranean termite. No-choice bioassay was used to assess the termiticidal action of essential oils. Further, gut from each set of treated termite group was extracted and analyzed for reduction in number of protozoa and bacteria by protozoal count method using haemocytometer and viable bacterial plate count (dilution method) respectively. In no-choice bioassay it was found that Foeniculum vulgare oil causes high degree of mortality 90 % average mortality at 10 mg oil concentration (10mg/0.42g weight of filter paper). Least mortality appeared to be due to Citrus sinensis oil (43.33 % average mortality at 10 mg/0.42g). The highest activity verified to be of Foeniculum vulgare followed by Eruca sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Peganum harmala, Syzygium cumini and Citrus sinensis. The essential oil which caused maximum reduction in number of protozoa was P. harmala followed by T. foenum-graecum and E. sativa. In case of bacterial count E. sativa oil indicated maximum decrease in bacterial number (6.4×10⁹ CFU/ml). It is concluded that F. vulgare, E. sativa and P. harmala essential oils are highly effective against H. indicola termite and its gut microflora.

Keywords: bacterial count, essential oils, Heterotermes indicola, protozoal count

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
86 Silencing the Protagonist: Gender and Rape Depiction in Pakistani Dramas

Authors: Saman R. Khan, Najma Sadiq

Abstract:

Silencing of opinions is an important aspect of Spiral of Silence theory however its applicability in rape-themed dramas requires investigation. This study focuses on the portrayal of female rape victim protagonists in Pakistani dramas and the factors influencing their behavior after rape. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on two prime-time dramas which directly dealt with female rape victims. Results indicate that the female protagonists who faced rape are shown as silent and submissive characters who are unable to communicate about their ordeal due to fear of social isolation. These findings lend support to the Spiral of Silence theory and indicate that the theory’s basic elements (inability to express opinions and fear of social isolation) exist in these TV dramas.

Keywords: gender stereotyping, rape victims, the spiral of silence, TV dramas

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
85 New Approach to Construct Phylogenetic Tree

Authors: Ouafae Baida, Najma Hamzaoui, Maha Akbib, Abdelfettah Sedqui, Abdelouahid Lyhyaoui

Abstract:

Numerous scientific works present various methods to analyze the data for several domains, specially the comparison of classifications. In our recent work, we presented a new approach to help the user choose the best classification method from the results obtained by every method, by basing itself on the distances between the trees of classification. The result of our approach was in the form of a dendrogram contains methods as a succession of connections. This approach is much needed in phylogeny analysis. This discipline is intended to analyze the sequences of biological macro molecules for information on the evolutionary history of living beings, including their relationship. The product of phylogeny analysis is a phylogenetic tree. In this paper, we recommend the use of a new method of construction the phylogenetic tree based on comparison of different classifications obtained by different molecular genes.

Keywords: hierarchical classification, classification methods, structure of tree, genes, phylogenetic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
84 Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Study of Omeprazole Charge Transfer Complexes with Bromothymol Blue, Methyl Orange, and Picric Acid

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne

Abstract:

Charge transfer complexes of omeprazole with bromothymol blue, methyl orange, and picric acid in the Beer’s law ranges 7-56, 6-48, and 10-80 µg mL-1, exhibiting stoichiometric ratio 1:1, and maximum wavelength 400, 420 and 373 nm respectively have been studied in aqueous medium. ICH guidelines were followed for validation study. Spectroscopic parameters including oscillator’s strength, dipole moment, ionization potential, energy of complexes, resonance energy, association constant and Gibb’s free energy changes have also been investigated and Benesi-Hildebrand plot in each case has been obtained. In addition, the methods were fruitfully employed for omeprazole determination in pharmaceutical formulations with no excipients obstruction during analysis. Solid omeprazole complexes with all the acceptors were synthesized and then structure was elucidated by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: omeprazole, bromothymol blue, methyl orange and picric acid, charge transfer complexes

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83 Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alprazolam with ACE Inhibitors in Bulk, Respective Pharmaceutical Products and Human Serum

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne, Amtul Qayoom

Abstract:

