Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Boko Haram

51 Disaster and Emergency Management in Nigeria: The Case of Chibok School Girls Abducted by Boko Haram Insurgents

Authors: Aidelunuoghene Sunday Ojeifo

Abstract:

More than a decade ago, the Islamist Terrorist group called Boko Haram has caused terrible violence in the north-eastern part of Nigeria. The group’s use of suicide attacks is a dreadful trait of international terrorist violence. It is certainly not in doubt that Boko Haram is the biggest headache of the Nigerian Government right now. The objective of this paper is to answer four fundamental questions about the extremist group: Who is Boko Haram? Why does the group rebel? How has the Nigerian state responded to the emergency and disaster in which more than 200 schoolgirls were abducted from their school in Chibok? Is there any assistance from other nations of the world to help Nigeria out of the grips of this cruel dilemma?

Keywords: Boko Haram, disaster, hazards, vulnerability, insurgents

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50 Understanding Human Rights Violations in the Fight against Boko Haram: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Anthony Mpiani

Abstract:

Recent media and NGO reports suggest that human rights violations have been a salient characteristic of the government Joint Task Force (JTF) in the war on Boko Haram. However, there has been relatively scant scholarly engagement with the forms of abuses committed by the JTF against civilians and why such human rights violations occur. The focus of this paper is to analyse the various human rights violations committed by JTF in the war against Boko Haram. Employing a historical approach, it argues that the JTF's human rights violations is shaped by the philosophy of colonial policing in Nigeria. Consequently, the failure of successive post-colonial governments to ideologically transform policing is accountable for the human rights abuses being witnessed in Nigeria today. A philosophical transformation in Nigeria's security forces especially the police and military is a prerequisite for ending human rights abuses in the fight against Boko Haram.

Keywords: colonialism, policing, joint task force, counterinsurgency, Boko Haram, human rights violations

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49 De/Reconstructing the Notion of Women as Perpetrators of Terrorism: The Case of Boko Haram

Authors: Damilohun D. Ayoyo, Anthony Mpiani, Temitope B. Oriola

Abstract:

The debate on women’s roles in insurgencies and terrorist organizations continues to garner scholarly attention. While some scholars view women insurgents and terrorists as perpetrators, others have argued that they are non-agents and victims. This paper de/reconstructs the notion of ‘women as perpetrators’ of terrorism. Drawing on the narratives of rescued female Boko Haram operatives, and Boko Haram’s tactics for recruiting and deploying women and girls, the paper advances three main arguments. First, the growing social construction of women as perpetrators of terrorism – particularly radical Islamic terrorism – downplays the socio-cultural and structural processes leading to women’s involvement with terrorist organizations. Second, women agency in Boko Haram activities is better understood when grounded in the cultural and structural contexts of Northern Nigeria, Boko Haram’s construction of ‘female,’ and the experiences of female Boko Haram operatives. Third, the mechanisms through which female Boko Haram operatives are recruited and deployed make them more of non-agents and victims than perpetrators of terrorism. The paper draws on the agency-structure approach and argues that the gendered power asymmetries embedded in the cultures and structures of Northern Nigeria –the base of Boko Haram– contribute to the nature and dynamics of women’s involvement in the insurgency. Although the paper does not negate the agency of women in terrorism, it aligns with the studies that consider women insurgents as more victims than perpetrators of terror.

Keywords: Boko Haram, female agency, Northern Nigeria, patriarchy, perpetrator of terror, radical Islamic terrorism, sharia, victim of terror, women insurgents

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48 Identity (Mis)Representation and Ideological Struggles in Discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Ogungbemi

Abstract:

Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (also called Boko Haram) in the North-East of Nigeria has facilitated ideological binarity in discourses on the crisis. Since its proliferation, media representation of the crisis has facilitated identity contamination and ideological struggle through which other critical issues, such as religious intolerance, ethnic diversity and other forms of class conflict in the Nigerian state, are brought to public notice. Though Boko Haram insurgency is ideological laden, the manifestation of the inherent ideologies requires extensive scholarly attention in order deconstruct the veiled ideologies. Therefore, the thrust of this study is to critically investigate identity (mis)representation as a basis for ideological mapping in discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria, adopting critical discourse analytical tools supported with insights from systemic functional linguistics and critical discourse analysis. The data for this study consist of articles on Boko Haram in Nigerian newspapers published in English. The data selection is purposive and aimed at responding to challenges that are inherent in Nigeria's multifaithism and multiculturalism, and their effects on the construction of narratives on Boko Haram. The study reveals that identity manipulation is a constructive device for ideological mapping, realised through labeling, agency activation, and transitivity. Identity representation in discourses on Boko Haram depicted four dichotomous binarities using exclusion, generalisation, contrasting and attribution.

