Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1166

Search results for: sexual positions

1166 Sex Positions Decisions and Negotiations of Sexual Pleasure and Gender in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Chimaraoke O. Izugbara

Abstract:

Based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men, the paper explores how knowing more about the factors that trigger sex positions decisions advance knowledge of male and female sexuality, and how these translate into higher levels of female sexual negotiations in Ghana. Findings demonstrated that the willingness to perform sex positions or not were gendered and derive, at least in part, from differences in demographic profiles (such as age, gender, and marriage), beliefs associated with sexual practices (such as anal sex), the desire to maximize sexual pleasure, and sexual myths and misconceptions e.g. fear of infecundity. The women were not passive to sex positions decisions and engaged in a dialogical sexual encounter with men including threats of sexual refusal in negotiating sex.

Keywords: sexual positions, sexual pleasure, masculinity, femininity, Ghana

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1165 Erotica in Ghana: Gendered Negotiations of Erotic Sexual Pleasure in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Michael P.K. Okyerefo, Clara K. Fayorsey

Abstract:

Although sexual pleasure is an important aspect of human sexuality, there is little knowledge on how women and men negotiate pleasure in Ghana. The paper explores women and men’s agency in negotiating sexual pleasure in an urban community in Ghana based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men. Specifically, we explore meanings of sexual pleasure, the erotic factors that stimulate sexual pleasure, and how women and men negotiate for these factors. Women are active negotiators of stimulants of sexual pleasure based on symbolic meanings.

Keywords: eroticism, sexual pleasure, sexual negotiation, Ghana

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1164 The Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students from Only-Child Families: A National Survey in China

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Chinese college students from the 'one-child' families compared with those with siblings. This study utilized the data from the 'National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019'. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the 'only-child' and their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors (RSB) stratified by sex and home regions, respectively. Compared with students with siblings, the 'only-child' students scored higher in sex-related knowledge (only-child students: 4.49 ± 2.28, students with siblings: 3.60 ± 2.27). Stronger associations between only-child and more liberal sexual attitudes were found in urban areas, including the approval of premarital sexual intercourse (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.50-1.65) and multiple sexual partners (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.72-1.99). For risky sexual behaviors, being only-child is more likely to use condoms in first sexual intercourse, especially among male students (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). Only-child students are more likely to have more sexual knowledge, more liberal sexual attitude, and less risky sexual behavior. Further health policy and sex education should focus more on students with siblings.

Keywords: attitudes and behaviors, only-child students, sexual knowledge, students with siblings

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1163 Negative Changes in Sexual Behavior of Pregnant Women

Authors: Glauberto S. Quirino, Emanuelly V. Pereira, Amana S. Figueiredo, Antonia T. F. Santos, Paulo R. A. Firmino, Denise F. F. Barbosa, Caroline B. Q. Aquino, Eveliny S. Martins, Cinthia G. P. Calou, Ana K. B. Pinheiro

Abstract:

Introduction: During pregnancy there are adjustments in the physical, emotional, existential and sexual areas, which may contribute to changes in sexual behavior. The objective was to analyze the sexual behavior of pregnant women. Methods: Quantitative, exploratory-descriptive study, approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of the Regional University of Cariri. For data collection, it was used the Sexuality Questionnaire in Gestation and Sexual Quotient - Female Version. It was carried out in public institutions in the urban and rural areas of three municipalities of the Metropolitan Region of Cariri, south of Ceará, Brazil from February to September 2016. The sampling was proportional stratified by convenience. A total of 815 pregnant women who were literate and aged 20 years or over were broached. 461 pregnant women were excluded because of high risk, adolescence, saturation of the extract, incomplete filling of the instrument, mental and physical handicap, without sexual partner, and the sample was 354 pregnant. The data were grouped, organized and analyzed in the statistical program R Studio (version 386 3.2.4). Descriptive frequency statistics and non-parametric tests were used to analyze the variables, and the results were shown in graphs and tables. Results: The women presented a minimum age of 20, maximum 35 and average of 26.9 years, predominantly urban area residents, with a monthly income of up to one minimum wage (US$ 275,00), high school, catholic, with fixed partner, heterosexuals, multiparous, multiple sexual partners throughout life and with the beginning of sexual life in adolescence (median age 17 years). There was a reduction in sexual practices (67%) and when they were performed, they were more frequent in the first trimester (79.7%) and less frequent in the third trimester (30.5%). Preliminary sexual practices did not change and were more frequent in the second trimester (46.6%). Throughout the gestational trimesters, the partner was referred as the main responsible for the sexual initiative. The women performed vaginal sex (97.7%) and provided greater pleasure (42.8%) compared to non-penetrative sex (53.9%) (oral sex and masturbation). There was also a reduction in the sexual disposition of pregnant women (90.7%) and partner (72.9%), mainly in the first trimester (78.8%), and sexual positions. Sexual performance ranged from regular to good (49.7%). Level of schooling, marital status, sexual orientation of the pregnant woman and the partner, sexual practices and positions, preliminaries, frequency of sexual practices and importance attributed to them were variables that influenced negatively sexual performance and satisfaction. It is concluded that pregnancy negatively changes the sexual behavior of the women and it is suggested to further investigations and approach of the partner, in order to clarify the influence of these variables on the sexual function and subsidize intervention strategies, with a view to the integrality of sexual and reproductive health.

