Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 261

Search results for: reforms

261 Social Reforms and the Welfare State in America after the New Deal (1945-1969)

Authors: Aziza Tahar Djebbar

Abstract:

Throughout American history, many American presidents have tried to create new reforms to enhance the living conditions of the American citizens and promote their welfare. Among these reforms were those dealing with health care, education, as well as social security, which would facilitate accordingly the evolution of the American welfare state. After the New Deal, from 1945 to 1969, American presidents sought to carry out and enlarge the scope of the welfare state that emerged during the Roosevelt Administration by introducing new social reforms. Yet, there were some American presidents who succeeded, and there were some presidents who failed.The task of this research work is to depict the postwar period from 1945 to 1969. Some light will be shed on the main causes that led to the delay of many programs from 1945 to 1960. Further, the focus will be on the main factors that contributed to the reappearance of many social reforms and the dramatic expansion of the welfare state all along the 1960s.

Keywords: new deal, great society, medicaid, medicare, war on poverty, social reforms, welfare reforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
260 The Impact of Election Observation on Electoral Reforms in Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Sulaiman

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The paper examines how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Over the years, election observation continues to play critical role in the electoral process specifically in Nigeria and Africa at large. Election observation keeps an eye on the electoral process and all the stakeholders during elections, to ensure that the process is fair to all contestants. While literature abound on this role of election observation on electoral process in Nigeria, scanty scholarly efforts have been made to appraise how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Also, while election observation may play a role in ensuring that the electoral process is credible, specifically, its role in prvoking and eliciting various electoral reforms in the country has not been explored. The paper adopts the explanatory research design using secondary data and document analysis. Preliminary findings show that election observation has influenced electoral reforms in Nigeria in no small measure. The paper concludes that election observation is critical for result oriented electoral reforms in Nigeria, albeit, such reforms have to be implemented to the latter.

Keywords: electoral reforms, election observation, electoral process, developing country

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
259 Evaluations of New Public Administration Reforms and Local Government Laws in Turkey in the Context of the Reforms

Authors: Handan Ertaş

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The subject of government reform which is started to be discussed all over the world today has also deeply affected Turkey. Turkey, who aims to come to the level of the developed countries and not to fall behind the change must immediately complete the reform issue. For this, the government needs to be redefined and changed in accordance with the new public administration. In the first part of this study, the new public administration reforms in the world are generally explained and then the reforms in Local Government Regulations in Turkey are evaluated with the method of Content Analysis.

Keywords: reform, local administration, neo-liberalism, globalisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
258 Corporate Governance Reforms in a Developing Economy: Making a Case for Upstream and Downstream Interventions

Authors: Franklin Nakpodia, Femi Olan

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A blend of internal factors (firm performance, internal stakeholders) and external pressures (globalisation, technology, corporate scandals) have intensified calls for corporate governance reforms. While several countries and their governments have responded to these calls, the effect of such reforms on corporate governance systems across countries remains mixed. In particular, the literature reports that the effectiveness of corporate governance interventions in many developing economies is limited. Relying on the corporate governance system in Africa’s largest economy (Nigeria), this research addresses two issues. First, this study explores why previous corporate governance reforms have failed and second, the article investigates what reforms could improve corporate governance practices in the country. In addressing the above objectives, this study adopts a qualitative approach that permits data collection via semi-structured interviews with 21 corporate executives. The data supports the articulation of two sequential levels of reforms (i.e., the upstream and downstream reforms). The upstream reforms focus on two crucial but often overlooked areas that undermine reform effectiveness, i.e., the extent of government commitment and an enabling environment. The downstream reforms combine awareness and regulatory elements to proffer a path to robust corporate governance in the country. Furthermore, findings from this study stress the need to consider the use of a bottom-up approach to corporate governance practice and policymaking in place of the dominant top-down strategy.