Keywords: identity representation, ideology, Boko Haram, newspapers

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47 Securitization of International Terrorism: The Case of Boko Haram in West-Africa

Authors: Ishmael Adjei

Abstract:

Since the 9/11 atrocities, international terrorism has become one of the major concerns of many states. The fact that a powerful state like US intelligence was beaten for the 9/11 attack to happen means no state is immune from terrorist attacks. Ever since, there have been subsequent attacks in cities like Madrid in 2004 and 2005, London in 2005, Paris in 2015, and Istanbul in 2016. These attacks and many others have drawn much attention to terrorism as a major security concern in recent times. This paper attempts to explore international terrorism by concentrating on the Boko Haram terrorist group. The paper examines (i) the goals Boko Haram seeks to achieve and the strategies they employ in this regard (ii) the counter-strategies employed by Nigerian governments, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and AU in the region (iii)The effectiveness of the counter-strategies, and (iv) the challenges of the counter-strategies. This paper argues that the Nigerian government has tried to control Boko Haram but there is more to be done especially with the intelligence system of the Nigerian army. The paper also argues that the ECOWAS and AU have not been effective due to the organization's improper mode of operations.

Keywords: Boko-haram, Nigeria, west-Africa, terrorism and counterterrorism, securitization, existential threat

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46 Exploring the Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigerian Security Systems and Economy

Authors: Abara Onu, Augustine Mina Ephraim, Emmanuel Teidi

Abstract:

Terrorism has been a major challenge and is so dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities entails bombings, suicide attacks, intimidations, sporadic gunfire of the unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerians, burning of police stations and churches, kidnappings, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for the development of Nigerian economy. Although, Nigeria had made several worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still worrisome. The study looks at exploring the determinants of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigerian security systems and economy. Data used for the study work was from questionnaire administered, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method to analyse the data. The result shows that Ideology and funding are significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram group in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. The work x-rayed the following recommendations; government should declare war on terrorism and as well seek support and cooperation from international communities who in time or the other might have faced with this kind ugly experience and challenge and were able to tackle it. Nigerian Military needs to be more empowered with high dangerous weapons to combat the insurgency as well as beef up security across the Country to curb the threats.

Keywords: terrorism, economy, Boko Haram, Nigeria

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45 Women in Violent Conflicts and the Challenges of Food Security in Northeast Nigeria: The Case of Boko Haram Insurgency

Authors: Grace Modupe Adebo, Ayodeji Oluwamuyiwa Adedapo

Abstract:

Women are key actors in ensuring food security in terms of food availability, food access, and food utilization in the developing economy, however, they suffer mostly during violent conflicts due to their feminist nature of rearing and caring for their children and relatives. The study was embarked upon to access the effects of violent conflicts posed by Boko Haram insurgency on women and food security in the Northeast of Nigeria. The study made use of secondary data. A time series data collected over a 22 years period were used. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and t-test analysis. The findings of the study established a significant difference in food production (availability) before and after the Boko Haram insurgency at the 1% level of significance. The high level of Internally Displaced Person (IDP) with a high proportion of women depicts a very low level of food accessibility as the men and women has fled and uninhabited their place of abode for over a period of four to five years, thus diminishing their economic power, and the means of acquiring food which invariably endanger food stability and utilization. The study confirmed the abduction and changing roles of women as cooks, porters, spies, partners, and sex slaves to Boko Haram troop members, thus affecting their livelihoods and food security. The study recommends hands-on interventions by the governmental, non-governmental and international agencies to terminate the activities of Boko Haram in the area and restore the food production for enhanced food security.

Keywords: Boko Haram insurgency, food accessibility, food production, food utilization, women’s livelihoods

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44 Boko Haram Insurgence and Denial of War Crime against Civilians in the Northeast, Nigeria

Authors: Aleburu Rufus Edeki

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The activities of Boko Haram terrorist group have become worrisome in Nigeria. Boko Haram killed innocent civilians, destroyed schools, churches, military barracks, police stations, and other government establishments. The federal government of Nigerian Military engaged in counter-insurgency to curtail the activities of Boko Haram militant. The engagement of the military led to mass killing across the Northeast region. The reported cases of mass-killing led to petition written to the International Criminal Court by the civil society organization as a result of denial by the military authorities of their involvement. The investigation carried out by the International Criminal Court awash by denial of military involvement in war crimes. As a result of this denial, the ICC called for further investigation of war crimes by the military. This study was carried out among fifty-eight participants. In-depth interviews were conducted among the following participants: civilians 41; human rights commission 5 and civil society 12. This study revealed that professional ethics is associated with denial of military involvement in mass killing in the region. This study also revealed that denial is associated with personality. It was also found that social attributes such as trauma, shame, ostracism, criticism, and punishment are found with denial. It is therefore concluded in this study that protection is needed for war actors, so that situation of denial is minimal in post-conflict truth findings.

Keywords: Boko Haram, crime, insurgence, war

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43 On the Causes of Boko Haram Terrorism: Socio-Economic versus Religious Injunctions

Authors: Sogo Angel Olofinbiyi

Abstract:

There have been widespread assumptions across the globe that the root cause of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria is religious rather than socio-economic. An investigation into this dichotomy allowed this study to fully demonstrate that the root cause of Boko Haram’s terrorist actions emanates from the non-fulfillment of socio-economic goals that are prompted by the violation of fundamental human rights, corruption, poverty, unconstitutional and undemocratic practices in the northern part of the Nigerian state. To achieve its aim of establishing the root cause of the terrorism crisis in the latter country, the study critically appraised the socio-economic context of the insurgency by adopting one-on-one in-depth interviews involving forty (40) participants to interrogate the phenomenon. Empirical evidence from the study demonstrated that the evolution of Boko Haram terrorism was a response to socio-economic phlebotomy, political and moral putrescence, and the dehumanization of people that stem from a combination of decades of mismanagement and pervasive corruption by various Nigerian leaders. The study concludes that, as long as the endemic socio-economic problems caused by global capitalism vis-a-vis unequal hegemonic power exchange as expressed in socio-political, ethno-religious and cultural forms persist in the Nigerian society, the terrorism insurgency will recur and remain an inevitable enterprise and indeed a normal social reaction to every undesirable state of affairs. Based on the findings, the study urges the need for the amelioration of the conditions of the vast majority of the Nigerian populace by making socio-economic facilities available to them through the political state.