Keywords: obstetric nursing, pregnant women, sexual behavior, women's health

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1162 The Conflict between Empowerment and Exploitation: The Hypersexualization of Women in the Media

Authors: Seung Won Park

Abstract:

Pornographic images are becoming increasingly normalized as innovations in media technology arise, the porn industry explosively grows, and transnational capitalism spreads due to government deregulation and privatization of media. As the media evolves, pornography has become more and more violent and non-consensual; this growth of ‘raunch culture’ reifies the traditional power balance between men and women in which men are dominant, and women are submissive. This male domination objectifies and commodifies women, reducing them to merely sexual objects for the gratification of men. Women are exposed to pornographic images at younger and younger ages, providing unhealthy sexual role models and teaching them lessons on sexual behavior before the onset of puberty. The increasingly sexualized depiction of women in particular positions them as appropriately desirable and available to men. As a result, women are not only viewed as sexual prey but also end up treating themselves primarily as sexual objects, basing their worth off of their sexuality alone. Although many scholars are aware of and have written on the great lack of agency exercised by women in these representations, the general public tends to view some of these women as being empowered, rather than exploited. Scholarly discourse is constrained by the popular misconception that the construction of women’s sexuality in the media is controlled by women themselves.

Keywords: construction of gender, hypersexualization, media, objectification

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1161 The Evaluation of Sexual Literacy Teacher Training Program in Thai Teachers

Authors: Chitraporn Boonthanom, Pailin Sisookho

Abstract:

The Sexual Literacy Training Teachers Program (SLTTP) based on sexual health problems in Thai students includes sexual development, sexual hygiene, high-risk behaviors, Sexual Transmitter Infections and HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual abuse that increase among Thai students. The training aimed at providing teachers with the sexuality knowledge, sexuality information access skills, communication skill to effectively teach in their class. 28 teachers were participated from schools in Bangkok metropolitan and Nakorn Patom province. The result show the mean score of the pre-test was 8.46 (SD=1.77) and the post-test was 10.13 (SD=2.34). The post-training results were found to be higher than pre–training results but not significant. As teachers are increasing the sexual literacy is very important for Thai students.

Keywords: sexual literacy, teachers, training, sexuality education

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1160 The Study of the Awareness of Sexual Risk Bahaviors and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Students

Authors: Sumitta Sawangtook, Parichart Thano

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The purposes of research were to study the relationship between the awareness of sexual risk behaviors and sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students, and to compare the sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students by gender, education level, sweetheart’s number, achievement, sexual value, and the influence of the friendship group. The research sample of 344 sevenths through twelfth grade students in secondary school for the academic year 2014, Dindang district Bangkok was selected by simple random sampling. The research instruments are: 1) demographic questionnaire 2) evaluation form of the awareness of sexual risk behaviors 3) questionnaire about sexual value 4) questionnaire about the influence of the friendship group and 5) evaluation form of sexual risk behaviors. They were used for data collections which are subsequently analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variances. The results of this study were presented as follow: 1) The awareness of sexual risk behaviors was negatively correlated with sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students (r=-.27, p=.000). 2) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had gender difference (t=5.90, p=.000). 3) There was no significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of education (t=1.41, p=.16). 4) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of sweetheart’s number (F=13.03, p=.000). 5) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of achievement (F=4.77, p=.009). 6) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of sexual value (F=50.91, p=.000) 7) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of the influence of the friendship group (F=98.41, p=.000).

Keywords: the awareness of sexual risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, adolescent students

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1159 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

Abstract:

Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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1158 Sexual Health and Sexual Risk Behavior of the Youth with HIV Positive in Northeastern Part, Thailand

Authors: Orathai Srithongtham, Ubonsri Thabuddha

Abstract:

The youth with HIV positive is not difference from the general youth in term of sexual needs. Sexual health is crucial the most to support the youth with HIV positive to be sexual well-being. This study aims to elucidate the sexual health on protection from STDs (Sexual Transmitted Diseases) and HIV transmission and to explain sexual risk behavior of the youth with HIV positive. The target group was the youth with HIV positive about 23 cases from two provinces in northeastern part of Thailand. Qualitative method was applied for collecting data by in-depth interview. Content analysis was use for data analysis. The youth with HIV positive was protection from STDs and HIV transmission by using the condom during sexual activity. The reason to deny the condom use were ashamed, condom is not a part of life, no have fit size, and the youth fear to stigmatized as a mental disorder and fear to stigmatized as going to fuck someone. The youth who trust with nurse in clinic was dare to request the condom by face. Sexual activity without condom use is sexual risk behavior. The major causes were couple trust and the sexual enjoyment first and sexual active competition with friend without condom use. The concern on HIV was the boyfriend or girlfriend not accepts the HIV positive people, worry about the HIV transmutation, and finally not compliance to ARV drug. The youth with HIV positive was lacking of the knowledge on sexual health on the issues of access to condom and the concern to keep on relationship with the boyfriend or girlfriend. This concern issues was led to the non-adherence of ARV drug and HIV distribution. To provide the sexual health service is more essential to the youth with HIV positive.