Present study describes a simple and a fast liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet detector for simultaneous determination of anxiety relief medicine alprazolam with ACE inhibitors i.e; lisinopril, captopril and enalapril employing purospher star C18 (25 cm, 0.46 cm, 5 µm). Separation was achieved within 5 min at ambient temperature via methanol: water (8:2 v/v) with pH adjusted to 2.9, monitoring the detector response at 220 nm. Optimum parameters were set up as per ICH (2006) guidelines. Calibration range was found out to be 0.312-10 µg mL-1 for alprazolam and 0.625-20 µg mL-1 for all the ACE inhibitors with correlation coefficients > 0.998 and detection limits 85, 37, 68 and 32 ng mL-1 for lisinopril, captopril, enalapril and alprazolam respectively. Intra-day, inter-day precision and accuracy of the assay were in acceptable range of 0.05-1.62% RSD and 98.85-100.76% recovery. Method was determined to be robust and effectively useful for the estimation of studied drugs in dosage formulations and human serum without obstruction of excipients or serum components.

Keywords: alprazolam, ACE inhibitors, RP HPLC, serum

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82 Relationship among Mild Cognitive Impairment, Loneliness and Depression among Old People Living in Old Age Home and Family Home Residence

Authors: Jawaria Zafaror, Najma Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

The present study has been undertaken to explore the relationship among mild cognitive impairment, loneliness and depression among a convenient sample of old people (N = 100) living in old age homes (n = 50) and family home residence (n = 50). Mild Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire, Depression Subscale of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scales were used. Results revealed that Mild cognitive impairment had a significant positive relationship with depression and loneliness among old people both living in old age homes and family home residences. Results also showed that loneliness was the significant positive predictor of depression. However, t-test analysis revealed that old females had higher depression as compared to old males, but old males suffered a significantly high level of cognitive distortions and loneliness as compared to old females. Mediation analysis suggests that loneliness was the partial mediator between mild cognitive impairment and loneliness among old people. Limitations, suggestions and implications were also discussed.

Keywords: loneliness, mild cognitive impairment, depression, old age

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
81 Design and Analysis of a Clustered Nozzle Configuration and Comparison of Its Thrust

Authors: Abdul Hadi Butt, Asfandyar Arshad

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the thrust variation in different configurations of clustered nozzles. It involves the design and analysis of clustered configuration of nozzles using Ansys fluent. Clustered nozzles with different configurations are simulated and compared on basis of effective exhaust thrust. Mixing length for the flow interaction is also calculated. Further clustered configurations are analyzed over different altitudes. An optimum value of the thrust among different configurations is proposed at the end of comparisons.

Keywords: CD nozzle, cluster, thrust, fluent, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
80 Manifestation of Behavioral and Emotional Disturbances and Perceived Coping Strategies of Earthquake Survived Children

Authors: Mahwish Rabia, Najma Najam

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to identify emotional and behavioral disturbances among earthquake survived children and the perceived coping strategies of affected children. In the present study, a sample of 50 children (6-16 years) belonging to badly affected areas (earthquake) was selected from different camps in Islamabad. Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) interpretations were used to assess variety of emotional and behavioral patterns, and Child Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC) was used to assess the perceived coping strategies of affected children. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional/behavioral reactions exhibited by children like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression and attention seeking behavior. Whereas gender-based comparisons indicated that female children showed more internalizing behavioral patterns (withdrawn, somatic complaints) as compared to male children who exhibited more externalizing emotions (aggression, delinquent behavior).Coping strategies in which male children tried to adopt Positive Cognitive Restructuring and for distracting attention they used distraction strategies of coping. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the earthquake affected children. Male children adopt coping strategies more as compared to female children. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions towards trauma, which can be helpful for identifying the problematic area for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these children.

