Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 196

Search results for: colonial

196 Urban Growth Outside the Walled City of Tripoli, Libya: Two Colonial Approaches

Authors: Fathia Elmenghawi

Abstract:

The transformation of cities under colonial rule has received a great deal of scholarly work. Colonizers interpret their colonies differently and many urban and planning approaches can be traced. This paper focuses on the colonial approaches of urban expansion in the city of Tripoli, Libya during two colonial periods, the late Ottomans and the Italians, from the 1830s to 1940s. Both had perceived their approaches to the city’s expansion as means of practicing dominance over the colonized under the disguise of facilitating the process of modernization of the city. This research uses a historical method that based on archival documents such as maps, photos, and publications to uncover the planning practices followed by the two colonizers. The findings indicate that despite the similar intentions that both colonizers had when they expanded the city, one striking difference was distinguished, which is how the Ottomans and the Italians planned to treat the Walled City as, respectively, either a context for expansion or as merely remains to marginalize.

Keywords: colonial urban planning, Italian colonization, Ottoman provinces, walled city

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195 Saving the Decolonized Subject from Neglected Tropical Diseases: Public Health Campaign and Household-Centred Sanitation in Colonial West Africa, 1900-1960

Authors: Adebisi David Alade

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In pre-colonial West Africa, the deadliness of the climate vis-a- vis malaria and other tropical diseases to Europeans turned the region into the “white man’s grave.” Thus, immediately after the partition of Africa in 1885, civilisatrice and mise en valeur not only became a pretext for the establishment of colonial rule; from a medical point of view, the control and possible eradication of disease in the continent emerged as one of the first concerns of the European colonizers. Though geared toward making Africa exploitable, historical evidence suggests that some colonial Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) policies and projects reduced certain tropical diseases in some West African communities. Exploring some of these disease control interventions by way of historical revisionism, this paper challenges the orthodox interpretation of colonial sanitation and public health measures in West Africa. This paper critiques the deployment of race and class as analytical tools for the study of colonial WASH projects, an exercise which often reduces the complexity and ambiguity of colonialism to the binary of colonizer and the colonized. Since West Africa presently ranks high among regions with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), it is imperative to decentre colonial racism and economic exploitation in African history in order to give room for Africans to see themselves in other ways. Far from resolving the problem of NTDs by fiat in the region, this study seeks to highlight important blind spots in African colonial history in an attempt to prevent post-colonial African leaders from throwing away the baby with the bath water. As scholars researching colonial sanitation and public health in the continent rarely examine its complex meaning and content, this paper submits that the outright demonization of colonial rule across space and time continues to build ideological wall between the present and the past which not only inhibit fruitful borrowing from colonial administration of West Africa, but also prevents a wide understanding of the challenges of WASH policies and projects in most West African states.

Keywords: colonial rule, disease control, neglected tropical diseases, WASH

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194 Vénus Noire: A (Post)Colonial Gaze

Authors: Hania Pasandi

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Over his first three films, Abdellatif Kechiche established himself as one of the most celebrated directors at work in twenty-first-century French cinema. While his first three movies, La Faute à Voltaire (2000), L’Esquive (2003), and La Graine et le mulet (2007) tell stories about individuals of the Maghrebi origin or descent struggling to find their place in the contemporary French Republic, his 2010’s movie, Vénus noire (2010) recounts the true story of the so-called ‘Hottentot Venus’, Saartjie Baartman, who became famous after her stage appearances in London and Paris in the early eighteenth century. The movie shows the complex ways in which gender and ethnicity can combine in exclusionary discourse. This paper studies gender and racial identities, the irony of science theorisation about ethnicities through the male colonial gaze on a heavily exhibited woman. This paper explores how Vénus Noire engages the spectator’s own corporeal awareness of violence and calls attention to the othering practices of (post)colonial times.

Keywords: gender, (post)colonial gaze, other, violence

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193 Encounters with the Other Sisters of the Past: the Role of Colonial History and Memory in the Adjustment of the Postcolonial Female Identity

Authors: Fatiha Kaïd Berrahal, Nassima Kaïd, Djihad Affaf Selt

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The present paper is a comparative analysis of the Algerian writer Assia Djebar’s women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1982) and the Anglo-Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) foregrounded on the female protagonists’ painfully common colonial and patriarchal experiences, though in different geographical regions of North Africa. This study raises questions pertaining, first, to the emerging contemporary genre “Historiographic meta-fiction” in which the novels examined could be inscribed, then, the interplay of colonial history and personal memory that impinges on the development of the identity of the post-colonial female subject. As the novels alternate between the historical and the autobiographical, we currently seek to understand how it is pertinent and pressing for women to excavate the lost and occluded stories of the past for the adjustment of their present personal identities, which are undoubtedly an important part of the identity of a nation.