Keywords: Boko Haram Terrorism, insurgency, socio-economic, religious injunctions

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42 Global and Domestic Response to Boko Haram Terrorism on Cameroon 2014-2018

Authors: David Nchinda Keming

Abstract:

The present study is focused on both the national and international collective fight against Boko Haram terrorism on Cameroon and the rule played by the Lake Chad Basin Countries (LCBCs) and the global community to suffocate the sect’s activities in the region. Although countries of the Lake Chad Basin include: Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria and Niger others like Benin also joined the course. The justification for the internationalisation of the fight against Boko Haram could be explained by the ecological and international climatic importance of the Lake Chad and the danger posed by the sect not only to the Lake Chad member countries but to global armed, civil servants and the international political economy. The study, therefore, kick start with Cameroon’s reaction to Boko Haram’s terrorist attacks on its territory. It further expounds on Cameroon’s request on bilateral diplomacy from members of the UN Security Council for an international collective support to staple the winds of the challenging sect. The study relies on the hypothesis that Boko Haram advanced terrorism on Cameroon was more challenging to the domestic military intelligence thus forcing the government to seek for bilateral and multilateral international collective support to secure its territory from the powerful sect. This premise is tested internationally via (multilateral cooperation, bilateral response, regional cooperation) and domestically through (solidarity parade, religious discourse, political manifestations, war efforts, the vigilantes and the way forward). To accomplish our study, we made used of the mixed research methodologies to interpret the primary, secondary and tertiary sources consulted. Our results reveal that the collective response was effectively positive justified by the drastic drop in the sect’s operations in Cameroon and the whole LCBCs. Although the sect was incapacitated, terrorism remains an international malaise and Cameroon hosts a fertile ground for terrorists’ activism. Boko Haram was just weakened and not completely defeated and could reappear someday even under a different appellation. Therefore, to absolutely eradicate terrorism in general and Boko Haram in particular, LCBCs must improve their military intelligence on terrorism and continue to collaborate with advanced experienced countries in fighting terrorism.

Keywords: Boko Haram, terrorism, domestic, international, response

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41 The Media and Reportage of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria

Authors: Priscilla Marcus

Abstract:

The mass media was a force to reckon with in the struggle and attainment of Nigeria’s independence in 1960 and since then, the Nigerian media has carved a niche for itself in performing its traditional role of education, information, entertainment, shaping of opinions and swinging of views of the society on knotty national issues. Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria which emerged from an unnoticed, negligible and quiet beginning, has turned out daring, monstrous and unstoppable. This paper examines The Media and Reportage of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria and to suggest strategies the mass media could adopt in combating this form of terrorism. Data for the study were collected from a variety of sources including the print and electronic media. The major observation of this study is that the mass media have an enormous role to play if Boko Haram’s activities are to be combated. It argued that even though the media houses are just doing their job – reporting the incident(s) as they occur, thus keeping the citizens abreast of facts; the rate at which news keeps coming regarding the activities of the sect has portrayed the media as information dissemination and terror campaign spread. It also argued that the ceaseless reporting has not translated to a decrease in the activities of the sect or increase in the level of government actions to check the insurgency. However, the information being disseminated is enlightening the populace and also creating an atmosphere of panic and insecurity. It further argued that the media should move beyond mere recitation of events to providing the public with knowledge needed to make things better. This is because the sect has been accorded too much undeserved and unnecessary publicity while the government on the other hand has been portrayed, albeit indirectly as a weak organization incapable of handling the ‘more organized’ Boko Haram. The study, concluded that, to effectively address the problem of this form of terrorism in Nigeria, the media have to brace up to the task of uncovering activities of the sect in appreciation of their watch-dog role.

Keywords: Boko Haram, insurgency, mass media, Nigeria

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40 The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria: Lesson for Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Anim

Abstract:

Ghana has been touted as an oasis of peace in Africa following her relatively peaceful democratic elections, proliferated number of the media, and freedom of speech. Besides, the former Gold Coast country is yet to experience any major incidence of terrorism. Nevertheless, the somewhat occasional simmering violence and conflicts arising from political, religious and chieftaincy skirmishes, largely at its northern part portrays that it is not immune to the political violence of terrorism. The predominantly-based qualitative research reveals that current conditions of socio-politico-economic, and religious issues in Ghana places the West African country on the possible sidelines of the phenomenon of terrorism, when its status quo is juxtaposed with the factors enumerated to have culminated in the rise of Boko Haram, and its accompanying insurgency in Nigeria. Arguing from the perspective of the theory of Social Movement, the analyses and discussions note that the current state of affairs in Ghana could foster domestic terrorism in the country. What is more, the research shows that Ghana faces threats from transnational terrorism given the tendency for elements in Ghana to sympathize and subscribe to the ideological dictates and appeals from Boko Haram and other terrorist organizations. As a consequence, the study recommends that adverse conditions of poverty, poor governance, unemployment, and rising levels of (Islamic) religious radicalization should be remedied by economic improvements, good governance, job creation, and de-radicalization programs by government officials to aid mitigate the incidence of terrorism in the country.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Ghana, Nigeria, terrorism