Keywords: behavioural disturbances, emotional disturbances, coping strategies, earthquake, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
79 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

Abstract:

Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
78 Effect of Chemicals on Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Cv. Eskimo

Authors: Qurrat Ul Ain Farooq, Misha Arshad, Malik Abid Mehmood

Abstract:

The experiment under discussion was carried out to check the effect of different concentrations of sucrose (2%, 4%, 6%), CuSO4 (200ppm, 300ppm, 400 ppm), GA3 (25ppm, 50ppm, 75 ppm), and combinations of sucrose and GA3 (2% +25 ppm), (4%+50 ppm), (6%+75 ppm) on the carnation cut flower. Visual symptoms of flower senescence, changes in weight (g) of a flower was observed and recorded by using weight balance. The experiment was laid out according to CRD (Complete Randomized Design) it was two-factor factorial, the software used for the analysis was Statistix. Maximum TSS were found in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8.3 %) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm, 4% sucrose + 50 ppm GA3 and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3. Maximum vase life in term of days was recorded in treatment. CuSO4 400 ppm and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8 days) followed by CuSO4 200 ppm (7.7 days). CuSO4 300 ppm & 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 were at par (7 days). Maximum water uptake was also observed in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (56.7 ml) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm (49.7 ml) and 50 ppm GA3 (45 ml). Hence, CuSO4 400 ppm found best in all aspects.

Keywords: carnation, vaselife, GA3, CuSO4, sucrose

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77 Evaluation of the Impact of Pavement Roughness on Vehicle Emissions by HDM-4

Authors: Muhammad Azhar, Arshad Hussain

Abstract:

Vehicular emissions have increased in recent years due to rapid growth in world traffic resulting in an increase in associated problems such as air pollution and climate change, therefore it’s necessary to control vehicle emissions. This study looks at the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. The Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4) was used to find the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. Key data collected were traffic volume and composition, vehicle characteristics, pavement characteristics and climate data of the study area. Two options were analysed using the HDM-4 software; the base case or do nothing while the second is overlay maintenance. The study also showed a strong correlation between average roughness and yearly emission levels in both the alternatives. Finally, the study showed that proper maintenance reduces the roughness and emissions.

Keywords: vehicle emissions, road roughness, IRI, maintenance, HDM-4, CO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
76 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
75 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Ayesha Sohail, Sana Javed, Khadija Maqbool, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, Numerical simulations, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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74 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

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73 The Impact of Foliar Application of the Calcium-Containing Compounds in Increasing Resistance to Blue Mold on Apples

Authors: Masoud Baghalian, Musa Arshad

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride on the resistance of fruits such as Red and Golden Lebanese apple varieties to blue mold, a split plot experiment in time and space, based on accidental blocks, with three replications under foliar application were done (Control, one in a thousand, two in thousands) and the results of the variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the levels of foliar and variety at 5% level and between time, there is significant difference in interaction of variety × time and three way interaction of foliar×variety×time, at 1% level. The highest resistance to the blue mold disease in foliar application was observed at two in thousands calcium (calcium chloride) level.

Keywords: apple, blue mold, foliar calcium, resistance

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72 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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71 Solving Flowshop Scheduling Problems with Ant Colony Optimization Heuristic

Authors: Arshad Mehmood Ch, Riaz Ahmad, Imran Ali Ch, Waqas Durrani

Abstract:

This study deals with the application of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach to solve no-wait flowshop scheduling problem (NW-FSSP). ACO algorithm so developed has been coded on Matlab computer application. The paper covers detailed steps to apply ACO and focuses on judging the strength of ACO in relation to other solution techniques previously applied to solve no-wait flowshop problem. The general purpose approach was able to find reasonably accurate solutions for almost all the problems under consideration and was able to handle a fairly large spectrum of problems with far reduced CPU effort. Careful scrutiny of the results reveals that the algorithm presented results better than other approaches like Genetic algorithm and Tabu Search heuristics etc; earlier applied to solve NW-FSSP data sets.

Keywords: no-wait, flowshop, scheduling, ant colony optimization (ACO), makespan

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70 Predictive Modeling of Flank Wear in Hard Turning Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Suha K. Shihab, Zahid A. Khan, Aas Mohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

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This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on flank wear (VB) in turning of 52100 hard alloy steel using multilayer coated carbide insert under dry condition. Nine experiments were performed based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on flank wear. The results of the study revealed that the cutting speed (A) and feed rate (B) are the dominant factors affecting flank wear, while the depth of cut (C) has not a significant effect. The optimal combination of the cutting parameters for flank wear is found to be A1B1C1. The mathematical model for flank wear is found to be statistically significant. The predicted and measured values of flank wear are found to be very close to each other.