Keywords: postcolonial feminism, islamic feminism, memory, histoirographic metafiction

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192 Law Verses Tradition: Beliefs in and Practices of Witchcraft in Contemporary Ghana and the Law

Authors: Baba Iddrisu Musah

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Many Ghanaians, including the rich and downtrodden, elite and unlettered, rural and urban dwellers, politicians and civil servants, in one way or the other, believe in and practice witchcraft. The existence of witches’ camp in northern Ghana, the rise of Pentecostal churches, especially in southern Ghana with the penchant to cleanse people of witchcraft, as well as media reports of witchcraft imputations assuming wider dimensions in the country, often classified as a citadel of democracy, good governance and human rights in Africa, buttress the pervasive nature of belief in and the practice of witchcraft in the country. This is in spite of the fact that tremendous efforts, especially by British colonial authorities, were made to regulate witchcraft beliefs and its associated practices. Informed by Western values and philosophy, witchcraft was considered by colonial authorities as illogical and unscientific. This paper, which is largely a review of existing literature, supplemented by archival information from the national archives of Ghana, focuses on the nature of witchcraft regulation in Ghana’s pre-colonial and colonial past, as well as immediately after Ghana obtained her independence in 1957. This article concludes by rhetorically questioning whether or not believing in and the practice of witchcraft in contemporary Ghana in general, and the existence of witches’ camps in the northern region of the country are attributed to the failure of past regulations, as well as the failure of present government policies.

Keywords: colonial, natives, regulation, witchcraft

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191 Sounds of Power: An Ethnoorganological Approach to Understanding Colonial Music Culture in the Peruvian Andes

Authors: Natascha Reich

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In colonial Peru, the Spanish crown relied on religious orders, most notably Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits, for accelerating processes of colonization. The dissemination of Christian art, architecture, and music, and most of all, the agency of indigenous people in their production played a key role in facilitating the acceptance of the new religious and political system. Current research on Peruvian colonial music culture and its role as a vehicle for colonization focus on practices in urban centers. The lack of (written) primary sources seems to turn rural areas into a less attractive research territory for musicologists. This paper advocates for a more inclusive approach. By investigating seventeenth-century pipe organs as material remains of Franciscan missionary music culture, it shows how reactions to colonial forces and Christianization in rural Andean locations could follow tendencies different from those in urban areas. Indigenous musicians in cities tried to 'fit' into the European system in order to be accepted by the ruling Spanish elite. By contrast, the indigenous-built pipe organs in the rural Peruvian Colca-Valley show distinctly native-Andean influences. This paper argues that this syncretism can be interpreted as hybridity in Homi K. Bhabha’s sense, as a means of the colonized to undermine the power of the colonizer and to advance reactionary politics. Not only will it show the necessity of considering rural Peruvian music history in modern scholarship for arriving at a more complete picture of colonial culture, but it will also evidence the advantages of a mixed-methodology approach. Historical organology, combined with concepts from ethnomusicology and post-colonial studies, proves as a useful tool in the absence or scarcity of written primary sources.

Keywords: cultural hybridity, music as reactionary politics, Latin American pipe organs, Peruvian colonial music

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190 Enriching Post-Colonial Discourse: An Appraisal of Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher

Authors: Robertgie L. Pianar

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Post-colonial theory, post-colonialism, or Poco is a recently established literary theory. Consequently, not many literary works, local and international, have been subjected to its criticism. To help intellectualize local literary texts, in particular, through post-colonial discourse, this qualitative inquiry unfolded. Textual analysis was employed to describe, analyse, and interpret Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher, a regional work of literature, grounded on the postcolonial concepts of Edward Said’s Otherness, Homi Bhabha’s Unhomeliness or Paralysis, and Frantz Fanon’s Cultural Resistance. The in-depth reading affirmed that the story contains those postcolonial attributes, revealing the following; (A) the presence of the colonizer, who successfully established colonial control over the colonized, the other, was found; (B) through power superimposition, the colonized character was silenced or paralyzed; and, (C) forms of cultural resistance from the colonized character were shown but no matter how its character avoids ‘postcolonial acts’, the struggle just intensifies, hence inevitable. Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher is thus a post-colonial text realizer between two differing cultures, the colonizer and the other. Results of this study may substantiate classroom discussions, both undergraduate and graduate classes, specifically in Philippine and World literature, 21st Century literature, readings in New English literatures, and literary theory and criticism courses, scaffolding learners’ grasp of post-colonialism as a major literary theory drawing classic exemplifications from this regional work.