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39 Boko Haram Insurrection and Religious Revolt in Nigeria: An Impact Assessment-{2009-2015}

Authors: Edwin Dankano

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Evident by incessant and sporadic attacks on Nigerians poise a serious threat to the unity of Nigeria, and secondly, the single biggest security nightmare to confront Nigeria since after amalgamation of the Southern and Northern protectorates by the British colonialist in 1914 is “Boko Haram” a terrorist organization also known as “Jama’atul Ahli Sunnah Lidda’wati wal Jihad”, or “people committed to the propagation of the Prophet’s teachings and jihad”. The sect also upholds an ideology translated as “Western Education is forbidden”, or rejection of Western civilization and institutions. By some estimates, more than 5,500 people were killed in Boko Haram attacks in 2014, and Boko Haram attacks have already claimed hundreds of lives and territories {caliphates}in early 2015. In total, the group may have killed more than 10,000 people since its emergence in the early 2000s. More than 1 million Nigerians have been displaced internally by the violence, and Nigerian refugee figures in neighboring countries continue to rise. This paper is predicated on secondary sources of data and anchored on the Huntington’s theory of clash of civilization. As such, the paper argued that the rise of Boko Haram with its violent disposition against Western values is a counter response to Western civilization that is fast eclipsing other civilizations. The paper posits that the Boko Haram insurrection going by its teachings, and destruction of churches is a validation of the propagation of the sect as a religious revolt which has resulted in dire humanitarian situation in Adamawa, Borno, Yobe, Bauchi, and Gombe states all in north eastern Nigeria as evident in human casualties, human right abuses, population displacement, refugee debacle, livelihood crisis, and public insecurity. The paper submits that the Nigerian state should muster the needed political will in terms of a viable anti-terrorism measures and build strong legitimate institutions that can adequately curb the menace of corruption that has engulfed the military hierarchy, respond proactively to the challenge of terrorism in Nigeria and should embrace a strategic paradigm shift from anti-terrorism to counter-terrorism as a strategy for containing the crisis that today threatens the secular status of Nigeria.

Keywords: Boko Haram, civilization, fundamentalism, Islam, religion revolt, terror

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38 West African Insurgents and Religious Conflict(s), Causes, Crimes and Control: An Evaluation of the Role of Economics Community of West African States

Authors: Ehosa Peter Ogbeni

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Religious conflict and insurgency are staying as growing phenomena globally especially within the West African region: this 'new wars’ in this part of the globe has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns for the visitors and international community. This ‘ugly’ trend has also affected the social, economic and political life of the West African region. Over the years, various religious and insurgency groups have raised arms against civilians and the government, the most recent extremist group, Boko Haram continues to expand and commit violent acts, such as sporadic suicide bombings and killing of innocent citizens and foreigners within the West African region especially in countries like Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad etc. It would have been expected that academic research focus on investigating the West African region; this is not the situation as most of the research on religious conflict and insurgencies have focused more on other parts of the World. Insurgencies and Religious Conflict studies in West Africa have fallen short of literature and very limited literature covers the activities of Boko Haram arm struggle. This research therefore, aims to fill the gap by investigating the role of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in managing the growing trend of religious conflicts and insurgency in West African States, by using Boko Haram as a case to review. This research adopted the critical theory paradigm using aspects of qualitative research techniques in carrying out its investigation. The findings of this research will help develop a framework that will aid the (ECOWAS) amongst other stakeholders in managing religious and insurgency motivated conflict.

Keywords: religious conflict, insurgencies, Boko haram, ECOWAS (economics community of West African states), peace building, conflict resolution

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37 Nigerian Media Coverage of the Chibok Girls Kidnap: A Qualitative News Framing Analysis of the Nation Newspaper

Authors: Samuel O. Oduyela

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Over the last ten years, many studies have examined the media coverage of terrorism across the world. Nevertheless, most of these studies have been inclined to the western narrative, more so in relation to the international media. This study departs from that partiality to explore the Nigerian press and its coverage of the Boko Haram. The study intends to illustrate how the Nigerian press has reported its homegrown terrorism within its borders. On 14 April 2014, the Shekau-led Boko Haram kidnapped over 200 female students from Chibok in the Borno State. This study analyses a structured sample of news stories, feature articles, editorial comments, and opinions from the Nation newspaper. The study examined the representation of the Chibok girls kidnaps by concentrating on four main viewpoints. The news framing of the Chibok girls’ kidnap under Presidents Goodluck Jonathan (2014) and Mohammadu Buhari (2016-2018), the sourcing model present in the news reporting of the kidnap and the challenges Nation reporters face in reporting Boko Haram. The study adopted the use of qualitative news framing analysis to provide further insights into significant developments established from the examination of news contents. The study found that the news reportage mainly focused on the government response to Chibok girls kidnap, international press and Boko Haram. Boko Haram was also framed, as a political conspiracy, as prevailing, and as instilling fear. Political, and economic influence appeared to be a significant determinant of the reportage. The study found that the Nation newspaper's portrayal of the crisis under President Jonathan differed significantly from under President Buhari. While the newspaper framed the action of President Jonathan as lacklustre, dismissive, and confusing, it was less critical of President Buhari's government's handling of the crisis. The Nation newspaper failed to promote or explore non-violent approaches. News reports of the kidnap, thus, were presented mainly from a political and ethnoreligious perspective. The study also raised questions of what roles should journalists play in covering conflicts? Should they merely report comments on and interpret it, or should they be actors in the resolution or, more importantly, the prevention of conflicts? The study underlined the need for the independence of the media, more training for journalists to advance a more nuanced and conflict-sensitive news coverage in the Nigerian context.