Keywords: flank wear, hard turning, Taguchi approach, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 574
69 Perceived Stigma, Perception of Burden and Psychological Distress among Parents of Intellectually Disable Children: Role of Perceived Social Support

Authors: Saima Shafiq, Najma Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the relationship of perceived stigma, perception of burden and psychological distress among parents of intellectually disabled children. The study also aimed to explore the moderating role of perceived social support on all the variables of the study. The sample of the study comprised of (N = 250) parents of intellectually disabled children. The present study utilized the co-relational research design. It consists of two phases. Phase-I consisted of two steps which contained the translation of two scales that were used in the present study and tried out on the sample of parents (N = 70). The Affiliated Stigma Scale and Care Giver Burden Inventory were translated into Urdu for the present study. Phase-1 revealed that translated scaled entailed satisfactory psychometric properties. Phase -II of the study was carried out in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation, linear regression analysis, and t-test were computed for hypothesis testing. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to study the moderating effect of perceived social support. Findings revealed that there was a positive relationship between perceived stigma and psychological distress, perception of burden and psychological distress. Linear regression analysis showed that perceived stigma and perception of burden were positive predictors of psychological distress. The study did not show the moderating role of perceived social support among variables of the present study. The major limitation of the study is the sample size and the major implication is awareness regarding problems of parents of intellectually disabled children.

Keywords: perceived stigma, perception of burden, psychological distress, perceived social support

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
68 Android Application on Checking Halal Product Based on Augmented Reality

Authors: Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad Shukri, Haslina Arshad

Abstract:

This study was conducted to develop an application that provides Augmented Reality experience in identifying halal food products and beverages based on Malaysian Islamic Development Department (JAKIM) database for Muslim consumers in Malaysia. The applications is operating on the mobile device using the Android platform. This application aims to provide a new experience to the user how to use the Android application implements Augmentation Reality technology The methodology used is object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD). The programming language used is JAVA programming using the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) and XML. Android operating system is selected, and it is an open source operating system. Results from the study are implemented to further enhance diversity in presentation of information contained in this application and so can bring users using these applications from different angles.

Keywords: android, augmented reality, food, halal, Malaysia, products, XML

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
67 Savinglife®: An Educational Technology for Basic and Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support

Authors: Naz Najma, Grace T. M. Dal Sasso, Maria de Lourdes de Souza

Abstract:

The development of information and communication technologies and the accessibility of mobile devices has increased the possibilities of the teaching and learning process anywhere and anytime. Mobile and web application allows the production of constructive teaching and learning models in various educational settings, showing the potential for active learning in nursing. The objective of this study was to present the development of an educational technology (Savinglife®, an app) for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced cardiovascular life support training. Savinglife® is a technological production, based on the concept of virtual learning and problem-based learning approach. The study was developed from January 2016 to November 2016, using five phases (analyze, design, develop, implement, evaluate) of the instructional systems development process. The technology presented 10 scenarios and 12 simulations, covering different aspects of basic and advanced cardiac life support. The contents can be accessed in a non-linear way leaving the students free to build their knowledge based on their previous experience. Each scenario is presented through interactive tools such as scenario description, assessment, diagnose, intervention and reevaluation. Animated ECG rhythms, text documents, images and videos are provided to support procedural and active learning considering real life situation. Accessible equally on small to large devices with or without an internet connection, Savinglife® offers a dynamic, interactive and flexible tool, placing students at the center of the learning process. Savinglife® can contribute to the student’s learning in the assessment and management of basic and advanced cardiac life support in a safe and ethical way.