Keywords: sexual health, sexual risk behavior, youth, HIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
1157 Attitudes toward Sexual Assault: The Role of Religious Affiliation, Alcohol, and Gender

Authors: Ignacio Luis Ramirez, Brittney Holcomb

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This study examines attitudes toward sexual assault based on religious affiliation, religiosity, religious beliefs, attitude about sexual assault education, alcohol, and drug use. This study found respondents who identified themselves as Catholics had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than Baptists or Protestants. Respondents who indicated a greater problem with alcohol had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements. In reference to gender, males had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than females. The respondent’s religiosity and religious beliefs did not affect their attitudes toward sexual assault. Additionally, attitudes about sexual assault education and drug use did not affect attitudes toward sexual assault.

Keywords: sexual assault, religion, education, alcohol, drugs

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1156 The Sociological and Legal Study of Sexual Assault in Nigeria

Authors: Adeshina Francis Akindutre, Adebolarin Adekanle

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Sexual assault is often considered as the most extreme form of violence that degrades and humiliates women in society. It is a widespread public health and psychological problem in Nigeria. Criminologically, sexual assaults have been considered as one of the several violent crimes targeted specifically at women and perpetrated by men. This paper attempts to examine the types of sexual assaults in Nigeria, the strategies used by the offenders, the causes, the psychological effects on the victims and the possible solutions of sexual assaults. This work also, examines the law prohibiting sexual assault in Nigeria. The authors made use of three theories: the victim precipitation approach, the feminist approach, and the psychological approach which explain why sexual assault takes place in society. Finally, it takes the Stockholm Syndrome into consideration (the treatment of victims).

Keywords: feminist, victims, offenders, psychological, sexual assault, Stockholm Syndrome

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1155 Iranian Sexual Health Needs in Viewpoint of Policy Makers: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Mahnaz Motamedi, Mohammad Shahbazi, Shahrzad Rahimi-Naghani, Mehrdad Salehi

Abstract:

Introduction: Identifying sexual health needs, developing appropriate plans, and delivering services to meet those needs is an essential component of health programs for women, men, and children all over the world, especially in poor countries. Main Subject: The aim of this study was to describe the needs of sexual health from the viewpoint of health policymakers in Iran. Methods: A qualitative study using thematic content analysis was designed and conducted. Data gathering was conducted through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 25 key informants within the healthcare system. Key informants were selected through both purposive and snowball sampling. MAXQUDA software (version 10) was used to facilitate transcription, classification of codes, and conversion of data into meaningful units, by the process of reduction and compression. Results: The analysis of narratives and information categorized sexual health needs into five categories: culturalization of sexual health discourse, sexual health care services, sexual health educational needs, sexual health research needs, and organizational needs. Conclusion: Identifying and explaining sexual health needs is an important factor in determining the priority of sexual health programs and identification of barriers to meet these needs. This can help other policymakers and health planners to develop appropriate programs to promote sexual and reproductive health.

Keywords: sexual health, sexual health needs, policy makers, health system, qualitative study

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1154 Male Versatile Sexual Offenders in Taiwan

Authors: Huang Yueh Chen, Sheng Ang Shen

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Purpose: Sexual assault has always been a highly anticipated crime in Taiwan. People assume that the career of sexual offenders tends to be highly specialized. This study hopes to analyze the crime career and risk factors of offenders by means of another classification. Methods: A total of 145 sexual offenders were sentenced on the parole or expiration date from 2009 to 2011, through analysis of official existing documents such as ‘Re-infringement risk assessment report’ and ‘case assessment report’. Results: The section ‘Various Types of Crimes ‘ of criminal career is analyzed. The highest number of ‘ versatile sexual offender’ followed by ‘adult sexual offender’ is about 2.5, representing more than 1.5 kinds of non-sex crimes besides sexual crimes. Different specialized sexual offenders have had extensive experience in the ‘Sexual Assault Experiences in Children and School’, ‘Static 99 Levels’, ‘Pre-Commuted Substance Use’, ‘Excited Deviant Sexual Behavior’, ‘Various Types of Crimes,’ and ‘Sexual Crime in Forerunner’ , ‘Type of Index Crime’ and other projects to achieve significant differences. Conclusions: Resources continue to be devoted to specialized offenders, the character of first-time sexual offender depends on further research and makes the public aware of the different assumptions of diversified offenders from traditional professional offenses that reduce unnecessary panic in society.

