Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: femininity

39 The Story of a Spoiled Identity: Blogging on Disability and Feminity

Authors: Anna Ślebioda

Abstract:

The paper discusses intersections between disability and femininity. Their imbrication may impede negotiation of identity. The analysis of a blog of a women with disability aims to prove this hypothesis. It involves 724 entries written in the span of six years. The conceptual framework for the considerations constitute the concepts of stigma and spoiled identity, and overlapping elements of femininity and disability. The empirical part comprises content analysis. It allows to locate the narrative on femininity and disability within the dimensions of imbricated categories described in the theoretical part. The results demonstrate aspects to consider in further research on identity in women with disabilities.

Keywords: disability, femininity, spoiled identity, stigma

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38 The Influence of Masculinity and Femininity on Lucid Dreaming and Psychosis Proneness

Authors: Anum Atiq, Haya Fatimah

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Lucid dream is a dream where one is aware that one is dreaming, and they also might be able to influence their dreaming states. Logically, since lucidity cues towards high awareness, it should be negatively associated with proneness to psychosis. However, this association is scarcely studied. Furthermore, although gender differences and similarities in psychopathology have been thoroughly studied, there is room for research in the influence of masculinity and femininity, regardless of one’s sex, on proneness to psychosis. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) We investigated if dream lucidity was negatively associated with psychosis proneness; and 2) We explored the influence of masculinity and femininity on psychosis proneness, over and above the sex. Data were collected by convenience sampling from the undergraduate students enrolled at the University of Management and Technology, Lahore. The sample consisted of 53 students among the age range of 18-26 (men=24, women=29). Masculinity and femininity were measured using the masculinity and femininity subscales of the Personality Attributes Questionnaire. Dream lucidity was measured with The Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams Scale; and the reality testing sub scale of The Inventory of Personality Organization was used to measure proneness to psychosis. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that psychosis proneness was significantly and negatively correlated with dream lucidity-insight and negative emotion in dreams, but not with other aspects of dream lucidity. Furthermore, masculinity, in both men and women, was positively related with lucid dreaming, and negatively with psychosis proneness. Following this, linear regression analysis showed that psychosis proneness was negatively predicted by masculinity even after controlling for gender. Lucid dreamer and masculinity both have characteristic of independence, emotional control and internal locus of control. Therefore, masculinity makes lucid dreaming less risk of psychosis in both genders.

Keywords: lucid dreaming, psychosis, gender, masculinity and femininity

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37 The Effect of the Pronunciation of Emphatic Sounds on Perceived Masculinity/Femininity

Authors: M. Sayyour, M. Abdulkareem, O. Osman, S. Salmeh

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Emphatic sounds in Arabic are /tˤ/, /sˤ/, /dˤ/, and /ðˤ/. They involve a secondary articulation in the pharynx area as opposed to their counterparts: /t/,/s/,/d/and /ð/. Although they are present in most Arabic dialects, some dialects have lost this class as a historical development, such as Maltese Arabic. It has been found that there is a difference in the pronunciation of these emphatic sounds between the two genders, arguing that males tend to produce more evident emphasis than females. This study builds on these studies by trying to investigate whether listeners perceive fully emphatic sounds as more masculine and less emphatic sounds as more feminine. Furthermore, the study aims to find out which is more important in this perception process: the emphatic consonant itself or the vowel following it. To test this, natural and manipulated tokens of two male and two female speakers were used. The natural tokens include words that have emphatic consonant and emphatic vowel and tokens that have plain consonant and plain vowel. The manipulated tokens include words that have emphatic consonant but central vowel and plain consonant followed by the same central vowel. These manipulated tokens allow us to see whether the consonant will still affect the perception even if the vowel is controlled. Another group of words that contained no emphatic sounds was used as a control group. The total number of tokens (natural, manipulated, and control) are 160 tokens. After that, 60 university students (30 males and 30 females) listened to these tokens and responded by choosing a specific character that they think is likely to produce each token. The characters’ descriptions are carefully written with two degrees of femininity and two degrees of masculinity. The preliminary results for the femininity level showed that the highest degree of femininity was for tokens that contain a plain consonant and a plain vowel. The lowest level of femininity was given for tokens that have fully emphatic consonant and vowel. For the manipulated tokens that contained plain consonant and central vowel, the femininity degree was high which indicates that the consonant is more important than the vowel, while for the manipulated tokens that contain emphatic consonant and a central vowel, the femininity level was higher than that for the tokens that have emphatic consonant and emphatic vowel, which indicates that the vowel is more important for the perception of emphatic consonants. These results are interpreted in light of feminist linguistic theories, linguistic expectations, performed gender and linguistic change theories.

Keywords: Emphatic sounds, gender studies, perception, sociophonetics

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36 Gender Differences in Adolescent Avatars: Gender Consistency and Masculinity-Femininity of Nicknames and Characters

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Małgorzata Holda

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Choosing an avatar's gender in a computer game is one of the key elements in the process of creating an online identity. The selection of a male or female avatar can define the entirety of subsequent decisions regarding both appearance and behavior. However, when the most popular games available for the Nintendo console in 1998 were analyzed, it turned out that 41% of computer games did not have female characters. Nowadays, players create their avatars based mainly on binary gender classification, with male and female characters to choose from. The main aim of the poster is to explore gender differences in adolescent avatars. 130 adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They created their avatars and then played a computer game. The creation of the avatar was based on the choice of gender, then physical and mental characteristics. Data on gender consistency (consistency between participant’s sex and gender selected for the avatar) and masculinity-femininity of avatar nicknames and appearance will be presented. The masculinity-femininity of avatar nicknames and appearance was assessed by expert raters on a very masculine to very feminine scale. Additionally, data on the relationships of the perceived levels of masculinity-femininity with hostility-friendliness and the intelligence of avatars will be shown. The dimensions of hostility-friendliness and intelligence were also assessed by expert raters on scales ranging from very hostile to very friendly and from very low intelligence to very high intelligence.