Keywords: bottom-up approach, corporate governance, reforms, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
257 Public Financial Management in Ghana: A Move beyond Reforms to Consolidation and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai

Abstract:

Ghana’s Public Financial Management reforms have been going on for some two decades now (1997/98 to 2017/18). Given this long period of reforms, Ghana in 2019 is putting together both a Public Financial Management (PFM) strategy and a Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) strategy for the next 5-years (2020-2024). The primary aim of these dual strategies is assisting the country in moving beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability. In this paper we, first, examined the evolution of Ghana’s PFM reforms. We, secondly, reviewed the legal and institutional reforms undertaken to strengthen the country’s key PFM institutions. Thirdly, we summarized the strengths and weaknesses identified by the 2018 Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment of Ghana’s PFM system relating to its macro-fiscal framework, budget preparation and approval, budget execution, accounting and fiscal reporting as well as external scrutiny and audit. We, finally, considered what the country should be doing to achieve its intended goal of PFM consolidation and sustainability. Using a qualitative method of review and analysis of existing documents, we, through this paper, brought to the fore the lessons that could be learnt by other developing countries from Ghana’s PFM reforms experiences. These lessons included the need to: (a) undergird any PFM reform with a comprehensive PFM reform strategy; (b) undertake a legal and institutional reforms of the key PFM institutions; (c) assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms using PFM performance evaluation tools such as PEFA framework; and (d) move beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability.

Keywords: public financial management, public expenditure and financial accountability, reforms, consolidation, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
256 The Reflections of the K-12 English Language Teachers on the Implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines

Authors: Dennis Infante

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This paper examined the reflections of teachers on curriculum reforms, the implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines. The results revealed that problems and concerns raised by teachers could be classified into curriculum materials and design; competence, readiness and motivation of the teachers; the learning environment, and support systems; readiness, competence and motivation of students; and other relevant factors. The best features of the K-12 curriculum reforms included (1) the components, curriculum materials; (2) the design, structure and delivery of the lessons; (3) the framework and theoretical approach; (3) the qualities of the teaching-learning activities; (4) and other relevant features. With the demanding task of implementing the new curriculum, the teachers expressed their needs which included (1) making the curriculum materials available to achieve the goals of the curriculum reforms; (2) enrichment of the learning environments; (3) motivating and encouraging the teachers to embrace change; (4) providing appropriate support systems; (5) re-tooling, and empowering teachers to implement the curriculum reforms; and (6) other relevant factors. The research concluded with a synthesis that provided a paradigm for implementing curriculum reforms which recognizes the needs of the teachers and the features of the new curriculum.

Keywords: curriculum reforms, K-12, teachers' reflections, implementing curriculum change

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255 The Assessment of the Comparative Efficiency of Reforms through the Integral Index of Transformation

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Ashot Davoyan, Ani Khachatryan

Abstract:

The indexes (Global Competitiveness Index, Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Index, etc.) developed by different international and non-government organizations in time and space express the quantitative and qualitative features of different fields of various reforms implemented in different countries. The main objective of our research is to develop new methodology that we will use to create integral index based on many indexes and that will include many areas of reforms. To achieve our aim we have used econometric methods (regression model for panel data method). The basis of our methodology is the development of the new integral index based on quantitative assessment of the change of two main parameters: the score of the countries by different indexes and the change of the ranks of countries for following two periods of time. As a result of the usage of methods for analyzes we have defined the indexes that are used to create the new integral index and the scales for each of them. Analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively analysis through the integral index for more than 100 countries for 2009-2014, we have defined comparative efficiency that helps to conclude in which directions countries have implemented reforms more effectively compared to others and in which direction reforms have implemented less efficiently.

Keywords: development, rank, reforms, comparative, index, economic, corruption, social, program

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
254 Prison Reforms: An Overview of the Nigerian Prisons as a Key Component of an Efficient Criminal Justice Delivery System

Authors: Foluke Dada

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Prisons all over the world are set up by law to provide restraint and custody for individuals accused or convicted of crimes by the state. The Nigerian prison dates back to the colonial era and is modelled after the British system. It is a system that lays emphasis on punishment and deterrence. It emphasises retribution rather than reformation. These, it can be argued, results in the inhuman conditions of Nigerian prisons and the conscienceless treatment of convicts and awaiting trial inmates in Nigerian prisons. This paper attempts an examination of the challenges currently beguiling Nigerian prisons, the need for reforms in the prison systems and the imperative of these reforms to an efficient criminal justice delivery system in the country. This paper further postulates that rehabilitation should be favoured as against retribution f the development of the Nigerian criminal justice system in line with the shift towards reform.