Keywords: versatile sexual offender, specialized sexual offender, criminal career, risk factor

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1153 Sexual Violence against Men in Conflicts: A Neglected Serious Issue

Authors: Olalekan Olaluwoye, Joanne Williams, Elizabeth Hoban, Sonia Brockington

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Cases of sexual violence against men have been reported in at least twenty-five conflict situations in history. However, there is a paucity of academic literature and minimal media, policy and legal discussions on sexual violence against men. Most studies and discussions remain locked in the ‘male perpetrators, female victims’ paradigm. Male victims continue to suffer the consequences of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings in silence. A rigorous narrative systematic review of the literature revealed few studies on the subject and those that exist have a narrow focus on rape as the only form of sexual violence despite the existence of other forms of sexual violence that have equally devastating effects. This paper argues that while research and discussions on sexual violence against women should continue, it is time to conduct rigorous mixed methods research to understand the experiences of men and boys survivors of sexual violence. There is a need to study sexual violence more broadly, without limiting it to rape, and to understand the determinants and health implications of sexual violence perpetrated on men. The paper concludes by proposing a research approach that gives voice to the experiences of male survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings.

Keywords: conflict, male survivors, post-conflict settings, sexual violence

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1152 Sexual Behaviors and Its Predictors among Iranian Women in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zahra Karimian, Effat Merghati Khoei, Raziyeh Maasoumi

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Background: Women's sexual well-being is center of focus in the field of sexology. Study of sexual behavior and investigating its predictors is important in women's health promotion. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the components of sexual behaviors and their possible associations with the women's demographic. Methods: A National Sexual Behavior Assessment Questionnaire was administered to 500 women ages 15 to 45 who referred to the public health centers seeking for health care services. The associations with demographic were examined. Results: From all participant, 31.8% of women obtain high score in the sexual capacity 21.2% in sexual motivation and 0.2% in sexual function. In sexual script component, 86.2% of women were holding traditional beliefs toward sexual behaviors; the majority (91.5%) of women believed in mutual and relational sexuality, 83.4% believed in androcentricity (male-dominated sexuality). Pearson correlation test showed significant positive correlations between sexual capacity, motivation, function and sexual script (p < 0.05). Regression model showed that sexual capacity is associated with women's education, age of her spouse. Sexual function and sexual motivation were significantly associated with the age of subjects' spouses. Conclusion: In this study, lower score was found in sexual performance while women were scored higher in the sexual capacity and motivation. We argue that these lower score in sexual performance more likely is due to the level of participants' religiosity and formation of their sexuality through an androcentric culture. Women's level of education and the spouse age appear to be predicting factors in the scores the subjects gained. We suggest that gender-specific and culturally sensitive sexuality education should be focus of women's health programs in Iran.

Keywords: sexual behaviors, women, health, Iran

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1151 Women's Sexual Experience in Pakistan: Associations of Patriarchy and Psychological Distress

Authors: Sana Tahir, Haya Fatimah

Abstract:

Sexuality is a social construct which is considered as the most confidential affair among individuals where women tend to refrain themselves more from sexually explicit behavior than men. Patriarchy has an elevated influence on the expression of female sexuality. While women’s sexual experiences are suppressed men are entitled to pleasure themselves according to their desire. The purpose of this study is to explore how the internalization of patriarchy affects women’s sexuality. Similarly, it was investigated how women sexuality is associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 100(age 20-40) married women. Participants were selected through a combination of convenient and snowball sampling. Women were asked to provide data regarding patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and DAS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyze was conducted to examine the nature of the relationship between patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and psychological distress in married women. There is a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and patriarchal beliefs (r=-.391, p<.001). There also lies a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and depression, anxiety, stress (r=-.359, p<.001) (r=.301, p=.002) (r=-.221, p=.027). The results reveal that women with strong patriarchal beliefs have less sexual awareness in terms of sexual consciousness, sexual monitoring, sexual assertiveness and sexual appeal consciousness. Similarly, women with strong patriarchal beliefs and less sexual awareness have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: female sexuality, patriarchy, psychological distress, sexual awareness

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1150 An Understanding of Child Sexual Abuse in South Africa: Case Study of Eastern Cape Province

Authors: Mandlenkosi Richard Mphatheni

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The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996 section 28(1) (d)) states, ‘Every child has the right to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse, and degradation’. Qualitative research studied perceptions of the selected sample. Objectives of the research were to determine factors that influence perpetrators of sexual violence to target children, the risk factors of child sexual abuse, the effects of child sexual abuse on the development of the child, and the community prevention measures to minimize the risks of child sexual abuse. The research aimed to understand perspective and experiences of the Ngangelizwe community members on the problem of sexual violence against children and the perpetrator’s perceived motive for sexually abusing children. Convenience non-probability sampling technique was adopted to select 20 participants within the Ngangelizwe Township at Mthatha. Thematic analyses were used to analyse data. It was found that sexual abuse of children affects severely child and parents, while the community reported to be trivially affected by the sexual abuse of a child. The research revealed ignorance of some forms of sexual violence, as the commonly known form of sexual violence was rape. Therefore, ignorance of community members regarding various forms of sexual abuse means that such acts are either ignored, tolerated, or even regarded as acceptable. It thus means that community members cannot reject any actions or behaviour if they themselves are ignorant of what constitutes sexual violence. This study recommends that communities should be educated about different sexual offenses.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, community, childhood attachment, adult attachment