Keywords: gender, avatar, adolescence, computer games

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35 Out of the Shadows: Constructing a Female Gaze in Neo-Noir: Exegesis and Screenplay, The Lonely Drive

Authors: Jade Bitomsky

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We all consume films on a daily basis. Yet, we frequently fail to recognize that these narratives shape our social, political, cultural, and economic values and attitudes. Narratives influence our perception; specifically, for this research, our perception of women within the genre of film noir. This creative research project examines to what extent film noir has perpetuated the male gaze and how noir’s representation of women has scripted female gender identity through perpetuated performative acts of femininity. Evolving from this research will be a deconstruction and (re)presentation of the femininity in noir. It will go beyond reiterated examinations, which developed awareness of Hollywood’s oppressive cinematic structures, to subvert the usual phallic diegesis and construct a female gaze in neo-noir screenplay, The Lonely Drive.

Keywords: femme fatale, film noir (classic), male gaze, neo-noir (contemporary), scopophilia

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34 A Quantitative Study Investigating Whether the Internalisation of Adolescent Femininity Ideologies Predicts Depression and Anxiety in Female Adolescents

Authors: Tondani Mudau, Sherine B. Van Wyk, Zuhayr Kafaar, Janan Dietrich

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Female adolescents residing in a patriarchal society such as South Africa are more inclined to embrace feminine ideologies. Internalizing these ideologies may expose female adolescents to mental health challenges such as depression and anxiety. This study explored whether the internalisation of adolescent femininity ideologies namely, objectified relationship with own body (ORB) and inauthentic self in relationships (ISR) predicted anxiety and depression in late female adolescents at Stellenbosch University. The sample of the study consisted of 1451 (18-24) female undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled at Stellenbosch University. The mean age of the participants was 20 (SD=1.46), and most participants (39.7%) were first-year students. The study employed a cross-sectional quantitative research design. Data was collected through an online self-completion survey, the survey consisted of three sections, the first section asked biographical questions regarding age, gender, race and family background. The second section measured the internalisation of feminine ideologies by using the adolescent femininity ideology scale which has two subscales namely inauthentic self in relationship with others (ISR) and objectified relationship with one’s own body (ORB). The ISR scale had the Cronbach Alpha of 0.76, and the ORB scale had the Cronbach Alpha of 0.83. The third section measured mental health (depression and anxiety) by using the Hopkins Symptoms 25-checklist which had the Cronbach Alpha of 0.93. Data were analysed through multiple linear regression from IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 24). The overall results of the multiple linear regression showed that The AFIS combination accounted for 14% for anxiety as measured by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist R² = .142, F (2, 682) = 56.431, p < .001. The combination also accounted for 24% for depression as measured by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist R² = .239, F (2, 682) = 106.971, p < .0. The findings in this study affirm the objectification and feminist theory contentions that internalising femininity ideologies (ISR and ORB) predict negative mental health in female adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, anxiety, depression, feminine ideologies, inauthentic self, mental health, self-objectification, South Africa

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33 Hysterectomy and Symbolic Damage: When the Desire for Motherhood is Reactivated in a Nun

Authors: Ndje Ndje Mireille

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The improvement in the physical aspects of hysterectomy has tended to make us forget the psychological burden of this operation for many women. African women closely associate fertility and femininity, and they fear that their desire will diminish, that they will be less desirable after having undergone a hysterectomy. Medicine may be tempted to trivialize this surgical intervention by relying on the evolution of current surgery that leaves little or no marks. It is possible to think that the uterus is useless for a nun who has decided to freely disregard her motherhood. We used the clinical research method for this study. Through a semi-directive interview guide, we collected the verbatims of an hysterectomized catholic nun. The verbatims were transcribed and analyzed with the thematic content analysis. This analysis shows that the medical reality does not always correspond to the subjective experience of women, for whom hysterectomy can imply strong symbolic damage. The uterus is not essential to life, but it is essential to give life, and this lack can reactivate a desire for motherhood. The experience of hysterectomy is unique for each woman in relation to her history. This operation will eliminate all hope of pregnancy; it will be felt as intimate mutilation and an attack on femininity, it will bring up concerns about sexuality. Even if a woman has past the age of having children, has gone through menopause, or has freely decided not to have children, she still find it difficult to accept this procedure. The lack of uterus make a woman feel useless.