Keywords: criminal justice, human rights, prison reforms, rehabilitation and retribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
253 Civil Service Reforms in Kazakhstan and Its Influence on Modernization

Authors: Aliya Idrissova

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Civil service (public administration) is an important social institution of society properties. Civil service institution had a significant impact on modernization processes in Kazakhstan through ensuring the functioning of all the subsystems of social life. This article is an attempt to analyses the reforms of public service institution in Kazakhstan and to assess its influence on modernization processes.

Keywords: civil service, Kazakhstan, modernization, a national model of civil service, civil service reforms, bureaucracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
252 Value Creation of Public Financial Management Reforms through Their Long-Term Impacts

Authors: Christoph Schuler, Oriana Ponta

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Public Financial Management (PFM) reforms are promoted by various international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank, local development banks and the donor country community to strengthen governance and accountability in developing countries across the world. Reform efforts undertaken are often systematically measured against international best practice by the application of standardized analytical instruments such as the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Framework (PEFA) or the Poverty Reduction Action Plan (PARP). While those instruments analyze direct achievements of PFM reforms, the long-term benefits of such reforms for society remain untapped. This gives rise to the question why the concept of impact evaluation with its experimental or quasi-experimental settings in the form of randomized control trials has rarely been applied in the context of PFM reforms. To close this gap, this study provides examples where the concept of impact evaluation can be applied to PFM reforms and thereby shifting the focus from outcome towards a long-term impact. As it is a new approach, this study does not attempt to conduct a fully flagged impact evaluation of a certain PFM reform. However, it will outline, as a form of pre-test the applicability of the impact evaluation methodology in this context, for example, by more closely analyzing the commonly used indicators (for example within PEFA or PARP). This would mean to scrutinize these indicators as to how they were designed and how they are related to the long-term impact, they should be producing. The analysis of PFM reform indicators and their relation to long-term impacts should provide practitioners and scholars alike with new insights on how to strengthen the accountability of public service delivery through successful and sustainable PFM reforms.

Keywords: accountability, impact evaluation, PFM reforms, public financial management

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
251 The Influence of Republican Culture in the Professional Education Reforms in Brazil (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

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This paper is within the area of History of Education in Brazil, having a descriptive and exploratory nature. It has been built on the belief that professional education is organized under political guidelines and solidifies through institutionalized discourses, allowing to know its mission concerning the society in which it operates by studying these speeches. Our purpose is to analyze how the Republican political culture yielded changes in public education through reforms to professional education in the First Republic, based on seven procedures of law that occurred in the Legislature of State of Minas Gerais. The Republican effort to reform the teaching was the result of a conception of society that aspired to advance the country by way of the national worker.

Keywords: professional education, republican political culture, education reforms, Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
250 Curricular Reforms for Inclusive Education: Equalization of Opportunities for the Physically Challenged Persons

Authors: Ede Jairus Adagba

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The National Policy on Education has made elaborate and fascinating provisions for the education of the people with Special Needs. This category of people includes the physically challenged, the disadvantaged, the gifted and talented. However, the focus of this paper is people that are physically challenged. The paper reasons that in spite of the commendable provisions, the present curricular and learning conditions are not conducive enough to cater for the interest of the physically challenged persons. As a panacea, some curricular and physical condition reforms are proposed. These are hoped to facilitate access to inclusive education and equalization for opportunities of the physically challenged.

Keywords: curricular reforms, equalization, inclusive education, physically challenged persons

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
249 In Search of Sustainable Science Education at the Basic Level of Education in Ghana: The Unintended Consequences of Enacting Science Curriculum Reforms in Junior High Schools

Authors: Charles Deodat Otami

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This paper documents an ongoing investigation which seeks to explore the consequences of repeated science curriculum reforms at basic level of education in Ghana. Drawing upon data collected through document analysis, semi-structured interviews and classroom observations linked with a study of teaching practices in Junior High Schools of educational districts that are well served with teachers and yet, produce poor students’ achievements in science in the national Basic Education Certificate Examinations. The results emanating from the investigation highlight that the repeated science curriculum reforms at the basic level of education have led to the displacement of scientific knowledge in junior high schools in Ghana, a very critical level of education where the foundation for further science education to the highest level is laid. Furthermore, the results indicate that the enactment of centralised curriculum reforms in Ghana has produced some unpleasant repercussions. For instance, how the teachers interpret and implement the curriculum is directly related to their own values and practices as well as students feedback. This is contrary to the perception that external impetus received from donor agencies holds the key to strengthening reforms made. Thus, it is argued that without the right of localised management, curriculum reforms themselves are inadequate to ensure the realisation of the desired effects. This paper, therefore, draws the attention of stakeholders to the fact that the enactment of School Science Curriculum reform goes beyond just simple implementation to more complex dynamics which may change the original reform intents.