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1149 A Critique of Contemporary Sexual Liberation: A Third Way Analysis

Authors: Sydelle Barreto

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Sexual liberation has been thought of as a movement, an idea, and an antithesis of material oppression. Within feminism it has consistently resisted definition - different feminist schools of thought had entirely different constructions of what liberated feminine sexuality could look like and how we might get there. This paper will critique the current definition of sexual liberation as being limited and carceral in its perspectives of sexual assault and extremely reductive in its imaginings of sexual liberation. The ultimate goal of this assessment is to potentially outline what true sexual liberation might look like in a way that is inclusive but not ignorant of the realities of the patriarchy. The first critique of sexual liberation included in the paper centers around the limits of consent, carceral feminism and sexual subjectivity. The argument will build off the traditionally sex-negative critiques of consent as being limited in scope by explaining how a lack of nuance is even more dangerous to victims of sexual violations. The discussion will also expand an interrogant of consent to an interrogation of wantedness and desire. If we understand that critiquing the conditions of consent is important, we must also critique the way patriarchy and compulsory sexuality have affected desire. Using the aforementioned concept of compulsory sexuality, the paper will argue that while sexual liberation has begun to include queer and transgender individuals, it is still overwhelmingly allonormative. Sex positivity and its opponents both fail to include asexuality. This ultimately leads to a conflation of sexual liberation with genuine material liberation. Just as we cannot divorce our constructions of sexual liberation from the realities of the patriarchy and rape culture, we should consider compulsory sexuality as its own system of social regulation. The conclusion will begin to construct an alternative vision of sexual liberation, leveraging concepts of sexual subjectivity, including a rejection of carceral feminism as a response to sexual violence, and finally, leading to the beginnings of a deconstruction of compulsory sexuality. The paper concludes with a vision of sexual liberation that does not confuse itself with material liberation or mere sexual oppression, but rather a key way stops on the road to constructing our most authentic sexual selves.

Keywords: feminism, sexual assault, sexual liberation, consent

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1148 The Inhibition of Sexual Pleasure and Its Associations with Cultural Messages

Authors: Fabiola Trejo Perez, Rolando Diaz Loving

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Sexual pleasure consists of the positively valued feelings induced by sexual stimuli, but it is also weighed down by pop-psychological baggage, and subjected to cross-cultural and cross-historical variation. Social and individual interpretations of what can or can’t be considered as pleasurable are intertwined with culture’s predominant values, norms and beliefs. For each culture, sexual norms work as a guide to be followed in order to model socially accepted behaviors. Therefore, cultural messages regarding sexuality are usually directed to restrict men and women from enjoyment, sexual satisfaction and specifically orgasm. Given that sexual pleasure hasn’t been recognized as an accepted topic of open discussion, particularly for women, people have to eventually complement their knowledge using their own experience filling in the blanks from what little has been said. Thus, this research aims to identify which are the particular social messages associated with the easing or inhibition of sexual pleasure. Three hundred Mexican men and women ages 25 to 35 years old answered a self-report survey composed by the Inventory of facilitators and inhibitors of sexual pleasure and the Sexual premises questionnaire via pencil-paper and online. Results show a high endorsement to double standard messages associated with higher levels of sexual pleasure inhibitors like feeling pressured to have sexual activity, guilt and inability to reach orgasm, in contrast with people who endorse more permissive norms and beliefs, feeling connected to their sexual partners and confident with themselves. These results illustrate that the shaping of sexuality, from experience to society, is comprised of an important relationship between culture and sexual pleasure.

Keywords: culture, sexual double standard, sexual norms and beliefs, sexual pleasure

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1147 A Literature Review on Sexual Abuse Prevention for People with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Hanh Thi My Nguyen, Phuong Thu Dinh

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People with intellectual disability are at high risk for sexual abuse. The reasons may originate from their communication skills deficits, lack of skills and knowledge to protect themselves from sexual abuse, or limited access to sexual abuse prevention programs. This article aims to present a systematic review about strategies for preventing sexual abuse for young people with intellectual disability. A range of articles in 10 years from 2009 to 2018 are searched by using online database. 5 papers are included for the final review. The results of this comprehensive literature review showed that there are two main strategies used: programs designed for people with intellectual, including evaluation on sex education programs; and sexual education program for parents of children with intellectual disability. However, none of the papers were conducted in low-and middle-income countries. Therefore, cautions should be taken when it comes to interpret these findings. The findings of studies showed that participants increased their awareness and skills for protecting themselves from sexual abuse after participating in the programs. It is also recommended that more effective evidence-based programs should be developed.