Keywords: problem-based learning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, nursing education, advanced cardiac life support, educational technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
66 Islamic Geometric Design: Infinite Point or Creativity through Compass and Digital

Authors: Ridzuan Hussin, Mohd Zaihidee Arshad

Abstract:

The creativity of earlier artists and sculptors in designing geometric is extraordinary provided with only a compass. Indeed, geometric in Islamic art and design are unique and have their own aesthetic values. In order to further understand geometric, self-learning with the approach of hands on would be appropriate. For this study, Islamic themed geometric designed and created, concerning only; i. The Square Repetition Unit and √2, ii. The Hexagonal Repetition Unit and √3 and iii. Double Hexagon. The aim of this research is to evaluate the creativity of Islamic geometric pattern artworks, through Fundamental Arts and Gestalt theory. Data was collected using specific tasks, and this research intends to identify the difference of Islamic geometric between 21 untitled selected geometric artworks (conventional design method), and 25 digital untitled geometric pattern artworks method. The evaluation of creativity, colors, layout, pattern and unity is known to be of utmost importance, although there are differences in the conventional or the digital approach.

Keywords: Islamic geometric design, Gestalt, fundamentals of art, patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
65 A Smart Visitors’ Notification System with Automatic Secure Door Lock Using Mobile Communication Technology

Authors: Rabail Shafique Satti, Sidra Ejaz, Madiha Arshad, Marwa Khalid, Sadia Majeed

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The paper presents the development of an automated security system to automate the entry of visitors, providing more flexibility of managing their record and securing homes or workplaces. Face recognition is part of this system to authenticate the visitors. A cost effective and SMS based door security module has been developed and integrated with the GSM network and made part of this system to allow communication between system and owner. This system functions in real time as when the visitor’s arrived it will detect and recognizes his face and on the result of face recognition process it will open the door for authorized visitors or notifies and allows the owner’s to take further action in case of unauthorized visitor. The proposed system is developed and it is successfully ensuring security, managing records and operating gate without physical interaction of owner.

Keywords: SMS, e-mail, GSM modem, authenticate, face recognition, authorized

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64 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

Abstract:

Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

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63 Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block

Authors: Louis Denis Kevin Catherine, Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof, Azrina Arshad, Sangeeth Suresh

Abstract:

Machining parameters are very important in determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade, some new engineering materials were developed for the manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface roughness. The polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper, the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate the effect of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis of the machined surface chemical composition was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition, the step over and the silicon content were found to be the most significant parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.

Keywords: polyurethane (PU), design of experiment (DOE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness

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62 Mechanical Properties of ECAP-Biomedical Titanium Materials: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

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The wide use of titanium (Ti) materials in medicine gives impetus to a search for development new techniques with elevated properties such as strength, corrosion resistance and Young's modulus close to that of bone tissue. This article presents the most recent state of the art on the use of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique in evolving mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained bio-grade Ti materials. Over past few decades, research activities in this area have grown enormously and have produced interesting results, including achieving the combination of conflicting properties that are desirable for biomedical applications by severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing. A comprehensive review of the most recent work in this area is systematically presented. The challenges in processing ultrafine-grained Ti materials are identified and discussed. An overview of the biomedical Ti alloys processed with ECAP technique is given in this review, along with a summary of their effect on the important mechanical properties that can be achieved by SPD processing. The paper also offers insights in the mechanisms underlying SPD.

Keywords: mechanical properties, ECAP, titanium, biomedical applications

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61 Potential of Two Pelargonium Species for EDTA-Assisted Phytoextraction of Cadmium

Authors: Iram Gul, Maria Manzoor, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