Keywords: cultural resistance, otherness, post-colonialism, textual analysis, unhomeliness/paralysis

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189 Continuity of Place-Identity: Identifying Regional Components of Kerala Architecture through 1805-1950

Authors: Manoj K. Kumar, Deepthi Bathala

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Man has the need to know and feel as a part of the historical continuum and it is this continuum that reinforces his identity. Architecture and the built environment contribute to this identity as established by the various identity theories exploring the relationship between the two. Architecture which is organic has been successful in maintaining a continuum of identity until the advent of globalization when the world saw a drastic shift to architecture of ‘placelessness’. The answer to the perfect synthesis of ‘universalization’ and ‘regionalism’ is an ongoing quest. However, history has established a smooth transition from vernacular to colonial to modern unlike the architecture of today. The traditional Kerala architecture has evolved from the tropical climate, geography, local needs, materials, skills and foreign influences. It is unique in contrast to the architecture of the neighboring states as a result of the geographical barriers however influenced by the architecture of the Orient due to trade relations. Through 1805 to 1950, the European influence on the architecture of Kerala resulted in the emergence of the colonial style which managed to establish a continuum of the traditional architecture. The paper focuses on the identification of the components of architecture that established the continuity of place-identity in the architecture of Kerala and examines the transition from the traditional Kerala architecture to colonial architecture during the colonial period. Visual surveys based on the principles of urban design, cognitive mapping, typology analysis followed by the strong understanding of the morphological and built environment along with the matrix method are the research tools used. The understanding of these components of continuity can be useful in creating buildings which people can relate to in the present day. South-Asia shares the history of colonialism and the understanding of these components can pave the way for further research on how to establish a regional identity in the era of globalization.

Keywords: colonial, identity, place, regional

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188 Contribution of Women to Post-Colonial Education and Leadership

Authors: Naziema Begum Jappie

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This paper explores the relationship between educational transformation and gender equity in higher education. It draws on various policies and experiences and investigates the paradox of increased female leadership in higher education and the persistence of gender discrimination in the sphere of work. The paper will also address specific aspects of culture and education in post-colonial South Africa. Traditional features of past education systems were not isolated, they became an essential component of the education system, post-democracy. This is currently contested through the call for decolonizing the education system. The debates and discussions seek to rectify the post-colonial education structure within which women suffered triple oppression. Using feminist critical policy analysis and post-colonial theory, the paper examines how transformation over the past two decades has impacted on gender equity and how educational reform is itself gendered. It considers the nature of gender restructuring and key developments in gender equity policy. The social inequality in education is highlighted throughout this discussion. Through an analysis of research and interviews, this paper argues that gender can no longer be privileged when identifying and responding to educational and workplace inequality. In conclusion, the paper discusses the important assumptions that support how social and educational change deliver equity and how social justice may inform equity policy and practice in a culturally diverse educational framework.

Keywords: culture, educational leadership, gender inequality in the workplace, policy implementation

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187 Influence of Colonial Architecture on South Indian Vernacular Constructions: A Case of Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Jahnavi Priya Alluri, Sarang Barbarwar

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With over 6000 years of sustained civilization, India has been home to diverse social customs and various communities. The country’s culture and architecture have been profoundly impacted by the extensive variation in its geography and climatic conditions. In its history, many kingdoms have ruled in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The vernacular constructions of this region have progressed considerably in this period. The paper discusses the impact on vernacular architecture in Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh, post the arrival of the British. The town was a small settlement that finds its roots in the Vijaynagara Empire. The study tries to highlight the amalgamation of colonial influences on the local construction techniques and material usage. It discusses the new variation in the style of architecture through the case of Venkatagiri Palace and its precincts. The paper also discusses the traits of distinction in the influence through various social and economic groups of the old city of the same town.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, colonial architecture, Venkatagiri, south Indian vernacular