Keywords: intellectual disability, prevention, sexual abuse, sexual education program

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1146 Sexual Violence and Persecution That Occurred at the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic Boarding School

Authors: Siamrotul Ayu Masruroh

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Cases of sexual violence among Islamic boarding schools have now reached a point of equal concern with other cases of sexual violence that have occurred in universities, schools, offices, mass halls, and even churches. Worse yet, several cases of sexual violence that occurred in Islamic boarding schools were actually carried out by religious authorities such as kyai, caregivers, and ndalem families. This article discusses the phenomenon of cases of sexual violence and mistreatment of victims with cases that occurred in the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic boarding school, the importance of creating a safe space, preventing and dealing with sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools. The author uses the theory of masculinity from Raewyn W. Connell to see sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools and its relation to masculinity and femininity. In addition, the author also uses the spiral theory of violence from Dom Helder Camara to analyze the persecution case. The author conducted a literature study, observation, questionnaire, and interviews in the process of this research.

Keywords: sexual violence, islamic boarding school, safe space, women

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1145 An Exploratory Research on Childhood Sexual Victimization and Its Psychological Impacts

Authors: Urwah Ali

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The aim of this study is to carry out a meta-analysis in order to establish an overall international figure and to summarize the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child sexual abuse and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the HEC Digital Library, Pub Med, PsycINFO and SAHIL databases published after 2010 containing empirical data pertaining to CSA. Out of 124 articles assessed for eligibility, 32 studies provided evidence of a relationship between sexual child maltreatment and various health outcomes for use in subsequent meta-analyses. Statistical significance associations were observed between childhood sexual victimization and psychological problems in their adulthood [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95%Cl 3.07–4.43]. For most studies included for meta-analysis, the odds ratio falls above 1.00, indicating that patients having history of childhood sexual victimization were more likely to develop psychological disorders.

Keywords: abuse, sexual abuse, childhood sexual abuse, mental health

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1144 Exploring Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Male Youth in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Subas Chandra Biswas, Kazi Sameen Naser, Farzana Misha

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Little is known about the sexual behavior of male youth, particularly unmarried young men in Bangladesh as most of the sexual and reproductive health and rights-related research and intervention are mainly focused on females and married couples. To understand the unmarried youth’s sexual behavior, data from a nationwide survey conducted in all 64 districts of Bangladesh were analyzed. Using multistage systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted among 11,113 male youth aged 15-24 years from May-August, 2019. This article analyzed and presented findings of the sexual behavior of unmarried respondents based on the data collected from 10,026 unmarried male youth. Findings showed that 18% had ever experience of sexual relationship, and the reported mean age of first sexual intercourse was 16.5years. For unmarried male youth, those who had a sexual experience, their first sexual partners were female friends/classmate (57%), female neighbors (16%), and female sex workers (12%), relatives (6%) and girlfriends with whom they had love relationship (4%). However, about 36% reported that they had a love relationship with girlfriends, and among them, 23% reported that they had sexual intercourse with their girlfriend. Those who had sexual relations with their girlfriend, 47% reported that they did not use the condom in their last sex with their girlfriend. Furthermore, 29% reported that they had sexual relationships with others besides their girlfriends. Other reported partners were female sex workers (32%), neighbors (29%), female friends (19%), relatives (12%), and cousins (5%). Also, 46% reported that they did not even use the condom during sex with other partners. About 9% used some sort of sexual stimulant to increase their libido. Among the respondents, 376 reported that they bought sex in the last six months, and the mean expenditure of buying sex for the respondent was 1,140 Taka (13.46 US Dollar). Though premarital sexual relations are not socially accepted, findings showed a large portion of male youth are engaged in these relationships and risky sexual behavior. Lack of awareness of sexual and reproductive health, unprotected sexual intercourse, use of the drug during sexual intercourse also increase the threats to health. Thus these findings are important to understand the sexual behavior of male youth in policy and programmatic implications. Therefore, to ensure a healthy sexual life and wellbeing, an immediate and culturally sensitive sexual health promotion intervention is needed for male youth in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, male youth, sexual and reproductive health, sexual behavior

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1143 Localization of Mobile Robots with Omnidirectional Cameras

Authors: Tatsuya Kato, Masanobu Nagata, Hidetoshi Nakashima, Kazunori Matsuo

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Localization of mobile robots are important tasks for developing autonomous mobile robots. This paper proposes a method to estimate positions of a mobile robot using an omnidirectional camera on the robot. Landmarks for points of references are set up on a field where the robot works. The omnidirectional camera which can obtain 360 [deg] around images takes photographs of these landmarks. The positions of the robots are estimated from directions of these landmarks that are extracted from the images by image processing. This method can obtain the robot positions without accumulative position errors. Accuracy of the estimated robot positions by the proposed method are evaluated through some experiments. The results show that it can obtain the positions with small standard deviations. Therefore the method has possibilities of more accurate localization by tuning of appropriate offset parameters.