Keywords: hysterectomy, symbolic damage, desire for motherhood, feminity, nun

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32 Flying Women in Chinese Folklore – Male Narrator’s Rejection of Gender Role Division in Patriarchal Societies

Authors: Emma H. Zhang

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In Women Who Fly (2018), Serinity Young connects tales and legends of flying women in Greco-Roman, Indo-European, Mesopotamian, and Asian cultures with ancient matriarchal bird goddesses and argues that tales of flying women are reminiscent of the rituals and rites related to the worship of goddesses in pre-patriarchal times and that flying women, including swan maidens, harpies, fairies, and witches are “abnormal women” because they reject patriarchal order, defy, and desert their domestic roles. Tales of flying women in Chinese folklore, exemplified by the story of The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl, replicated in countless tales that depicts the courtship between a mortal man and a divine or magical woman suggest otherwise. In these tales, the divine woman exhibits idealized Confucian femininity and fulfills the needs of the male protagonist by providing him with marriage, children, social status, and financial affluence. This paper argues that the flying women in Chinese folklores are not a symbol of defiance but are exemplars that embodyideal Confucian femininity. These tales are instead a reflection of male rejection of gender division in patriarchal societies. The male protagonists, like the male storytellers, reject the necessity to pursue and provide for women in courtship and marriage. Though these tales show their authors’ and readers’ discontent with gender role division, they do not subvert the patriarchal social order but rather offers an escape through fantasy.

Keywords: bird goddess, folklore, gender role division, patriarchy

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31 Queer Lesbian Experience within Chinese Girl's Love Manga Fandom: An Qualitative Study of Sexuality among Chinese Yuri Fans

Authors: Ka Yi Yeung

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Yuri is a manga culture which refers to the works (manga, literature, TV shows) that depict the intimacy between two girls. It is originally a Japanese culture which then implanted in Chinese fandom after the airing of Maria-sama ga Miteru. There has been a growing fanbase of Yuri culture and most of them are attracted by the subtle and sentimental relationship between girls. The culture is characterized by the spiritual bonding and interactions within girls. A high proportion of female fans in Chinese Yuri community was recorded, and Yamibo forum is their major site for socializing and discussion on Yuri’s work. There is a high tendency that female Yuri fans engaged in a homosexual relationship. However, they seldom directly address themselves as lesbian but non-heterosexual. It is due to the fact that Yuri fans community largely disagrees with the butch-femme role in the mainstream lesbianism. Within Chinese Yuri community, femininity is highly being appreciated. Members with high degree of feminine characteristics are popular among fans community. Besides, since the fans community-based at the online forum, there has been a high tendency that members developed the long-distance relationship. From the in-depth interviews of the research, Yuri fans are mostly pessimistic towards their relationship due to the social and geographical barriers, yet at the same time, they do not lose hope in searching for their true love. This research explored how Chinese Yuri fans challenge the homonormativity in mainstream lesbianism and how they construct their sexual identity through varies discourses on sexuality and homosexual experience.

Keywords: Chinese fandom, femininity, gender, homonormativity, Japanese manga, lesbianism, sexuality, queer culture

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30 A Deleuzean Feminist Analysis of the Everyday, Gendered Performances of Teen Femininity: A Case Study on Snaps and Selfies in East London

Authors: Christine Redmond

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This paper contributes to research on gendered, digital identities by exploring how selfies offer scope for disrupting and moving through gendered and racial ideals of feminine beauty. The selfie involves self-presentation, filters, captions, hashtags, online publishing, likes and more, constituting the relationship between subjectivity, practice and social use of selfies a complex process. Employing qualitative research methods on youth selfies in the UK, the author investigates interdisciplinary entangling between studies of social media and fields within gender, media and cultural studies, providing a material discursive treatment of the selfie as an embodied practice. Drawing on data collected from focus groups with teenage girls in East London, the study explores how girls experience and relate to selfies and snaps in their everyday lives. The author’s Deleuzean feminist approach suggests that bodies and selfies are not individual, disembodied entities between which there is a mediating inter-action. Instead, bodies and selfies are positioned as entangled to a point where it becomes unclear as to where a selfie ends and a body begins. Recognising selfies not just as images but as material and social assemblages opens up possibilities for unpacking the selfie in ways that move beyond the representational model in some studies of socially mediated digital images. The study reveals how the selfie functions to enable moments of empowerment within limiting, dominant ideologies of Euro-centrism, patriarchy and heteronormativity.

Keywords: affect theory, femininity, gender, heteronormativity, photography, selfie, snapchat

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29 The Cut, the Blood and Her Stained Femininity- an Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation

Authors: Indu Poornima

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This paper aims at understanding the Socio-historical, political and economic dimensions of Female Genital Mutilation in Africa. After throwing light on the definition of FGM and scrutinizing the misconceptions associated with it, the paper progresses to analyze the following questions. a) How do communities performing FGM rationalize their act? b) Are the victims (women) themselves the strongest proponents of FGM ? and c) Are legislations against FGM by international organizations counter-productive?

Keywords: female genital mutilation, Africa, rationalizing the act, international legislations

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28 Embracing Complex Femininity: A Comparative Analysis of the Representation of Female Sexuality in John Webster and William Faulkner

Authors: Elisabeth Pedersen

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Representations and interpretations of womanhood and female sexualities bring forth various questions regarding gender norms, and the implications of these norms, which are permeating and repetitive within various societies. Literature is one form of media which provides the space to represent and interpret women, their bodies, and sexualities, and also reveals the power of language as an affective and affected force. As literature allows an opportunity to explore history and the representations of gender, power dynamics, and sexuality through historical contexts, this paper uses engaged theory through a comparative analysis of two work of literature, The Duchess of Malfi by John Wester, and The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner. These novels span across space and time, which lends to the theory that repetitive tropes of womanhood and female sexuality in literature are influenced by and have an influence on the hegemonic social order throughout history. It analyzes how the representation of the dichotomy of male chivalry and honor, and female purity are disputed and questioned when a woman is portrayed as sexually emancipated, and explores the historical context in which these works were written to examine how socioeconomic events challenged the hegemonic social order. The analysis looks at how stereotypical ideals of womanhood and manhood have damaging implications on women, as the structure of society provides more privilege and power to men than to women, thus creating a double standard for men and women in regards to sexuality, sexual expression, and rights to sexual desire. This comparative analysis reveals how strict gender norms are permeating and have negative consequences. However, re-reading stories through a critical lens can provide an opportunity to challenge the repetitive tropes of female sexuality, and thus lead to the embrace of the complexity of female sexuality and expression.