Keywords: boko haram, chibok girls kidnap, conflict in nigeria, media framing

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
36 Contextual and Personal Factors as Predictor of Academic Resilience among Female Undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ndidi Ofole

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Ongoing Boko Haram crisis and instability in North-Eastern Nigeria has placed additional stress on academic resilience of female undergraduates who are already challenged by gender discrimination in educational opportunities. Students without resilience lack stress hardiness to cope with academic challenges. There is a limited study on academic resilience targeting this disadvantaged population in Nigeria. Consequently, survey research design was employed to investigate the contextual and personal factors that could predict academic resilience among female undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern, Nigeria. Five hundred and thirty female students with age range of 18 to 24 years ( = 19.2; SD=6.9) were randomly drawn from 3 Universities in North-Eastern Nigeria. They responded to five instruments, namely; Academic Resilience scale (r=0.72); Social Support questionnaire (r=0. 64); Social Connectedness questionnaire (r=0.75); Self-Efficacy scale (r=0. 68) and Emotional Regulation questionnaire (r=78). Results showed that there was significant positive relationship between the four independent variables and academic resilience. The variables jointly contributed 5.9% variance in the prediction of academic resilience. In terms of magnitude, social support was most potent while self-efficacy was the least. It concluded that the factors considered in this study are academic resilience facilitators. The outcomes of the study have both theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: academic resilience, emotional regulation, school connectedness, self-efficacy , social support

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35 Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

Authors: Tarela J. Ike

Abstract:

Over the years, the hemorrhagic acts of Boko Haram have led to the adoption of counter-terrorism measures which mostly takes the form of military repressive measures. These measures have wrought flagrant violation of human rights worthy of concern. Hence, the need to examine the efficacy of the counter-terrorism measures adopted by the Nigeria government in combatting terrorism. This article addresses this issue by relying on a systematic literature review which examines the impact of Nigeria counter-terrorism measures from 2009 to 2016 in combating terrorism. The review of literature includes 42 article. Of the 42 articles, 14 met the peer-reviewed requirement which finds that most of Nigeria’s counter-terrorism policies are geared toward the use of state repressive military approach which violates the human right. Thus, the study concludes that to effectively address the terrorist uprising; Nigeria should adopt a non-aggressive counter-terrorism approach which incorporates religious clerics, and community active engagement strategy in combatting terrorism as opposed to military retaliation which violates human right and so far proved ineffective.

Keywords: Boko Haram, counter-terrorism, human rights, military retaliation

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34 The Concepts of Ibn Taymiyyah in Halal and Haram and Their Relevance to Contemporary Issues

Authors: Muhammad Fakhrul Arrazi

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Ibn Taymiyyah is a great figure in Islam. His works have become the reference for many Muslims in implementing the fiqh of Ibadah and Muamalat. This article reviews the concepts that Ibn Taymiyyah has initiated in Halal and Haram, long before the books on Halal and Haram are written by contemporary scholars. There are at least four concepts of Halal and Haram ever spawned by Ibn Taymiyyah. First, the belief of a jurist (Faqih) in a matter that is Haram does not necessarily make the matter Haram. Haram arises from the Quran, Sunnah, Ijma’ and Qiyas as the tarjih. Due to the different opinions among the ulama, we should revisit this concept. Second, if a Muslim involves in a transaction (Muamalat), believes it permissible and gets money from such transaction, then it is legal for other Muslims to transact with the property of this Muslim brother, even if he does not believe that the transactions made by his Muslims brother are permissible. Third, Haram is divided into two; first is Haram because of the nature of an object, such as carrion, blood, and pork. If it is mixed with water or food and alters their taste, color, and smell, the food and water become Haram. Second is Haram because of the way it is obtained such as a stolen item and a broken aqad. If it is mixed with the halal property, the property does not automatically become Haram. Fourth, a treasure whose owners cannot be traced back then it is used for the benefit of the ummah. This study used the secondary data from the classics books by Ibn Taymiyyah, particularly those entailing his views on Halal and Haram. The data were then analyzed by using thematic and comparative approach. It is found that most of the concepts proposed by Ibn Taymiyyah in Halal and Haram correspond the majority’s views in the schools. However, some of his concepts are also in contrary to other scholars. His concepts will benefit the ummah, should it be applied to the contemporary issues.