Keywords: basic education, basic education certificate examinations, curriculum reforms, junior high school, educational districts, teaching practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
248 Reflecting Socio-Political Needs in Education Policy-Making: An Exploratory Study of Vietnam's Key Education Reforms (1945-2017)

Authors: Linh Tong

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This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of key education reforms in Vietnam from 1945 to 2017, which reflects an evolution of socio-political needs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam throughout this period. It explores the contextual conditions, motivations and ambitions influencing the formation of the education reforms in Vietnam. It also looks, from an applied practical perspective, at the influence of politics on education policy-making. The research methodology includes a content analysis of curriculum designs proposed by the Ministry of Education and Training, relevant resolutions and executive orders passed by the National Assembly and the Prime Minister, as well as interviews with experts and key stakeholders. The results point to a particular configuration of factors which have been inspiring the shape and substance of these reforms and which have most certainly influenced their implementation. This configuration evolves from the immediate needs to erase illiteracy and cultivate socialist economic model at the beginning of Vietnam’s independence in 1945-1975, to a renewed urge to adopt market-oriented economy in 1986 and cautiously communicate with the outside world until 2000s, and to currently a demonstrated desire to fully integrate into the global economy and tackle with rising concerns about national security (the South China Sea Dispute), environmental sustainability, construction of a knowledge economy, and a rule-of-law society. Overall, the paper attempts to map Vietnam’s socio-political needs with the changing sets of goals and expected outcomes in teaching and learning methodologies and practices as introduced in Vietnamese key education reforms.

Keywords: curriculum development, knowledge society, national security, politics of education policy-making, Vietnam's education reforms

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247 Comparison of Budgeting Reforms: A Case Study of Thailand and OECD Member Countries

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert, Siriwan Manowan

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This study aims to find out what budget problems Thailand is facing with and how the results from the comparison between the budgeting reform by Thailand and the reforms by OECD member countries can be used for carrying out budgeting reform of Thailand. The findings from the study on the budget problems that Thailand is facing with reveal that the budgeting system of Thailand lacks of the assessment for the cost-effectiveness of the expenditure of borrowed money and budgets in order to determine whether the expenses are worth the taxes collected from people or not. This is because most popularity policies have unlimited budgets which can lead to the financial risks. Also, these policies create great tax burdens for the descendants in the future and affect the fair distribution of incomes but the Parliament of Thailand never considers these facts. The findings from the comparison between Thai budgeting reform and those by OECD member countries manifest that the traditional budgeting system of Thailand is the department-based budgeting, which is still used without being changed or adjusted in order to fit the new administrative regimes. This traditional budgeting system suggests that a department is responsible for budgeting tasks. Meanwhile, in OECD member countries, budgeting reforms are carried out simultaneously with the reforms of civil service systems so that they are driven in the same directions. The budgeting reforms that rely only on the analyses on economic or technical dimension can hardly lead to success. The budgeting systems of OECD member countries are designed to deal with the unique problems that each of the member countries is facing with rather than adopting the modern system developed by other countries. The budgeting system that has a complicated concept and practice has to be implemented under a flexible strategy so that the departments that implement it can learn about and adjust itself to the system. Continuous and consistent development and training for staff members are also necessary.

Keywords: budgeting reforms, Thailand, OECD member countries, budget problems

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246 Administrative Reform and the Changing Nature of Higher Education: A Lesson from Indonesian Higher Education Reforms

Authors: Nurdiana Gaus, Mahmud Tang

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This paper analyses changes being experienced by academics in Indonesian state university systems as a result of government-driven policy and the impacts of these changes on academics work and organisations. This analysis is located in the main concept of neoliberal agenda with its associated discourse of New Public Management. The purpose of this analysis is to show how public administrative reforms adopting neoliberal agenda have been disseminated in Indonesian higher education reform via policies and programmes of the government. This essay is expected to clarify the concept of neoliberalism in the administrative reforms within higher education institutions by examining and understanding its implementation in Indonesian context and how this impacted on the structural changes in universities and academics work.