Keywords: femininity, literature, representation, sexuality

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27 The Coverage of Women's Sport of Greek Sports Websites

Authors: Eleni Tsalkatidou

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Despite the fact that women's sport has flourished in recent years, its media coverage remains low, as it is observed that every day men’s sports stories dominate the most popular sports websites and the same doesn’t apply to women. Many studies in the past have demonstrated that the participation of women in sport is greatly underrepresented in the media and even when it does get covered, the focus is often on femininity and attractiveness, not athleticism. This means that female athletes are often portrayed in a sexist manner and, in general, they are more deserving of media coverage as celebrities rather than because of their sporting achievements. Scholars have argued that sport is a place where sexism is cultivated, as gender roles are constructed and disputed based on social context. Although images and information about women athletes are now more than ever, thanks to Social Media where they also act as 'producers', sport is still considered as «masculine». There are many reasons why this happens, the most important of which are: a. It is considered that females don’t have the physical and athletic qualifications such as men and b. Women's sport is less commercial than men’s, so the interest is lower. Moreover, scholars have pointed out that men journalists/reporters don’t cover the women’s sport: it is more common for a woman to write about a women's sport or a female athlete. This has its roots in the conception that sport is synonymous with masculinity - which is defined as the opposite of femininity – and so if men deal with women’s sport, this will probably menace their association with masculinity. Given the above, this paper seeks to examine the amount of women’s sport coverage of five Greek popular sports websites (metrosport.gr, gazzeta.gr, sport24.gr, sdna.gr, sport-fm.gr). The posted articles from these Greek websites from January to June 2020 were selected for my content analysis, which will be used to categorize the themes in order that the following research questions could be answered: 1) Are there any articles that cover women's sports or that refer to female athletes?, 2) And if so, are they articles/reports or is it a reproduction of the press release?, 3) What kind of sports do they refer to (individual-team sport)?, 4) Are the articles signed? And if so, are they written by men or women?, 5) What textual practices are used to cover women's sport/female athletes?, 6) Based on the findings, could we argue that we have entered a new age of media coverage of women’s sport in Greece with a shift towards greater gender equality or not?

Keywords: Coverage, Greek websites, Sport, Women

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26 Sex Positions Decisions and Negotiations of Sexual Pleasure and Gender in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Chimaraoke O. Izugbara

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Based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men, the paper explores how knowing more about the factors that trigger sex positions decisions advance knowledge of male and female sexuality, and how these translate into higher levels of female sexual negotiations in Ghana. Findings demonstrated that the willingness to perform sex positions or not were gendered and derive, at least in part, from differences in demographic profiles (such as age, gender, and marriage), beliefs associated with sexual practices (such as anal sex), the desire to maximize sexual pleasure, and sexual myths and misconceptions e.g. fear of infecundity. The women were not passive to sex positions decisions and engaged in a dialogical sexual encounter with men including threats of sexual refusal in negotiating sex.

Keywords: sexual positions, sexual pleasure, masculinity, femininity, Ghana

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25 Dance Skirts As Strategy For Gender Equality Work In Swedish Preschools Dance Education

Authors: Martha Pastorek Gripson, Anna Lindqvist

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The research project points at, and discusses, strategies, problems and possibilities when preschool teachers describe their work with dance in two Swedish preschools. The use of dance itself is a strategy for a more inclusive preschool practice and the use of so-called “dance skirts” is regarded as central for facilitating both dance qualities and to promote gender equality. The research is carried out in an action research project, involving two preschools with specific focus on gender equality work. The result problematizes the use of so-called “dance skirts”, as those can be both a tool for appreciation of aesthetics associated with femininity but at the same time create dance mainly as ballet related activity.

Keywords: dance, body, education, preschool, gender

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24 Contradictive Representation of Women in Postfeminist Japanese Media

Authors: Emiko Suzuki

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Although some claim that we are in a post-feminist society, the word “postfeminism” still raises questions to many. In postfeminist media, as a British sociologist Rosalind Gill points out, on the one hand, it seems to promote an empowering image of women who are active, positively sexually motivated, has free will to make market choices, and have surveillance and discipline for their personality and body, yet on the other hand, such beautiful and attractive feminist image imposes stronger surveillance of their mind and body for women. Similar representation, which is that femininity is described in a contradictive way, is seen in Japanese media as well. This study tries to capture how post-feminist Japanese media is, contrary to its ostensible messages, encouraging women to join the obedience to the labor system by affirming the traditional image of attractive women using sexual objectification and promoting values of neoliberalism. The result shows an interesting insight into how Japanese media is creating a conflicting ideal representation of women through repeatedly exposing such images.