Keywords: fiqh Muamalat, halal, haram, Ibn Taymiyyah

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33 Human Security: The Boko Haram Menace in Northern Nigeria in the 21st Century

Authors: Jimoh Yusuf Amuda

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Human security is a great panacea for sustainable development of world societies. Today the whole globe cum human species is living in nightmares of insecurity. This is due to acts of terrorism by various terrorists’ organization worldwide. The situation is on the increase daily. The number of lives and properties lost to religious insurgency cannot be quantifiably analyzed. It is on this note that this paper examine the book haram menace in northern Nigerian vis-à-vis it’s threat to the existence of human lives. The methodology applied for this research is the multi-disciplinary approach, the use journal articles, news papers, magazines, oral interview. Field trips to areas of terrorist attack and the use of text books. The following recommendations were made base on the findings. First of all the Nigerian government should declare total war on the book haram terrorist, then secondly the source of armament coming to this terrorist should be blocked, thirdly the European world should also place an arms embargo on terrorist source arms demands, also security agencies-police, the military, immigration, customs, state security service should work hand-in-hand, in a security tight measures to reduce the penetration of insurgent into the society.

Keywords: human, insecurity, security, terrorism

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32 Nigeria’s Terrorists RehabIlitation And Reintegration Policy: A Victimological Perspective

Authors: Ujene Ikem Godspower

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Acts of terror perpetrated either by state or non-state actors are considered a social ill and impugn on the collective well-being of the society. As such, there is the need for social reparations, which is meant to ensure the healing of the social wounds resulting from the atrocities committed by errant individuals under different guises. In order to ensure social closure and effectively repair the damages done by anomic behaviors, society must ensure that justice is served and those whose rights and privileges have been denied and battered are given the necessary succour they deserve. With regards to the ongoing terrorism in the Northeast, the moves to rehabilitate and reintegrate Boko Haram members have commenced with the establishment of Operation Safe Corridor,1 and a proposed bill for the establishment of “National Agency for the Education, Rehabilitation, De-radicalisation and Integration of Repentant Insurgents in Nigeria”2. All of which Nigerians have expressed mixed feelings about. Some argue that the endeavor is lacking in ethical decency and justice and totally insults human reasoning. Terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria have been enmeshed in gross human rights violations both by the military and the terrorists, and this raises the concern of Nigeria’s ability to fairly and justiciably implement the deradicalization and reintegration efforts. On the other hand, there is the challenge of the community dwellers that are victims of terrorism and counterterrorism and their ability to forgive and welcome back their immediate-past tormentors even with the slightest sense of injustice in the process of terrorists reintegration and rehabilitation. With such efforts implemented in other climes, the Nigeria’s case poses a unique challenge and commands keen interests by stakeholders and the international community due to the aforementioned reasons. It is therefore pertinent to assess the communities’ level of involvement in the cycle of reintegration- hence, the objective of this paper. Methodologically as a part of my larger PhD thesis, this study intends to explore the three different local governments (Michika in Adamawa, Chibok in Borno, and Yunusari in Yobe), all based on the intensity of terrorists attacks. Twenty five in-depth interview will be conducted in the study locations above featuring religious leaders, Community (traditional) leaders, Internally displaced persons, CSOs management officials, and ex-Boko Haram insurgents who have been reintegrated. The data that will be generated from field work will be analyzed using the Nvivo-12 software package, which will help to code and create themes based on the study objectives. Furthermore, the data will be content-analyzed, employing verbatim quotations where necessary. Ethically, the study will take into consideration the basic ethical principles for research of this nature. It will strictly adhere to the principle of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality.

Keywords: boko haram, reintegration, rehabilitation, terrorism, victimology

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31 The Effect of Ethnic and Boko Haram Insurgency in the Economic Development of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Industries in Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Juliana Abara, Dayo Keshi

Abstract:

Through cultural heritage materials, nations witness significant boom in the world of art and tourism as well as attract foreign investors and tourists to the benefit of the regions and countries where they are located. There are notable heritage sites which record visits by tourists in their thousands annually. According to UNESCO the cultural heritage reflects the life of the community, its history and its identity. Its preservation helps to rebuild broken communities, re-establish their identities, and link their past with their present and future. During any form of conflict or war, a lot happen. People die, houses destroyed and every other thing in the society suffers. Wars and conflicts in various countries have claimed antiquities, heritage materials, contemporary Arts, Galleries, Museums, Archives and very important Monuments and Heritage sites. My Paper deals with the effects of insurgencies and conflicts on cultural heritage and tourism industries in Nigeria and how they can be protected and restored so as to yield the desirable economic gains. Preceding from the premise that conflict of any type puts our cultural heritage at risk; this paper also explores the practical challenges and opportunities available to us in the face of incessant ethnic and Boko Haram (western education is abomination) insurgents and their wanton destruction of lives and properties. There will be a review of relevant literature and documents on the effects of violence on heritage materials and tourism industries in Nigeria particularly and other parts of the world in generally .My paper also highlights the activities the National Council for Arts and Culture as well as other Cultural Agencies in Nigeria have employed to sensitize the stakeholders, the youth, the elderly, and the community at large on the need for peaceful co-existence so as to collectively strive to safeguard and secure our cultural heritage in the face of all these challenges for posterity and desirable economic gains.