Keywords: mobile robots, localization, omnidirectional camera, estimating positions

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1142 Sexual Behaviours among Iranian Men and Women Aged 15 to 49 Years in Metropolitan Tehran, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Mahnaz Motamedi, Mohammad Shahbazi, Shahrzad Rahimi-Naghani, Mehrdad Salehi

Abstract:

Introduction and Aim: This study assessed sexual behaviours among men and women aged 15 to 49 years in Tehran. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 755 men and women aged 15 to 49 years who were residents of Tehran. To select the participants, a multistage, cluster, random sampling method was used and included different regions of Tehran. The data were collected using the WHO-endorsed Questionnaire of Sexual and Reproductive Health. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviours was a scale variable that was constructed from items of six sections: sexual experiences, characteristics of the first sexual partner, characteristics of the first intercourse, next sexual contact and the consequences of the first sexual contact, homosexual experiences and the causes of sexual abstinence. Results: The mean age at the time of sexual intercourse with penetration (vaginal, anal) was 19.88 in men and 21.82 in women. Multivariate analysis using linear regression showed that by controlling for other variables, gender had a significant relationship with having sexual experience, mean age of first sexual intercourse, and being multi-partner. Thus, women with sexual experience were 0.158 units less than men. The mean age of first intercourse in women was 1.57 units higher than men and being a multi-partner in women was 0.247 less than men (P < 0.001). Sexual experience in very religious and relatively religious individuals was 0.332 and 0.218 units less than those for whom religion did not matter (P < 0.001). 25.6% of men and 40.7% of women who did not have sexual experience at the time of the study stated that their reason for abstinence was their unwillingness to have sex (P < 0.05). 35.9% of men and 16.5% of women stated that the reason for abstinence was not providing a suitable opportunity (P < 0.001). 4.7% of men and 1.7% of women had sexual attraction to the same sex. The difference between men and women was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Sexual relation is also present in singles and younger groups and is not limited to married or final marriage candidates. Therefore, more evaluation should be done in national research and interventions for sexual and reproductive health services should be done at the macro level of policy making.

Keywords: sexual behaviours, Iranian men and women, Iran, cross-sectional study

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1141 The Fantasy of the Media and the Sexual World of Adolescents: The Relationship between Viewing Sexual Content on Television and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents

Authors: Ifeanyi Adigwe

Abstract:

The influence of television on adolescents is prevalent and widespread because television is a powerful sex educator for adolescents. This study examined the relationship between viewing sexual content on television and sexual behaviour of adolescents in public senior secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study employed a survey research design with a structured questionnaire as instrument. The multi-stage sampling technique was adopted. Firstly, purposive sampling was adopted in selecting 3 educational districts namely: Agege, Maryland, and Agboju. These educational districts were chosen for convenience and its wide coverage area of public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Secondly, the researcher adopted systematic sampling to select the schools. The schools were listed in alphabetical order in each district and every 10th school were selected, yielding 13 schools altogether. A total of 501 copies of questionnaire were administered to the students and a total 491 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved. Only 453 copies of the questionnaire met the inclusion criteria and were used for analysis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation, Principal components analysis, and regression analysis. Results of correlation analysis showed a positive and significant relationship between adolescent sexual belief and their preference for sexual content in television (r =0.117, N =453, p=0.13), viewing sexual content on television and adolescent sexual behavior, (r =-0.112, N =453, p<0.05), adolescent television preference and their preference for sexual content in television (r =0.328, N =453, p<0.05), adolescent television preference and adolescent’s sexual behavior (r=0.093, N =453, p<0.05). However, a negative but significant relationship exists between adolescent’s sexual knowledge and their sexual behavior (r=-122, N=453, p=0.0009). Pearson’s correlation between adolescents’ sexual knowledge and sexual behavior shows that there is a positive significant but strong relationship between adolescent’s sexual knowledge and their sexual behavior (r=0.967, N=453, p<0.05). The results also show that adolescent’s preference for sexual content in television informs them about their sexuality, development and sexual health. The descriptive and inferential analysis of data revealed that the interaction among adolescent sexual belief, knowledge and adolescents’ preference of sexual in television and its resultant effect on adolescent sexual behavior is apparent because sexual belief and norms about sex of an adolescent can induce his television preference of sexual content on television. The study concludes that exposure to sexual content in television can impact on adolescent sexual behaviour. There is no doubt that the actual outcome of television viewing and adolescent sexual behavior remains controversial because adolescent sexual behavior is multifaceted and multi-dimensional. Since behavior is learned overtime, the frequency of exposure and nature of sexual content viewed overtime induces and hastens sexual activity.