The enhanced phytoextraction techniques have been proposed for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil. Chelating agents enhance the availability of Cd, which is the main factor in the phytoremediation. This study was conducted to assessed the potential of two Pelargonium species (Pelargonium zonale, Pelargonium hortorum) in EDTA enhanced phytoextraction of Cd using pot experiment. Different doses of EDTA (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mmol kg-1) was used, and results showed that there was significant increase (approximately 2.1 folds) in the mobility of Cd at EDTA 5 mg kg-1 as compared to control. Both plants have TF and BCF more than 1 and have potential for the phytoextraction of Cd. However, the Pelargonium hortorum showed higher biomass and Cd uptake as compared to Pleragonium zonale. The maximum Cd accumulation in shoot and root of Pelargonium zonale was 484.4 and 264.41 mg kg-1 respectively at 2 mmol kg-1. However, the Pelargonium hortorum accumulate 996.9 and 350 mg kg-1 of Cd in shoot and root respectively at 4 mmol kg-1. Pelargonium hortorum uptake approximately 10.7 folds higher Cd concentration as compared to the Pelargonium zonale. Results revealed that P. hortorum performed better than P. zonal even at higher Cd and EDTA doses however toxicity and leaching potential of increased Cd and EDTA concentrations needs to be explored before field application.

Keywords: Cadmium, EDTA, Pelargonium, phytoextraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
60 A New Study on Mathematical Modelling of COVID-19 with Caputo Fractional Derivative

Authors: Sadia Arshad

Abstract:

The new coronavirus disease or COVID-19 still poses an alarming situation around the world. Modeling based on the derivative of fractional order is relatively important to capture real-world problems and to analyze the realistic situation of the proposed model. Weproposed a mathematical model for the investigation of COVID-19 dynamics in a generalized fractional framework. The new model is formulated in the Caputo sense and employs a nonlinear time-varying transmission rate. The existence and uniqueness solutions of the fractional order derivative have been studied using the fixed-point theory. The associated dynamical behaviors are discussed in terms of equilibrium, stability, and basic reproduction number. For the purpose of numerical implementation, an effcient approximation scheme is also employed to solve the fractional COVID-19 model. Numerical simulations are reported for various fractional orders, and simulation results are compared with a real case of COVID-19 pandemic. According to the comparative results with real data, we find the best value of fractional orderand justify the use of the fractional concept in the mathematical modelling, for the new fractional modelsimulates the reality more accurately than the other classical frameworks.

Keywords: fractional calculus, modeling, stability, numerical solution

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59 Laboratory Evaluation of Rutting and Fatigue Damage Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Carbon Nano Tubes

Authors: Ali Zain Ul Abadeen, Arshad Hussain

Abstract:

Roads are considered as the national capital, and huge developmental budget is spent on its construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation. Due to proliferating traffic volume, heavier loads and challenging environmental factors, the need for high-performance asphalt pavement is increased. In this research, the asphalt mixture was modified with carbon nanotubes ranging from 0.2% to 2% of binder to study the effect of CNT modification on rutting potential and fatigue life of asphalt mixtures. During this study, the conventional and modified asphalt mixture was subjected to a uni-axial dynamic creep test and dry Hamburg wheel tracking test to study rutting resistance. Fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture was studied using a four-point bending test apparatus. The plateau value of asphalt mixture was taken as a measure of fatigue performance according to the ratio of dissipated energy approach. Results of these experiments showed that CNT modified asphalt mixtures had reduced rut depth and increased rutting and fatigue resistance at higher percentages of carbon nanotubes.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fatigue, four point bending test, modified asphalt, rutting

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58 Intrusiveness, Appraisal and Thought Control Strategies in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Authors: T. Arshad

Abstract:

A correlation study was done to explore the relationship of intrusiveness, appraisal and thought control strategies in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Theoretical frame work for the present study was Salkovskis (1985) cognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder. Sample of 100 patients (men=48, women=52) of age 14-62 years (M=32.13, SD=10.37) was recruited from hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Revised Obsessional Intrusion Inventory, Stress Appraisal Measure, Thought Control Questionnaire and Symptoms Checklist-R were self-administered. Findings revealed that intrusiveness is correlated with appraisals (controllable by self, controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment). Furthermore, appraisals (uncontrollable, stressfulness, controllable by others) were emerged as strong predictors for different through control strategies (distraction, punishment and social control). Moreover, men have higher frequency of intrusion, whereas women were frequently using social control as thought control strategy. Results implied that intrusiveness, appraisals (controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment) are related which maintains the disorder.

Keywords: appraisal, intrusiveness, obsessive compulsive disorder, thought control strategies

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