Keywords: cultural heritage, conflict, tourism, insurgency, challenges

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30 Application of Logistics Regression Model to Ascertain the Determinants of Food Security among Households in Maiduguri, Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Yahaya Musa, Harun Rann Bakari

Abstract:

The study examined the determinants of food security among households in Maiduguri, Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to: examine the determinants of food security among households; identify the coping strategies employed by food-insecure households in Maiduguri, Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. The population of the study is 843,964 respondents out of which 400 respondents were sampled. The study used a self-developed questionnaire to collect data from four hundred (400) respondents. Four hundred (400) copies of questionnaires were administered and all were retrieved, making 100% return rate. The study employed descriptive and inferential statistics for data analysis. Descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages) was used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and objective four, while inferential statistics (logit regression analysis) was used to analyze one. Four hundred (400) copies of questionnaires were administered and all the four hundred (400) were retrieved, making a 100% return rate. The results were presented in tables and discussed according to the research objectives. The study revealed that HHA, HHE, HHSZ, HHSX, HHAS, HHI, HHFS, HHFE, HHAC and HHCDR were the determinants of food security in Maiduguri Metropolis. Relying on less preferred foods, purchasing food on credit, limiting food intake to ensure children get enough, borrowing money to buy foodstuffs, relying on help from relatives or friends outside the household, adult family members skipping or reducing a meal because of insufficient finances and ration money to household members to buy street food were the coping strategies employed by food-insecure households in Maiduguri metropolis. The study recommended that Nigeria Government should intensify the fight against the Boko haram insurgency. This will put an end to Boko Haram Insurgency and enable farmers to return to farming in Borno state.

Keywords: internally displaced persons, food security, coping strategies, descriptive statistics, logistics regression model, odd ratio

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29 Ethnic Minority, Oil Theft and Insecurity in the North: Where the Gap and the Compromise are

Authors: Elaiho Osaruwense, Ajuzie Godson Chidiebere

Abstract:

Nigeria of at least 250 ethnic group a have suffered a lot of social, economic and political setback especially in the regime of oil and gas, that are exploited from the minority region of the Niger south -south areas. The rate of insecurity in the north gives a lot of questioning and concern, with the series of killings by the Boko Haram in some part of the north etc. the fact still remains on how the gap and the compromise will be reconciling especially with the incoming president of Muhammadu Buhari with all the problems which was not resolve by the past administration (President Ebele Jonathan), considering the configuration and the character of the Nigerian state. This paper tends to critically evaluate all this problems, assertion, proffering possible solution.

Keywords: ethnic minority, oil theft, insecurity, the gap and the compromise

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28 Causes of Nigeria Unrest and Conflict Situation

Authors: Victor Osaghae

Abstract:

In 2005, the CIA published a report warning that Nigeria, the seventh most populous country in the world, could disintegrate within 15 years. Nigeria experiences civil unrest, violence and strikes. Nigeria has one of the highest rates of internal violence in the world, only unlike others with similar levels of bloodshed such as Colombia or Chechnya, there is not a civil war going on. The types of unrest observed in Nigeria from literatures consulted can be categorized into five namely: religious, social, political, labour, and communal or ethnic unrests. The cuases of the unrests are as follows: injustice, unemployment, religious intolerance, illiteracy and government not filling agreements reached with unions. The cost due to these unrests cannot be quantified because it affects human, material/properties and money.

Keywords: unrest, conflicts, Boko Haram, disturbance

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27 Internally Displaced Persons: Implication to National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Olasunkanmi G. Jeje, John G. Laah, Eunice S. A. Jeje

Abstract:

In recent times Nigeria has been bedeviled with political, religious and ethnic crises such as indigene/settler phenomena, Boko Haram etc. resulting in the emergence of internally displaced persons(IDPs), this has been a hunch on national development. Most states of the federation have had their share of one crisis or the other such as Jos, Yobe, Borno etc thereby affecting the economy of the country. These persons are uprooted from their residential locations of which they are active contributors to the national GDP. In addition, the attempt to rehabilitate them has gulped billions of naira for feeding, shelter and medicals etc., which is not adequate for such. However, the financing could have been used for projects such as capacity building and infrastructural development. Similarly, traumatic experience by this group of people is overwhelming as most of them are mainly the aged, women and children. Importantly, the active roles of youths that constitute the productive sector of the economy have also been truncated. Therefore, it is the prerogative of this research to examine the effect of IDP's on National Development and also to recommend solutions.

Keywords: development, implication, internally displaced persons, Nigeria

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26 Religious Insurgency in Nigeria: A Bane to National Unity

Authors: Ayoola Adediran Amos

Abstract:

Nigeria as a secular state that is characterized with various religions namely: Christianity, Islam and African Religion. Each of the religion adherents often claim that their religion is the only means of gaining eternity while others who do not belong to their sect may not be opportuned. Religious doctrine within those religious sects is another source of insurgency which serves as a threat to the unity of Nigeria. Similarly, Boko Haram Religious group has become a threat to the unity of the country in which its root has both political and religious undertones. Primary and secondary sources of collecting data were used. Historical method allowed enquiry into the past events and improvement to the current experience. Both published and unpublished theses were used. Interview was also conducted as part of the secondary sources. It was observed that all aspects of the system in Nigeria were affected with this scourge of religious unrest. i.e. education, political, economic and a host of others. Finally, it was recommended that religious leaders should be given adequate orientation on the needs not to preach against other religious groups. Government of Nigeria should not give priority to one religion at the expense of others.