Keywords: neoliberalism, higher education, Indonesia, new public management

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
245 Impact of Health Sector Economic Reforms in Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Haga Abdelrahman Elimam

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This paper investigates the connotation, and some of the realistic implications, of the economic reform of health sector in under developed countries. The paper investigates the issues that economic reforms have to address, and the policy targets they are considered to accomplish. The work argues that the development of economic reform is not connected only with understanding the priorities and refining them, furthermore with reformation and restructuring the organizations through which health policies are employed. Considering various organizational values, that are likely to be regular to all economic reform programs, a regulatory approach to institutional reform is unsuitable. The paper further investigates the selection of economic reform that may as well influence via technical suggestions and analysis, but the verdict to continue, and the consequent success of execution, eventually depends on the progressive political sustainability. The paper concludes by giving examples of institutional reforms from various underdeveloped countries and includes recommendation of the responsibility and control of donor organizations.

Keywords: economic reform, health sector, underdeveloped countries, technical suggestions

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244 Effectiveness of School Strategic Planning: The Case of Fijian Schools

Authors: G. Lingam, N. Lingam, K. Raghuwaiya

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In Fiji, notable among the recent spate of educational reforms has been the Ministry of Education’s (MoEs) requirement that all schools undertake a process of school strategic planning. This preliminary study explores perceptions of a sample of Fijian teachers on the way this exercise has been conducted in their schools. The analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data indicates that school leaders’ lack of knowledge and skills in school strategic planning is a major limitation. As an unsurprising consequence, the process(es) schools adopted did not conform to what the literature suggests as best planning practices. School leaders need more training to ensure they are better prepared to carry out this strategic planning effectively, especially in widening the opportunities for all who have a stake in education to contribute to the process. Implications of the findings are likely to be pertinent to other developing contexts within and beyond the Pacific region for the training of school leaders to ensure they are better equipped to orchestrate and benefit from educational reforms thrust upon them.

Keywords: school strategic planning, educational reforms, Fijian schools, Ministry of Education

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
243 Juvenile Justice Reforms for the 21st Century: Promising Approaches in Bangladesh

Authors: Nahid Ferdousi

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Juvenile justice is a key component of the child rights to keep the best interest and completely different from criminal justice. After independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Children Act 1974 and the Children Rules 1976 were considered as the basic law for juvenile justice which written before many international instruments on children’s rights came into existence, did not align with the international mandate set by those instruments. These Acts were not really child rights-based and modern concept such as diversion, restorative justice and community-based rehabilitation has not developed accordingly. In this backdrop, government has enacted the new Children Act 2013 and introduced extensive reforms to the juvenile justice system in Bangladesh. The Act has been adopted with the provisions for child-friendly juvenile courts in each district and different kinds of child-oriented practices in a number of settings, such as, child affairs police officer, probation officer, national child welfare board, diversion, alternative preventive measures on the basis of international principles. Prior to the Act, there had been a number of High Court rulings which considered the international standards for juvenile justice. But the recent reforms to juvenile justice system hail a new commitment to the country’s international obligations to its children and a change in the philosophy guiding the treatment of offender children. This is high time to create an effective juvenile justice system for the 21st century in Bangladesh by the proper implementation of the Children Act 2013. Additionally, the new Children Rules should be enacted and juvenile courts along with correctional institutions should be established in each district in Bangladesh. This study assesses the juvenile justice reforms in Bangladesh over the five decades (1974-2014) and focuses on changes that will improve the system as a whole and enable us to better achieve the ends of fair juvenile justice.

Keywords: Juvenile justice reforms, international obligations, child-oriented practices, commitment of the state

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
242 The Role of Electronic Banking Technology in the Modernization of Algerian Banking System

Authors: Azzi Mohammed Amin

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In the last decade Algeria has investigated in a scale of economic reforms including different areas, among these; reforms in the banking system. This was mainly through the implementation of some regulations that facilitate the shift to market economy and guarantee integration into global economy. The most important new ideas that have emerged in this area are perhaps to find a possibility of integrating the so called e-banking. Based on what has already been stated, we will try in this study to highlight the significant role of electronic banking services as novel trends in the modernization and development of Algerian banks.