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186 Colonialism, Health and Women’s Print Culture in South Asia: A Study of Urdu Journals in Colonial India 1900-1930

Authors: Khanday Pervaiz Ahmad

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It was in 19th century when the Indian educated class started to reform their socio-religious set up as an imperative to respond to the challenges put forward by the colonial empire. The colonial discourse on India from the very beginning was gendered, as the colonized society was feminized and its ‘effeminate’ character, as opposed to ‘colonial masculinity’ was held to be a justification for its loss of independence. The ‘women health figure’ is prominently in these gender discourses. The women’s health received a much place in the colonial discourse. Lack of health consciousness, illiteracy, and belief in myths, rituals and superstitions were deemed the main factors taken as an indicator of miserable condition of Indian women’s health. As the low position of women caused shame to the natives, reforming the condition of women, its health occupied a major place in their intellectual as well as activist engagements. Magazines (journals) for women began to appear in various Indian languages in the mid to late 19th century with Bengal leading the front. These sources (Magazines) like Harm, Tehzib un Niswan, Saheli, Khatoon etc. are essential for the study of the emergence of an ideology of respectable domesticity in Indian Muslim upper middle class. Similarly for the study of development of Women’s health consciousness, women’s magazines are very essential. These earliest women Urdu magazines were first started by men, and then followed by the women’s own magazines. Various health issues, like pregnancy, child-rearing, menstruation, midwives training, Pardah, and health etc. were discussed at a time when it was impossible to discuss them in public sphere. These women magazines were brave pioneers, expanding the frontiers of women’s roles, and consciousness at a time when those frontiers were severely limited. This paper will try to focus on how women responded to the question of colonial discourse about their bodies. How health consciousness developed among Indian Muslim women and in what way it contributed in the development of feminist consciousness in South Asian Muslim Women community.

Keywords: Ashraf class, khatoon, haram women, feminism

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185 The Impacts of Foreign Culture on Yoruba Crime Films

Authors: Alonge Isaac Olusola

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This paper focuses on the evolution and development of Yoruba theatre during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial years and how Yoruba crime films have been influenced by foreign culture. It emphasizes on the transition of theatre from the ground to the stage and from the stage to the screen with emphasis on the contribution of late Chief Hubert Ogunde who is regarded as the doyen of Yoruba and the entire Nigerian theatre. Using the Theory of Post-colonialism, two modern Yoruba crime films are carefully selected from the numerous available ones to highlight and explain the various aspects of Yoruba films that have been greatly influenced by the foreign cultural practices. The questions to be answered here include 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be that of Yoruba?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?', 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be foreign among the Yoruba people?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?'. Although, the British colonial masters granted political independence to Nigeria on October 1, 1960, but a seed of multi-culture and counterculture had been sown into the lives of the Yoruba people. Under the literature review, there is an intensive illumination on some scholars’ ideas and views on what constitutes Yoruba culture, the evolution and development of drama, theatre and films in the Yoruba society and the nature of criminals and criminalities in the Yoruba society and the western world in the pre-colonial and post-colonial times. Furthermore, the processes of interaction between man, his values and his thoughts are also highlighted – a situation that procreates criminal or benevolent acts. Consequently, the paper dwells on how colonialism, despite its so-called merits put the gradual process of urbanization and civilization among the originally rustic, cohesive and moralistic Yoruba society on a supersonic speed that culminated in acquisition of attitudes that are alien to the Yoruba culture. Since a drama is nothing but the theatrical replication of what occurs in the real life, the paper then focuses on the submission that Yoruba crime films have experienced a serious foreign influence in form and content as a result of this encounter. In conclusion, the findings of the impact of foreign cultural practices on Yoruba crime films are highlighted and expatiated with a view to recommending a few steps that could be taken to retain the projection of the original Yoruba cultural practices in Yoruba films, especially the ones that have crime as a theme.