Keywords: postfeminism, Japanese media, sexual objectification, embodiment

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23 Renegotiating the Filipino Bakla Culture: A Semiotic Analysis of Drag Performance in Eat Bulaga’s Kalye Serye

Authors: Ruepert Jiel Cao

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This study explores the renegotiation of bakla culture in Philippine media in the context of Kalye Serye segment of the popular Filipino noontime variety show Eat Bulaga. Although the term “bakla” is usually translated to “gay” or “homosexual male” in English, they do not mean the same. The western notion of a gay refers to a male person attracted to another male person but still retains the masculine physical attributes. However, the bakla embodies loudness, femininity, and transvestitism. Hence, a bakla is a gay man aspiring to be a woman by assuming feminine actions and appearance, a definition much closer to a transgender. The Philippine media usually employs the bakla culture in comedy programs. The bakla nowadays is usually associated with the people of lower economic strata and carries a pathological connotation. The Filipino television program Eat Bulaga, which has been airing for more than 36 years, is fond of using bakla in comedy. However, the recently launched segment entitled Kalye Serye (literally “Street [Television] Series”), while still employing drag performance to incorporate bakla culture in comedy, renegotiates the bakla culture by deviating from the stereotypical notion of bakla. In this study, this researcher asks: (1) How does Kalye Serye renegotiate the Filipino concept of bakla in terms of economic aspirations and social norms? (2) How does Kalye Serye reappropriate the bakla culture to fit non-comedic performances? The study examines 15 purposively selected Kalye Serye episodes. Seven were selected from the Thursday episodes, seven from Saturday episodes, and the Lenten special episode. These were selected to cover as many characters and different character roles as possible. Data was constructed by identifying and coding the roles, physical appearance and gestures, and key dialogs of the characters. A total of six female characters played by three different male actors were examined. Semiotic analysis using semiotics of Roland Barthes was performed to produce a reading of the characters. Findings show that through physical appearance, the characters associate bakla with the economic affluence through the use of expensive-looking clothes, jewelries, cars, and elaborate gestures. This represents a new economic but old western aspiration of the bakla. In terms of social norms, the characters try to revive the traditional concepts of femininity, courtship, and respect, values which are touted to be lost in the current generation of Filipinos. This is quite ironic because while there is a seemingly tolerant attitude towards all forms of queerness, the bakla is considered immoral and yet, the bakla is used to teach about morality and values. Finally, the characters break the traditional association of the bakla with slapstick comedy and their roles are reappropriated to suit dramatic roles. By refraining from portraying the bakla in ridiculous manner (physically and in terms of roles), the bakla lends itself well in the performance of dramatic roles and their ridiculous and pathological associations removed. Future research may include other Filipino or Asian portrayals of queerness to get a better understanding of how queerness is incorporated in contemporary popular culture.

Keywords: bakla, drag performance, popular culture, queer representation

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22 Gender, Agency, and Health: An Exploratory Study Using an Ethnographic Material for Illustrative Reasons

Authors: S. Gustafsson

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The aim of this paper is to explore the connection between gender, agency, and health on personal and social levels over time. The use of gender as an analytical tool for health research has been shown to be useful to explore thoughts and ideas that are taken for granted, which have relevance for health. The paper highlights the following three issues. There are multiple forms of femininity and masculinity. Agency and social structure are closely related and referred to in this paper as 'gender agency'. Gender is illuminated as a product of history but also treated as a social factor and a producer of history. As a prominent social factor in the process of shaping living conditions, gender is highlighted as being significant for understanding health. To make health explicit as a dynamic and complex concept and not merely the opposite of disease requires a broader alliance with feminist theory and a post-Bourdieusian framework. A personal story, included with other ethnographic material about women’s networking in rural Sweden, is used as an empirical illustration. Ethnographic material was chosen for its ability to illustrate historical, local, and cultural ways of doing gendered and capitalized health. New concepts characterize ethnography, exemplified in this study by 'processes of transformation'. The semi-structured interviews followed an interview guide drafted with reference to the background theory of gender. The interviews lasted about an hour and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcribed interviews and the author’s field notes formed the basis for the writing up of this paper. Initially, the participants' interests in weaving, sewing, and various handicrafts became obvious foci for networking activities and seemed at first to shape compliance with patriarchy, which generally does the opposite of promoting health. However, a significant event disrupted the stability of this phenomenon. What was permissible for the women began to crack and new spaces opened up. By exploiting these new spaces, the participants found opportunities to try out alternatives to emphasized femininity. Over time, they began combining feminized activities with degrees of masculinity, as leadership became part of the activities. In response to this, masculine enactment was gradually transformed and became increasingly gender neutral. As the tasks became more gender neutral the activities assumed a more formal character and the women stretched the limits of their capacity by enacting gender agency, a process the participants referred to as 'personal growth' and described as health promotion. What was described in terms of 'personal growth' can be interpreted as the effects of a raised status. Participation in women’s networking strengthened the participants’ structural position. More specifically, it was the gender-neutral position that was rewarded. To clarify the connection between gender, agency, and health on personal and social levels over time the concept processes of transformation is used. This concept is suggested as a dynamic equivalent to habitus. Health is thus seen as resulting from situational access to social recognition, prestige, capital assets and not least, meanings of gender.

Keywords: a cross-gender bodily hexis, gender agency, gender as analytical tool, processes of transformation

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21 Sexual Violence and Persecution That Occurred at the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic Boarding School

Authors: Siamrotul Ayu Masruroh

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Cases of sexual violence among Islamic boarding schools have now reached a point of equal concern with other cases of sexual violence that have occurred in universities, schools, offices, mass halls, and even churches. Worse yet, several cases of sexual violence that occurred in Islamic boarding schools were actually carried out by religious authorities such as kyai, caregivers, and ndalem families. This article discusses the phenomenon of cases of sexual violence and mistreatment of victims with cases that occurred in the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic boarding school, the importance of creating a safe space, preventing and dealing with sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools. The author uses the theory of masculinity from Raewyn W. Connell to see sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools and its relation to masculinity and femininity. In addition, the author also uses the spiral theory of violence from Dom Helder Camara to analyze the persecution case. The author conducted a literature study, observation, questionnaire, and interviews in the process of this research.