Keywords: insurgency, national unity, religious, threat

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25 An Analyze on ISIS Terror Organization: The Reasons That Emerged ISIS and Its Effects on Both Local and Global Security

Authors: Serkan Kocapinar

Abstract:

Since June 2014, the extremist terrorist group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, with its financial resources, as well as the world’s richest in terms of human resources, is a terrorist organization utilizing the most advanced weapons. It has established a state in the occupied region, appointed provincial and district managers, and declared the so-called Caliphate. Despite being a terrorist organization, it is selling the oil which it has seized from the captured regions with low prices. Consequently, it has been achieving great income from these sales. Currently the actual number of terrorists in the area is around from 20,000 to 31,000 according to the CIA assessment. It is estimated that it has extended its domain beyond from the Middle East to the Asia-Pacific coast and has had millions of supporters worldwide. In addition, it is claimed that it has several sleeper cells in some countries and could perform very catastrophic attacks to the countries fighting against it by activating its cells when necessary. The sharp rise of ISIS in just a year has also attracted the attention of terrorist groups such as Boko Haram around the world and some groups expressed their allegiance to ISIS. With this growing power and influence, ISIS is becoming more and more effective threat for not only the region but also for the entire world. The purpose of this study is to show what lies under the rising of ISIS terror organization and how it affects the security concerns.

Keywords: ISIS, security, terrorism, threats

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24 Interrogating the Impact of Insurgency Attacks on Vulnerable Groups in West Africa: Implications for Global Security

Authors: Godiya Atsiya Pius

Abstract:

The recent dimension of terrorist attacks and violence in West Africa and Nigeria in particular has attracted both academic and global concerns. Children, young girls and women are now victims of violent attacks and insurgency in their own country. Today, we have a reverse situation where women and children were spared during violence in the past. Empirical evidence shows that millions of children, young girls and women are caught up in violent attacks in which they are not merely spectatorial, but victims of circumstance. Some fall victims of a general onslaught against civilians by the drivers of such conflicts. Others die as part of a calculated genocide. Still others are taken as hostages as part of a deliberate attack on them. With particular reference to over 200 Chibok school girls that were abducted by the Boko Haram Islamic sect in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria, this study shall attempt a theoretical exploration of the circumstances surrounding the insurgency attacks on these categories of vulnerable groups in Nigeria. This paper also intends to examine the nature, dimensions, causes, effects as well as implications of these attacks on women and children in West Africa. The paper shall sum up with conclusion and possible recommendations that could help the region in the 21st century and beyond.

Keywords: insurgency, gender, violence, security, vulnerable groups

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23 Political Economy of Ungoverned Spaces and Rural Armed Banditry in Nigeria

Authors: Collins Ogbu, Godwin Johnny Akpan, James NDA Jacob

Abstract:

The debilitating outcomes of violent conflict, consummated by rural armed banditry have nonetheless, occasioned the need for the mapping of crime zones in Nigeria. As a step towards understanding the scourge of armed bandits, ungoverned spaces have been uncovered as the most dominant excuse for rural crimes and fierce confrontations. From the creeks of the Niger Delta to the forest of Sambisa, Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) have proliferated to the vagaries of national insecurity. While the trends present indications of State fragility, the paucity of governance in these so-called ungoverned spaces has persistently reflected a Hobbesian state of nature, where the fittest survives. This study, therefore, interrogates the demographic implications of these ungoverned spaces by specifically identifying the most immediate features of the characters in the areas under investigation. The Farmers-Herders Crises, Niger-Delta Militancy, Boko-Haram Insurgency, Armed Robbery, Kidnapping and Cattle Rustling all define the major focus. In undertaking this study, anecdotal sources will be relied on, while extant information on the concept of ungoverned spaces will be content-analyzed. It is hoped that the knowledge gathered, as a result, will ultimately aid in proffering a dependable panacea to the crises of rural armed banditry in Nigeria.

Keywords: ungoverned spaces, rural armed banditry, state fragility, conflicts

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22 Radical Islam and Transnational Security: West Africa and the Asia Pacific in View

Authors: Olumide A. Fafore, Khondlo Mtshali

Abstract:

The beginning of the 21st century saw the emergence of new and global threats to national and transnational security in West Africa and the Asia Pacific regions as a result of the spread of jihadist terrorism across borders, a manifestation of the rise of radical Islam. Extremist and armed Islamic movements influenced by Salafism, the Jihad in Afghanistan and the Muslim Brotherhood are prevalent in Northern Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Mali, Chad, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India. Carrying out attacks across borders, including assassinations, murders, armed robberies, and kidnapping, assisted by open and porous borders and large flow of illegal immigrants across borders. This paper examines the effect of Radical Islam on Transnational security through a review of past literature and the social and security consequences on the people of the regions. Our findings indicate that the activities of armed Islamic movements such as Boko Haram, Ansaru and Al-Qaeda are having a negative impact on the economy, development, and security of the states and people of West Africa and the Asia Pacific. It stresses the importance of regional, transnational and international cooperation, as these threats to national and transnational security can no longer be solved in a national or regional framework.

Keywords: Islamic movements, jihadist terrorism, radical Islam, transnational security

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