Keywords: culture, films, theatre, Yoruba

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184 The Investigation on the Role of Colonial Judges in Protecting the Rights of Muslim Women to Dower and Divorce in British India: From the Period between 1800-1939

Authors: Sunil Tirkey

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The colonial court records between 1800 to 1939 in India show the existence of excessive dower, which were usually paid at the dissolution of marriage to discourage divorce. Supporting this view of excessive dower as a useful device, Mitra Sharafi (legal historian of modern South Asia) argues that inflated dower and divorce law protected Muslim women against instant divorce, making it too expensive for husbands to use it. Further, according to her, British judges enhanced women’s rights to dower and divorce by pronouncing rulings in favour of a high amount of dower to protect the women against the one-sided authority of men to divorce. Contrary to the view of Sharafi, this paper will argue that inflated dower did not protect the rights of women against instant divorce and undesirable marriage, and British judges did not really work to better the lives of Muslim women. To prove so, we shall firstly argue from the court cases that it was challenging for women to prove divorce on the husbands’ denial of divorce in order to avoid the payment of dower. Secondly, it was almost impossible for women to get rid of their undesirable marriage, as divorce was impartially dependent on their husbands. Thirdly, Muslim women were often deprived of their unpaid prompt dower due to the rigorous application of colonial law of limitation by British judges. Furthermore, the abolition of the office of Muslim legal experts from the colonial courts in 1864 deprived Muslim women not only to avail the interpretation of Islamic law but to benefit from the diversity and flexibility of Islamic law in obtaining their right to dower and divorce.

Keywords: courts, divorce, inflated dower, Islamic law, women’s rights

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183 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey

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In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

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182 The Context of Human Rights in a Poverty-Stricken Africa: A Reflection

Authors: Ugwu Chukwuka E.

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The African context of human right instruments as recognized today can be traced to Africa’s relationship with the Western World. A significant preponderance of these instruments are found in both colonial and post colonial statutes as the colonial laws, the post colonial legal documents as constitutions or Africa’s adherence to relevant international instruments on human rights as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981). In spite of all these human rights instruments inherent in the African continent, it is contended in this paper that, these Western-oriented notion of human rights, emphasizes rights that hardly meets the current needs of contemporary African citizens. Adopting a historical research methodology, this study interrogates the dynamics of the African poverty context in relation to the implementation of human rights instruments in the continent. In this vein, using human rights and poverty scenarios from one Anglophone (Uganda) and one Francophone (Senegal) countries in Africa, the study hypothesized that, majority of Africans are not in a historical condition for the realization of these rights. The raison d’etre for this claim emerges from the fact that, the present generations of African hoi polloi are inundated with extensive powerlessness, ignorance, diseases, hunger and overall poverty that emasculates their interest in these rights instruments. In contrast, the few Africans who have access to the enjoyment of these rights in the continent hardly needs these instruments, as their power and resources base secures them that. The paper concludes that the stress of African states and stakeholders on African affairs should concentrated significantly, on the alleviation of the present historical poverty squalor of Africans, which when attended to, enhances the realization of human right situations in the continent.

Keywords: Africa, human rights, poverty, western world

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181 The Jury System in the Courts in Nineteenth Century Assam: Power Negotiations and Politics in an Institutional Rubric of a Colonial Regime

Authors: Jahnu Bharadwaj

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In the third decade of the 19th century, the political landscape of the Brahmaputra valley changed at many levels. The establishment of East India Company’s authority in ‘Assam’ was complete with the Treaty of Yandaboo. The whole phenomenon of the annexation of Assam into the British Indian Empire led to several administrative reorganizations and reforms under the new regime. British colonial rule was distinguished by new systems and institutions of governance. This paper broadly looks at the historical proceedings of the introduction of the Rule of Law and a new legal structure in the region of ‘Assam’. With numerous archival data, this paper seeks to chiefly examine the trajectory of an important element in the new legal apparatus, i.e. the jury in the British criminal courts introduced in the newly annexed region. Right from the beginning of colonial legal innovations with the establishment of the panchayats and the parallel courts in Assam, the jury became an important element in the structure of the judicial system. In both civil and criminal courts, the jury was to be formed from the learned members of the ‘native’ society. In the working of the criminal court, the jury became significantly powerful and influential. The structure meant that the judge or the British authority eventually had no compulsion to obey the verdict of the jury. However, the structure also provided that the jury had a considerable say in matters of the court proceedings, and their verdict had significant weight. This study seeks to look at certain important criminal cases pertaining to the nineteenth century and the functioning of the jury in those cases. The power play at display between the British officials, judges and the members of the jury would be helpful in highlighting the important deliberations and politics that were in place in the functioning of the British criminal legal apparatus in colonial Assam. The working and the politics of the members of the jury in many cases exerted considerable influence in the court proceedings. The interesting negotiations of the British officials or judges also present us with vital insights. By reflecting on the difficulty that the British officials and judges felt with the considerable space for opinion and difference that was provided to important members of the local society, this paper seeks to locate, with evidence, the racial politics at play within the official formulations of the legal apparatus in the colonial rule in Assam. This study seeks to argue that despite the rhetorical claims of legal equality within the Empire, racial consideration and racial politics was a reality even in the making of the structure itself. This in a way helps to enrich our ideas about the racial elements at work in numerous layers sustaining the colonial regime.