Keywords: banking technology, Internet banks, modernization of banks, virtual banks

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
241 Potentials for Change in the MENA Region: A Socioeconomic Perspective

Authors: Shaira Karishma Sheriff, Zarinah Hamid

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The Arab Spring, which commenced during the end of 2010 and accelerated during 2011, was caused primarily due to poverty, unemployment and a general recession in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The core motivation of this revolution could be said to be the need for political, economic and social reforms that the region desires to experience. Though GDP growth has been significant in the region, the income distribution mechanism in MENA countries has been ineffective. This results in low levels of education, substandard health care facilities, unemployment, and poverty. This paper argues that MENA countries have great potential for experiencing socioeconomic development by being less dependent on oil exports and enhancing their services sector through better education which would eventually lead to job creation. Furthermore, the region can encourage better trade and political integration by forming transparent and accountable governments. The notion of Nation-State needs to be addressed and the countries in the region need to look for ways to develop effective supra-national institutions for better political and economic integration that goes beyond geographical borders.

Keywords: political reforms, social reforms, economic development, nation-state, economic integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
240 The Impact of Maternity Leave Reforms: Evidence from Finland

Authors: Claudia Troccoli

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Childbearing constitutes one of the key factors affecting labour market differences between men and women, accounting for almost a quarter of the gender wage gap. Family leave policies, such as maternity, paternity, and parental leave, represent potential key policy tools to address these inequalities, as they can promote mothers' job continuity and career progression. This paper analyses four major reforms implemented in Finland between the 1960s and the early 1980s. It studies the effects of these maternity and parental leave extensions on mothers' short- and long-run labour market outcomes. Eligibility to longer leave was determined on the basis of the child's date of birth. Therefore, estimation of the causal effects of the reforms is possible by exploiting random variation in children's birthdates and comparing the outcomes of mothers giving birth just before and just after the reform cutoff date. Overall, the three maternity leave reforms did not significantly improve mothers' earnings or employment rates. On the contrary, the estimates, although imprecise, seem to indicate negative effects on women's labour market outcomes. The extension of parental leave is, on the other hand, the only reform that improved mothers' short- and long-term labour market outcomes, both in terms of earnings and employment rate. At the same time, fathers appeared to be negatively affected by the reform. These results provide suggestive evidence that shareable parental leave might have more beneficial effects on mothers' job continuity, as it weakens the connotation of childcare as a task reserved for mothers.

Keywords: family policies, Finland, maternal labour market outcomes, maternity leave

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239 Judicial Independence in Uzbekistan and the United States of America: Comparative-Legal Analysis

Authors: Botirjon Kosimov

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This work sheds light on the reforms towards the independence of the judiciary in Uzbekistan, as well as issues of further ensuring judicial independence in the country based on international values, particularly the legal practice of the United States. In every democratic state infringed human rights are reinstated and violated laws are protected by the help of justice based on the strict principle of judicial independence. The realization of this principle in Uzbekistan has been paid much attention since the proclamation of its independence. In the country, a series of reforms have been implemented in the field of the judiciary in order to actualize the principle of judicial independence. Uzbekistan has been reforming the judiciary considering both international and national values and practice of foreign countries. While forming a democratic state based on civil society, Uzbekistan shares practice with the most developed countries in the world. The United States of America can be a clear example which is worth learning how to establish and ensure an independent judiciary. It seems that although Uzbekistan has reformed the judiciary efficiently, it should further reform considering the legal practice of the United States.

Keywords: dependent judges, independent judges, judicial independence, judicial reforms, judicial life tenure, obstacles to judicial independence

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238 Modernizer'ness as Madness: A Comparative Historical Study of Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia and Sultan Selim III of Ottoman Turkey's Modernization Reforms