Keywords: adolescent sexual behavior, Nigeria, sexual belief, sexual content, sexual knowledge, television preference

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1140 My Dress, My Body and My Choice Politics in Kenya

Authors: Emmy Kipsoi

Abstract:

Kenya legalized the Sexual offence bill (2001), after vigorous campaigning and lobbying by feminist both in and out of parliament to ensure that the bill passed with minimal amendments. The sexual offense act provides for a good description on what constitutes sexual offences and the penalties that follow. It is from this context that the paper explores and interrogated the lived experiences of women living and working in Kenyan urban towns, who had experienced some form of sexual harassment. The study employed phenomenology to interpret the experiences of twenty (20) women in an urban town between the ages of 20 to 65 years women who had received at least some formal education and where engaged in some formal form of employment. The findings indicated that various forms of sexual harassment were experienced in the Kenyan town. Secondly, the knowledge about the contents of the bill wanting most of the women interviews were not aware of the protection accorded by law. The number of reported cases of sexual harassment shed light on the isolation, frustration and fear that women live despite a progressive law in print

Keywords: Kenya, phenomenology, sexual harassment, women

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1139 An Assessment of Sexual Informational Needs of Breast Cancer Patients in Radiation Oncology

Authors: Li Hoon Lim, Nur Farhanah Said, Katie Simmons, Eric Pei Ping Pang, Sharon Mei Mei Wong

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Research regarding the sexual impact of breast cancer treatment on Asian women is both sensitive and scarce. This study aims to assess and evaluate the sexual health needs and concerns of breast cancer radiotherapy patients. It is hoped that awareness will be increased and an appropriate intervention can be developed to address the needs of future breast cancer patients. Methods: 110 consecutive unselected breast cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Questionnaires were administered once for patient undergoing radiotherapy to the breast. This study employed an anonymous questionnaire; any breast radiotherapy patient who can read English can voluntarily receive and complete the survey. The questionnaire consisted of items addressing demographics, potential informational needs, and educational preferences. Results: Patients’ interest to address sexual concerns decreases with age (p=0.024). Coherently, sexual concerns of patients are reported to decrease with age (p=0.015) where 70% of all respondents below age 50 [age 20-29 (60%); 30-39 (56.3%); 40-49(55.1%)] have started to have sexual concerns regarding their treatment effects on their sexual health. Patients who underwent breast conservation surgery (42.2%) and reconstruction surgery (83.3%) were more likely to have concerns about sexual health versus patients who underwent mastectomy (36.7%) (p=0.032). 74.2% of patients with sexual concern regardless of age would initiate conversation with their healthcare providers (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a staggering interest of female patients wanting information on this area which would not only boost their confidence and body image but also address concerns of the effect of breast radiotherapy on sexual health during their treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast radiotherapy, sexual health, sexual impact

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1138 Associations between Parental Marital Quality and Sexual Behaviors among 50,000 Chinese University Students

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

With the increase in the prevalence of divorce, the impact of divorce on children’s sexual and reproductive health has received wide attention, while few studies have investigated parent marital relationship. This study aims to study the relation of both parent divorce and perceived parental marital relationship with children’s sexual behaviors among Chinese university or vocational college students. The study used data from “National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019”, an internet-based survey conducted from November 2019 to February 2020, in 241 universities or vocational colleges in China. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of perceived parental marital relationship and parents’ divorce of distinct occurrence time with sexual intercourse, risky sexual behaviors, unintended health outcomes and sexual abuse. Among 51,124 university or vocational college students, those whose parents had divorced accounted for 10.72%. Better perceived parental relationship was associated with a lower likelihood to have sexual intercourse (male: OR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.80-0.86; female: OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.70-0.75), sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. Divorce was also found to be associated with higher risk of sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. The findings highlight the importance of parental marital relationship and divorce in risky sexual behavior among young adults. The findings may provide implications on intervention programs targeting at children with divorced parents from an early stage.

Keywords: college students, divorce, family relationship, sexual behavior

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1137 A Cultural-Sensitive Approach to Counseling a Samoan Sex Offender

Authors: Byron Malaela Sotiata Seiuli

Abstract:

Sexual violation is any form of sexual violence, including rape, child molestation, incest, and similar forms of non-consensual sexual contact. Much of these acts of violation are perpetuated, but not entirely, by men against women and children. Moetolo is a Samoan term that is used to describe a person who sexually violates another while they or their family are asleep. This paper presents and discusses sexual abuse from a Samoan viewpoint. Insights are drawn from the authors’ counseling engagement with a Samoan sex offender as part of his probation review process. Relevant literature is also engaged to inform and provide interpretation to the therapeutic work carried out. This article seeks to contribute new understanding to patterned responses of some Samoan people to sexual abuse behaviors, and steps to remedy arising concerns with perpetrators seeking reintegration back into their communities.

Keywords: Fa'asamoa, Samoan identity, sexual abuse counseling, Uputaua therapeutic approach

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