Keywords: criminal courts, colonial regime, jury, race

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180 Fashion as a Tool of Modernity and Female Empowerment in the Nineteenth-Century Zenana

Authors: Ira Solomatina

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This paper looks at the role of fashion and clothes in the context of the late nineteenth-century Indian zenana. It suggests that fashion and clothes served as tools for self-assertion and empowerment among the zenana women, allowing them to negotiate between tradition and modernity and establish themselves as modern subjects. In pre-Independence India and in upper-class Indians households, zenana was women's part of the house, where women lived separately from men and in seclusion (purdah). To male colonial scholars and officials, zenana remained impenetrable, inviting speculations about the position of the zenana women. In the colonial imagination, the Indian woman was not only the helpless victim, oppressed by the Indian man but also the agent of deviant sexuality. Consequently, in the colonial British scholarship, zenana was portrayed as a space of idleness, perverse sexuality, ignorance, and illness. Contrary to the dominating ideas about zenana, some Western women writers presented more varied accounts of the zenana life, noting on the good education, dignified manners, and sophisticated fashion choices of the women in the zenana. Contemporary research by postcolonial scholars shows that zenana women in purdah travelled, had access to education and political power. The history of India has examples of women rulers in purdah and more than enough instances of zenana women influencing politics and culture. Zenana, in short, was not an ahistorical, dark realm of idleness but the space of culture and a space impacted by modernity. The paper proves that in the context of zenana, clothes, and fashion provided a visual vocabulary for the women to establish themselves as modern subjects and negotiate between modernity and tradition. To do so, it relies on photographs of zenana women and written accounts about and from the nineteenth-century zenana.

Keywords: woman's fashion, colonial India, modernity, zenana

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179 Iron Extraction from Bog Iron Ore in Early French Colonial America

Authors: Yves Monette, Brad Loewen, Louise Pothier

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This study explores the first bog iron ore extraction activities which took place in colonial New France. Archaeological excavations carried on the founding site of Montreal in the last ten years have revealed the remains of Fort Ville-Marie erected in 1642. In a level related to the fort occupation between 1660 and 1680, kilos of scories, a dozen of half-finished iron artefacts and a light yellow clayey ore material have recovered that point to extractive metallurgy activities at the fort. Examples of scories, artefacts and of a possible bog iron ore were submitted to SEM-EDS analysis. The results clearly indicate that iron was extracted from local limonite ores in a bloomery. We discovered that the gangue material could be traced from the ore to the scories. However, some lime silicates and some accessory minerals found in the scories, like barite and celestine for example, were absent from the ore but present in dolomite fragments found in the same archaeological context. The tracing of accessory minerals suggests that the ironmaster introduced a lime flux in the bloomery charge to maximize the separation of the iron ore. Before the introduction of the blast furnace in Western Europe during the first half of the 18th Century, the use of fluxes in iron bloomery was not a common practice.

Keywords: bog iron ore, extractive metallurgy, French colonial America, Montreal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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178 Prostitution in Colonial Bengal: Autobiographical Articulations and Fictional Representations

Authors: Aparna Bandyopadhyay

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The proposed paper will examine how prostitution produced a vast corpus of literature in colonial Bengal. This corpus included autobiographical accounts by prostitutes themselves. While the authenticity of some of these has, at times, been doubted by contemporary observers, the sheer magnitude of such narrative prose demands critical attention. Many of these autobiographical narratives focused on the prostitute’s early life within respectable society and then proceeded to delineate the transgressions and the inescapable chain of circumstances that eventually rendered her a prostitute. Significantly, these serve to corroborate the findings of official investigations regarding the circumstances that led upper-caste Hindu women in Bengal to embrace prostitution in this period. The literary corpus that dwelt on prostitution also included a vast volume of fiction penned by celebrated writers. These foregrounded a prostitute as the central protagonist, telling the life-stories of prostitutes and the circumstances that made them what they were. Novels and short stories often represented the prostitute as an affective being – an individual capable of deep emotions despite her profession. She was seldom a person who had voluntarily embraced prostitution. She was always a figure of helplessness and suffering, a woman whose desire to love and be loved transcended the carnality of her livelihood. She was an outcast, but she experienced the entire repertoire of emotions experienced by her respectable counterparts. The proposed paper will examine the trends and characteristics of the available repertoire of prostitute-oriented literature in late colonial Bengal. It will begin by focusing on the existing perspectives on the origins of prostitution in late colonial Bengal. It will proceed to discuss the literary corpus supposedly penned by prostitutes themselves and then focus on the manner in which some of the stalwarts of high literature represented the prostitute in their literary creations.