Authors: Seid Ahmed Mohammed, Nedim Yalansiz

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Many historians hardly gave due attention for historical comparison as their methods of study. They were still stunt supporter of the use of their own historical research method in their studies. But this method lacks the way to analyze some worldwide dynamics of events in comparative perspectives. Some dynamics like revolution, modernization, societal change and transformation needs broader analysis for broadening our historical knowledge’s by comparing and contrasting of the causes, courses and consequences of such dynamics historical developments in the world at large. In this paper, our study focuses up on ‘the dynamics of modernization’ and the challenge of modernity of the old regimes. For instance, countries like Turkey, Ethiopia, China, Russia, Iran, Afghanistan and Thailand have almost the same dynamics in facing the challenge of modernity. In such countries, the old regimes tried to introduce modernization and ‘reform from the above’ in order to tackle the gradual decline of the empire that faced strong challenge from the outside world. The other similarity of them was that as the rulers attempted to introduce the modernization reforms the old traditional and the religious institutions strongly opposed the reforms as the reforms alienated the power and prestige of the traditional classes. Similarly, the rules introduced modernization for maintaining their own unique socio-cultural and religious dynamics not as borrowing and acculturation of the west by complete destruction of their own. Therefore, this paper attempted to give a comparative analysis of two modernizers Tewodros II (1855-1868) of Ethiopia and Sultan Selim III (1739-1808) of Ottoman Turkey who tried to modernize their empire unfortunately they paid their precious life as a result of modernization.

Keywords: comparative history, Ethiopia, modernization, Ottoman Turkey

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237 Identifying Reforms Required in Construction Contracts from Resolved Disputed Cases

Authors: K. C. Iyer, Yogita Manan Bindal, Sumit Kumar Bakshi

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The construction industry is plagued with disputes and litigation in India with many stalled projects seeking dispute resolution. This has an adverse effect on the performance and overall project delivery and impacts future investments within the industry. While construction industry is the major driver of growth, there has not been major reforms in the government construction contracts. The study is aimed at identifying the proactive means of dispute avoidance, focusing on reforms required within the construction contracts, by studying 49 arbitration awards of construction disputes. The claims presented in the awards are aggregated to study the causes linked to the contract document and are referred against the prospective recommendation and practices as surveyed from literature review of research papers. Within contract administration, record keeping has been a major concern as they are required by the parties to substantiate the claims or the counterclaims and therefore are essential in any dispute redressal process. The study also observes that the right judgment is inhibited when the record keeping is improper and due to lack of coherence between documents, the dispute resolution period is also prolonged. The finding of the research will be relevant to industry practitioners in contract drafting with a view to avoid disputes.

Keywords: construction contract, contract administration, contract management, dispute avoidance

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236 A Mixed-method Study of Psychological Empowerment in Child Protection Practitioners

Authors: Amy Bromley

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Child protection practitioners are a vital part of systems designed to protect children from abuse and neglect. Reforms in Anglo-American systems have shown a trend towards compliance-culture that reduces practitioner autonomy and empowerment, increasing staff turnover and negatively impacting outcomes for children. This explanatory mixed-methods study examined psychological empowerment in a national sample of child protection practitioners in Australia (n=109) using the Psychological Empowerment Instrument followed by semi-structured interviews (n=19). The results show that practitioners experience the sub-dimensions of psychological empowerment differently, perceiving themselves to have high levels of competence and satisfaction in their work but limited opportunities for self-determination and low levels of impact on decision-making in their organizations. The qualitative data revealed that practitioners do not trust systemic reforms and have experienced them as ineffective, politically driven, and bureaucratic. The increased compliance demanded from these reforms has left practitioners feeling that their expertise is not valued, leading many to leave their organizations. The practitioners who remain employed in child protection identified their use of advocacy, curiosity, and child-centered values as ways of protecting their psychological empowerment. The findings highlight the ways psychological empowerment can be promoted within child protection systems, improving staff retention and building expertise.

Keywords: child protection, implementation, psychological empowerment, systems theory

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235 Pre-Service Teacher Education Reforms in India and Pakistan: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Jyoti Sharma

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India and Pakistan are two strategically important neighboring countries in Asia-Pacific region. Since independence of more than six decades, both, India and Pakistan have transverse different paths, India as a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic Country and Pakistan as Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The advent of democracy in India and Islamic republic in Pakistan resulted in new hopes, aspirations and demands on education. During the six decades after Independence, teacher education in both countries has come a long way from its initial bleak stature to gain an identity as a complex network of institutions and programs. The present paper takes a close look into the paradigm shift in teacher education programs in India and Pakistan and how much the shift is influenced by constitutional frameworks of each country.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, teacher education reforms, India, Pakistan

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234 The Role of International Organizations in Educational Reform in Iraq

Authors: Thanaa M. Sulaiman

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The Iraqi education system has suffered greatly as a result of wars, political instability, and economic problems. After the fall of Saddam’s regime in 2003, the Iraqi education system was proportionally the most impacted sector. The new administration prioritized educational reforms. International organizations, as well as foreign countries, were in the lead to achieve educational reforms. The current study aims to shed light on the reformation process and the roles of different stakeholders, especially international organizations. It also aims to explore the current problems facing the Iraqi education system. Additionally, it aims to explore the different programs and projects that are funded and implemented by international organizations and the impact of these programs and projects.