Keywords: sexual violence, islamic boarding school, safe space, women

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20 Fashion Magazines in Spain: History and Evolution

Authors: Ana María Velasco Molpeceres

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With this work, we try to offer a complete digest of female fashion magazines edited in Spain from the XVIII century to today. During the XIX century Spain developed an important journalistic industry and the feminine press was very popular. In addition, a lot of women wrote and directed fashion magazines which tried to improve women’s status and education. In the XX century, fashion magazines reflected the ideological conflicts and the history of Spain. Before the Civil War (1936-1939), women get many rights and the modernization was clear. In the Franco’s dictatorship, fashion magazines portrayed ideals of a conservative femininity. But, in the sixties, the media helped to connect Spain with the rest of the world, being at the same time under the censorship of the regime. After the dictatorship, fashion was a very important part of the Transition’s culture and the ‘Movida’ (reflected in Almodovar’s films) contributed and expressed the new ideals of citizenship for men and women. Fashion magazines showed the changes of the society. In the XXI century, today, these magazines are a part of a global culture and Vogue or Elle live with Spanish magazines as Telva or Hola. The objective of this research is to study the history, meaning and evolution of the fashion magazines in Spain. And, of course, the ideal of women reflected on them.

Keywords: fashion, Spain, magazines, women

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19 Fixing the Identity Gap in Fashion: Magazines' Role in Consumption of Clothes

Authors: Kateryna Pilyarchuk

Abstract:

A dress has, since times immemorial, been used to communicate the wearer’s identity. When a new trend is born, fashionistas buy it not only with the purpose to beautify themselves, but also to acquire the collective identity. Fashion has become a means of narrating one’s stance and status. Thus, when one spends money on a brand, one pays for some unmaterial components associated with it. This paper will present some ways in which fashion magazines promote consumerism by drawing on women’s craving for collective identity and need to fill in their identity gap by means of a purchase. By applying the method of critical discursive psychology, it will present layers of ideology and positions that become visible in framing of the message in U.S. Harper’s Bazaar. In this context, fashion decisions that are presented to its readers will be critically evaluated from the gender perspective. It will be demonstrated that what is presented as a postfeminist choice in the neoliberal society is still, to a considerable extent, oppressive and driven by the male gaze. As the findings show, the contemporary female identities in fashion are still built on the principles of traditional femininity. Magazines and fashion discourse train women that they should fear being left out of fashion and, by extension, out of the category of the sexually appealing (from the male perspective).

Keywords: collective identity, critical discursive psychology, fashion discourse, identity gap

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18 A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Gender Representation on Health and Fitness Magazine Cover Pages

Authors: Nashwa Elyamany

Abstract:

In visual cultures, namely that of the United States, media representations are such influential and pervasive reflections of societal norms and expectations to the extent that they impact the manner in which both genders view themselves. Health and fitness magazines fall within the realm of visual culture. Since the main goal of communication is to ensure proper dissemination of information in order for the target audience to grasp the intended messages, it becomes imperative that magazine publishers, editors, advertisers and image producers use different modes of communication within their reach to convey messages to their readers and viewers. A rapid waxing flow of multimodality floods popular discourse, particularly health and fitness magazine cover pages. The use of well-crafted cover lines and visual images is imbued with agendas, consumerist ideologies and properties capable of effectively conveying implicit and explicit meaning to potential readers and viewers. In essence, the primary goal of this thesis is to interrogate the multi-semiotic operations and manifestations of hegemonic masculinity and femininity in male and female body culture, particularly on the cover pages of the twin American magazines Men's Health and Women's Health using corpora that spanned from 2011 to the mid of 2016. The researcher explores the semiotic resources that contribute to shaping and legitimizing a new form of postmodern, consumerist, gendered discourse that positions the reader-viewer ideologically. Methodologically, the researcher carries out analysis on the macro and micro levels. On the macro level, the researcher takes on a critical stance to illuminate the ideological nature of the multimodal ensemble of the cover pages, and, on the micro level, seeks to put forward new theoretical and methodological routes through which the semiotic choices well invested on the media texts can be more objectively scrutinized. On the macro level, a 'themes' analysis is initially conducted to isolate the overarching themes that dominate the fitness discourse on the cover pages under study. It is argued that variation in terms of frequencies of such themes is indicative, broadly speaking, of which facets of hegemonic masculinity and femininity are infused in the fitness discourse on the cover pages. On the micro level, this research work encompasses three sub-levels of analysis. The researcher follows an SF-MMDA approach, drawing on a trio of analytical frameworks: Halliday's SFG for the verbal analysis; Kress & van Leeuween's VG for the visual analysis; and CMT in relation to Sperber & Wilson's RT for the pragma-cognitive analysis of multimodal metaphors and metonymies. The data is presented in terms of detailed descriptions in conjunction with frequency tables, ANOVA with alpha=0.05 and MANOVA in the multiple phases of analysis. Insights and findings from this multi-faceted, social-semiotic analysis are interpreted in light of Cultivation Theory, Self-objectification Theory and the literature to date. Implications for future research include the implementation of a multi-dimensional approach whereby linguistic and visual analytical models are deployed with special regards to cultural variation.