Keywords: emotions, literature, prostitution, transgression

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177 A Post-Colonial Reading of Maria Edgeworth's Anglo-Irish Novels: Castle Rackrent and the Absentee

Authors: Al. Harshan, Hazamah Ali Mahdi

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The Big House literature embodies Irish history. It requires a special dimension of moral and social significance in relation to its owners. The Big House is a metaphor for the decline of the protestant Ascendancy that ruled in a catholic country and oppressed a native people. In the tradition of the Big House fiction, Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent and the Absentee explore the effect of the Anglo-Irish protestant Ascendancy as it governed and misgoverned Ireland. Edgeworth illustrates the tradition of the Big House as a symbol of both a personal and historical theme. This paper provides a reading of Castle Rackrent and The Absentee from a post-colonial perspective. The paper maintains that Edgeworth's novel contain elements of a radical critique of the colonialist enterprise. In our postcolonial reading of Maria Edgeworth's novels, one that goes beyond considering works as those of Sir Walter Scoot, regional evidence has been found of Edgeworth's colonial ideology. The significance of Castle Rackrent lies mainly in the fact that is the first English novel to speak in the voice of the colonized Irish. What is more important is that the irony and the comic aspect of the novel comes from its Irish narrator (Thady Quirk) and its Irish setting Ireland. Edgeworth reveals the geographical 'other' to her English reader, by placing her colonized Irish narrator and his son, Jason Quirk, in a position of inferiority to emphasize the gap between Englishness and Irishness. Furthermore, this satirical aspect is a political one. It works to create and protect the superiority of the domestic English reader over the Irish subject. In other words, the implication of the colonial system of the novel and of its structure of dominance and subordination is overlooked by its comic dimension. The matrimonial plot in the Absentee functions as an imperial plot, constructing Ireland as a complementary but ever unequal partner in the family of Great Britain. This imperial marriage works hegemonically to produce the domestic stability considered so crucial to national and colonial stability. Moreover, in order to achieve her proper imperial plot, Edgeworth reconciliation of England and Ireland is seen in the marriage of the Anglo-Irish (hero/Colambre) with the Irish (heroine/Grace Nugent), and the happy bourgeois family; consequently, it becomes the model for colonizer-colonized relationships. Edgeworth must establish modes of legitimate behavior for women and men. The Absentee explains more purposely how familial reorganization is dependent on the restitution of masculine authority and advantage, particularly for Irish community.

Keywords: Maria Edgeworth, post-colonial, reading, Irish

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176 Land, History and Housing: Colonial Legacies and Land Tenure in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Nur Fareza Mustapha

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Solutions to policy problems need to be curated to the local context, taking into account the trajectory of the local development path to ensure its efficacy. For Kuala Lumpur, rapid urbanization and migration into the city for the past few decades have increased the demand for housing to accommodate a growing urban population. As a critical factor affecting housing affordability, land supply constraints have been attributed to intensifying market pressures, which grew in tandem with the demands of urban development, along with existing institutional constraints in the governance of land. While demand-side pressures are inevitable given the fixed supply of land, supply-side constraints in regulations distort markets and if addressed inappropriately, may lead to mistargeted policy interventions. Given Malaysia’s historical development, regulatory barriers for land may originate from the British colonial period, when many aspects of the current laws governing tenure were introduced and formalized, and henceforth, became engrained in the system. This research undertakes a postcolonial institutional analysis approach to uncover the causal mechanism driving the evolution of land tenure systems in post-colonial Kuala Lumpur. It seeks to determine the sources of these shifts, focusing on the incentives and bargaining positions of actors during periods of institutional flux/change. It aims to construct a conceptual framework to further this understanding and to elucidate how this historical trajectory affects current access to urban land markets for housing. Archival analysis is used to outline and analyse the evolution of land tenure systems in Kuala Lumpur while stakeholder interviews are used to analyse its impact on the current urban land market, with a particular focus on the provision of and access to affordable housing in the city. Preliminary findings indicate that many aspects of the laws governing tenure that were introduced and formalized during the British colonial period have endured until the present day. Customary rules of tenure were displaced by rules following a European tradition, which found legitimacy through a misguided interpretation of local laws regarding the ownership of land. Colonial notions of race and its binary view of native vs. non-natives have also persisted in the construction and implementation of current legislation regarding land tenure. More concrete findings from this study will generate a more nuanced understanding of the regulatory land supply constraints in Kuala Lumpur, taking into account both the long and short term spatial and temporal processes that affect how these rules are created, implemented and enforced.