Keywords: Iraq, Iraqi education system, educational reform, international organizations

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233 Minimum Wages and Its Impact on Agriculture and Non Agricultural Sectors with Special Reference to Recent Labour Reforms in India

Authors: Bikash Kumar Malick

Abstract:

Labour reform is a most celebrated theme for policy makers, at the same time it is also a most misunderstood and skeptical concept even for the educated masses in India. One of the widely focused and discussed topics which needs an in-depth examination is India’s labour laws. It may actually help to reach points to understand the exact requirements in labour reforms by making the labour laws more simple and concise in form and its implementation. It is also a requirement to guide states in India in terms of making laws on it as Indian Constitution itself is federal in form and unitary in spirit. Recently, Codes of Wages Bill has been introduced in Indian Parliament while other three codes are waiting to come in the same line and those codes actually highlight the simplified features of labour laws to enable labour reform in a succinct manner. However, it still brings more confusion in minds of people. To wipe out the confusion and to bring a note and to put it for correlation among the labour reforms of both centre and states which both generates employment and make growth sustainable in India providing clear public understanding. This time is also ripe minimizing the apprehension about all the coming labour laws simplified in different codes in India. This article attempts to highlight the need of labour reform and its possible impact. It also examines the higher rates of minimum wages and its links with its coverage agriculture and nonagricultural sectors (including mines) over the period time. It also takes into consideration of central sphere and in states sphere minimum wage which are linked with Consumer Price Index to bring into account the living standard of workers and to examine the cause and effect between minimum wage and output in both agriculture and non agricultural sector with regression analysis. Increase in minimum wage has actually strengthened the sustainable output.

Keywords: codes of wages, indian constitution, minimum wage, labour laws, labour reforms

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232 Public Procurement Development Stages in Georgia

Authors: Giorgi Gaprindashvili

Abstract:

One of the best examples, in evolution of the public procurement, from post-soviet countries are reforms carried out in Georgia, which brought them close to international standards of procurement. In Georgia, public procurement legislation started functioning in 1998. The reform has passed several stages and came in the form as it is today. It should also be noted, that countries with economy in transition, including Georgia, implemented all the reforms in public procurement based on recommendations and support of World Bank, the United Nations and other international organizations. The first law on public procurement in Georgia was adopted on December 9, 1998 which aimed regulation of the procurement process of budget-organizations, transparent and competitive environment for private companies to access state funds legally. The priorities were identified quite clearly in the wording of the law, but operation/function of this law could not be reached on its level, because of some objective and subjective reasons. The high level of corruption in all levels of governance, can be considered as a main obstacle reason and of course, it is natural, that it had direct impact on the procurement process, as well as on transparency and rational use of state funds. This circumstances were the reasons that reforms in this sphere continued, to improve procurement process, in particular, the first wave of reforms began in 2001. Public procurement agency carried out reform with World Bank with main purpose of smartening the procurement legislation and its harmonization with international treaties and agreements. Also with the support of World Bank various activities were carried out to raise awareness of participants involved in procurement system. Further major changes in the legislation were filed in May 2005, which was also directed towards the improvement and smarten of the procurement process. The third wave of the reform began in 2010, which more or less guaranteed the transparency of the procurement process, which later became the basis for the rational spending of state funds. The reform of the procurement system completely changed the procedures. Carried out reform in Georgia resulted in introducing new electronic tendering system, which benefit the transparency of the process, after this became the basis for the further development of a competitive environment, which become a prerequisite for the state rational spending. Increased number of supplier organizations participating in the procurement process resulted in reduction of the estimated cost and the actual cost from 20% up to 40%, it is quite large saving for the procuring organizations and allows them to use the freed-up funds for their other needs. Assessment of the reforms in Georgia in the field of public procurement can be concluded, that proper regulation of the sector and relevant policy may proceed to rational and transparent spending of the budget from country’s state institutions. Also, the business sector has the opportunity to work in competitive market conditions and to make a preliminary analysis, which is a prerequisite for future strategy and development.

Keywords: public administration, public procurement, reforms, transparency

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