Keywords: gender, hegemony, magazine cover page, multimodal discourse analysis, multimodal metaphor, multimodal metonymy, systemic functional grammar, visual grammar

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17 Cross Cultural Challenges in International Projects: A Comparative Study between Indian and French

Authors: Niranjani Ruba Pandian

Abstract:

In today’s multicultural global business community, most of the businesses and industries are linked with various countries in which different nationalities have different roles and responsibilities throughout the project. The purpose of this research is to examine the cross-cultural challenges between Indian and French and the ways to minimize these challenges to manage effectively the cross-cultural aspect of human resources for the success of global business in an automotive industry. The conducted study utilized quantitative methodology to analyze the data on Indian and French employees' perceptions of 6 cultural dimensions such as power versus distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty versus avoidance, pragmatic versus normative and indulgence versus restraint. Employees of 4 multinational companies filled in the questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale to present quantitative results. The data was analysed with the correlation and multiple regression statistical analyses. It was found that Indian and French have major gap in uncertainty versus avoidance followed by individualism versus collectivism. However, this article highlights the way to minimize these gaps by adopting certain sequenced methodologies.

Keywords: automotive industry, cross cultural challenges, globalization, global business

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16 Understanding the Complex Relationship Between Economic Independency and Intimate Partner Violence by Applying a Socio-Ecological Analysis Framework

Authors: Suzanne Bouma

Abstract:

In the Netherlands, the assumed causal relationship between employment, economic independence and individual freedom of choice has been extended to the approach of intimate partner violence (IPV). In the interests of combating IPV, it is crucial to further investigate this relationship. Based on a literature review, this article shows that the relationship between economic independence and IPV is highly complex. To unravel this complex relationship, a socio-ecological analysis framework has been applied. First, it is a layered relation, in where employment does not necessarily lead to economic independence, which can be explained by social inequalities. Second, the relation is bidirectional, where women do not by definition have access to their own financial recourses due to tactics of financial control by the intimate partner. This reveals the coexistence of IPV and economic abuse and the extent to which an intimate relationship affects the scope for individual choice. Third, there is a paradoxical relationship in which employment is both a protective and risk factor for IPV. This, in turn, cannot be separated from traditional norms about masculinity and femininity, where men occupy a position of power and derive status from being the breadwinner. These findings imply that not only the approach to IPV but also the labor market policy requires a gender-sensitive approach.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, economic independence, literature review, socio-ecological analysis framework

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15 Theocritus’ Idylls and the Serenading of Mystical Women: Toxic Modes of Seduction in Pastoral Literature

Authors: Kayla Fanning

Abstract:

Theocritus’ use of near-pastoral motifs in creating the lamenting narrative in “The Sorceress” idyll suggests a link between Simaetha and the quintessential shepherd that ultimately transcends the bucolic serenading structure, evident in “The Serenade”, as it pertains to depictions of women. In Theocritus’ “The Serenade”, an anonymous goatherd serenades his beloved, Amaryllis, in hopes of persuading her to reciprocate his love. This serenade soon turns into a vicious lament where all hope for reciprocation dissolves, leaving the goatherd severely melancholic and malignant. In “The Cyclops’ Serenade”, the cyclops, Polyphemus, sings of Galatea in solitude; in so doing, he negotiates between feelings of heartache and anger that eventually subside. His depiction of Galatea, in being less vindictive than the goatherd’s, manifests less toxicity. In adopting, and essentially creating, this serenading structure, Theocritus illustrates his ability to alter portrayals of women while maintaining the premise of the pastoral serenade; that is the shepherd's lament of his indifferent beloved. A thematic intertextual analysis of the idylls reveals a variety of ways in which the toxicity of the goatherd’s relation to Amaryllis is mutated or even inverted. In “The Sorceress”, a powerful witch named Simaetha spellbinds her unfaithful lover and angrily laments his betrayal in a way that is reminiscent of the goatherd's harmful behavior towards Amaryllis.

Keywords: femininity, pastoral, serenade, Theocritus

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14 Teaching Gender and Language in the EFL Classroom in the Arab World: Algerian Students’ Awareness of Their Gender Identities from New Perspectives

Authors: Amina Babou

Abstract:

Gender and language is a moot and miscellaneous arena in the sphere of sociolinguistics, which has been proliferated so widely and rapidly in recent years. The dawn of research on gender and foreign language education was against the feminist researchers who allowed space for the bustling concourse of voices and perspectives in the arena of gender and language differences, in the early to the mid-1970. The objective of this scrutiny is to explore to what extent teaching gender and language in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom plays a pivotal role in learning language information and skills. And the gist of this paper is to investigate how EFL students in Algeria conflate their gender identities with the linguistic practices and scholastic expertise. To grapple with the full range of issues about the EFL students’ awareness about the negotiation of meanings in the classroom, we opt for observing, interviewing, and questioning later to check using ‘how-do-you do’ procedure. The analysis of the EFL classroom discourse, from five Algerian universities, reveals that speaking strategies such as the manners students make an abrupt topic shifts, respond spontaneously to the teacher, ask more questions, interrupt others to seize control of conversations and monopolize the speaking floor through denying what others have said, do not sit very lightly on 80.4% of female students’ shoulders. The data indicate that female students display the assertive style as a strategy of learning to subvert the norms of femininity, especially in the speaking module.

Keywords: gender identities, EFL students, classroom discourse, linguistics

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13 Playing with Gender Identity through Learning English as a Foreign Language in Algeria: A Gender-Based Analysis of Linguistic Practices

Authors: Amina Babou

Abstract:

Gender and language is a moot and miscellaneous arena in the sphere of socio-linguistics, which has been proliferated so widely and rapidly in recent years. The dawn of research on gender and foreign language education was against the feminist researchers who allowed space for the bustling concourse of voices and perspectives in the arena of gender and language differences, in the early to the mid-1970. The objective of this scrutiny is to explore to what extent teaching gender and language in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom plays a pivotal role in learning language information and skills. Moreover, the gist of this paper is to investigate how EFL students in Algeria conflate their gender identities with the linguistic practices and scholastic expertise. To grapple with the full range of issues about the EFL students’ awareness about the negotiation of meanings in the classroom, we opt for observing, interviewing, and questioning later to check using ‘how-do-you do’ procedure. The analysis of the EFL classroom discourse, from five Algerian universities, reveals that speaking strategies such as the manners students make an abrupt topic shifts, respond spontaneously to the teacher, ask more questions, interrupt others to seize control of conversations and monopolize the speaking floor through denying what others have said, do not sit very lightly on 80.4% of female students’ shoulders. The data indicate that female students display the assertive style as a strategy of learning to subvert the norms of femininity, especially in the speaking module.

Keywords: EFL students, gender identity, linguistic styles, foreign language

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12 On Being a Fugitive from the State-Sponsored Witch Hunt of Homosexuals in Egypt's Media Discourse

Authors: Mahitab A. A. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Despite the international community’s galvanized efforts to achieve gender equality, the Arab world still lags behind for their sustained suppression of diversity and freedoms. In Egypt, homosexuals are defamed and hunted not only by authorities but also by politicized religious institutions and media platforms. The resultant state-sponsored homophobia is reflected in media. This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of the representation of LGBTQs in Egypt’s local news articles and movies in an attempt to investigate the underlying ideology. The results reveal a clichéd portrayal of homosexuals as a social parasite that requires cleansing by the government. LGBTQs are depicted as an outcome of debauchery, unhappy marriage, sexual deviancy, deficiency of masculinity/femininity, absence of the mother and/or father figure(s), abject poverty, excessive wealth, psychiatric disorder, debased instincts, childhood sexual molestation, immorality, deviation from religion, chaos, treason, conspiracy against the regime, to name only a few. This image, which is imposed and sustained by the state, exposes homosexuals to a violation of their human rights by both the police and the society, endangers their lives, breeds intolerance, social inequality and violence, prevents healthy coexistence; and deprives them of living a normal life.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, gender studies, homophobia, homosexuality, ideology, media studies

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11 Ama de Casa: Gender Division of Labor the Response to Environmental and Economic Constraints, Ecuador

Authors: Tyrus C. Torres, Michael Harris

Abstract:

In a coastal town of Ecuador, the role of women is commonly defined as an ama de casa, a woman who works in the house, raises children, and contributes to the community. This project, under the guidance of Dr. Michael Harris from the Florida Atlantic University, seeks to understand how the role of an ama de casa provides a secure environment for men and women, coexists with economic and environmental constraints that explain the origins of how this environment has been formed. The coastal community aspects of familia (family), trabajo (work), relación (relationships), machismo (masculinity), feminista (femininity), and the culture of Ecuador define the ways of life in a coastal setting. This ethnographic research project included the following methodologies: environment mapping, conducting interviews, surveys, participant observation, direct and indirect observations, and integration into daily life. Immersion into the daily life and building relationships with the local people allowed the documentation of intricacies of both the cultural and social spheres. The findings of this research offer insight on how culture, economics, and environment can form female and male agency. Our investigation shows that occupations such as fishermen, laborers, ama de casas, and even students utilize occupational routes to create social agency in the face of economic and environmental constraints in Ecuador.

Keywords: Ecuador, ethnography, gender division of labor, gender roles

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10 Being Funny is a Serious Business for Feminine Brands

Authors: Mohammed Murtuza Soofi

Abstract:

Purpose: Marketers and Researchers alike have simultaneously, yet in mutually exclusive instances, promote the use of humour by brands in their communication and gendering of brands, as both enhance brand equity and can generate positive attitudinal responses from customers. However, the gendering of brands comes with associated gendered stereotypical expectations. The current paper consolidates the long standing literature on gender role/stereotype theory and brand gender theories establishing a theoretical framework for understanding how gender-based stereotypes about humour can influence consumers’ attitudinal responses towards brands. Design/methodology/approach: Using parallel constrain satisfaction theory as domain theory to explain the highhandedness of stereotypes and gender stereotype theories (particularly around feminine use of humour), we explain why gender based stereotypes could constrain brand behaviors, and in turn, feminine brands get penalised for using witty, aggressive and self-enhancing humor. Findings: Extension of gender stereotypes to anthropomorphised brands will lead consumers to judge the use of negative humour by a feminine brand as less appropriate, which will trigger the causal chain of reduced sense of communal appropriateness and brand warmth which will result in a negative attitude towards the brand. Originality/value: Brand gendering being susceptible to gender based stereotypes, has very little attention in the literature and hence use of negative humour (stereotypical male behaviour), has never been studied in the context of gendered brands. It also helps understand to what extent stereotypes will impact attitudinal responses to the brand. Our work can help understand when heavily gendered brands can optimise the use of humour and when they can avoid it.

Keywords: brand femininity, brand gender, gender stereotypes, humour

Procedia PDF Downloads 99