Keywords: colonial discourse, historical institutionalism, housing, land policy, post-colonial city

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175 Confessors in Im Sun-dŭk’s Short Stories: Interiority of Korean Women under the End of Japanese Colonial Rule

Authors: Min Koo Choi

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The paper will examine Im Sun-dŭk’s two short stories, 'Iryoil' (Sunday, 1937) and 'Nazuoya' (A Godmother, 1942), which illuminate the subjects of Korean intellectuals going through the later period of a harsh and oppressive Japanese colonial rule. When Japan went to war against China in 1937, Korea, a colony of Japan since 1910, became an outpost for Japanese expansionism into China, and the Korean people were mobilized into the war effort. Nationalist movements and radical ideas that posed a threat and opposition to Japanese colonial rule in Korea and its colonial expansionism were ruthlessly suppressed, and Koreans were forcibly assimilated into becoming Japanese citizens without political rights. Racial discrimination between Koreans and Japanese was prevalent. Im Sun-dŭk, who participated in the Socialist movement in the 1930s, had his debut as a literary writer and a critic in the late 1930s, when Korean literary society was reincorporated in order to collaborate with the Japanese war effort through writing and public speech. Sun-duk's writing illuminates the unique internal landscape of a female subject who strives to live on while preserving her commitment and dignity under the circumstances that force Korean intellectuals either to collaborate with or acquiesce to Japanese colonial rule. 'Iryoil' (Sunday, 1937) foregrounds an educated intellectual, Hyeyŏng, who supplies her fiancé in prison for political involvement in resistance against Japan. On Sundays, she turns down her friends’ suggestion for enjoying holidays outside, due to her indebtedness to her fiancé. Her fiancé's imprisonment indicates the social conscience that still remains, and she seeks to share the commitment and suffering with her fiancé. The short story 'Nazuoya' (A Godmother, 1942), written in Japanese due to the suppression of Korean language publications at the time, also problematizes Japanese policy that forces Koreans to change their names into Japanese. Through the narrator I, who struggles to find a meaningful name for her cousin brother’s baby, she highlights how meaningful one’s name is for one’s life and identity. What makes her two stories unique is that her writing draws other people’s confessions into its own narrative through fragmentary forms, such as part of letter or reflection. The voices of others are intersected with the main character in 'Iryoil' (Sunday, 1937) and a narrator in 'Nazuoya' (A Godmother, 1942). In many ways, the narrator and main character provide the confessional voices who display the characters' gloomy interiorities. Even though these confessional voices do not share the commitment and values, both the main character and I in the stories reveal a more open set of viewpoints to them. In this way, they seek to form bonds and encouragement and acquire a more resilient sensibility that embraces those who strive to survive and endure in the gloomy days of the later period of Japanese colonial rule.

Keywords: Im Sun-dŭk, Japanese colonial rule, Korean literature, socialist movement

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174 Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case

Authors: Harriet Najjemba, Simon Peter Rutabajuuka, Deo Katono Nzarwa

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Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.

Keywords: food production, food shortage, indigenous agricultural knowledge, western scientific agricultural practices

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173 Edward Said and the Dislocation of the Exiled Self

Authors: Majed Alobudi

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Edward Said is considered among the most prominent figures in postcolonial theoretical studies and his work has largely influenced critical discussion for many decades. And in the globalized world of today where immigration and dislocation are intense and thoroughly discussed, Said`s views on these issues seem more relevant than ever. This paper will endeavor to bring together Said`s theoretical texts and other writings on immigration and exile in parallel. The aim is to try to find a better understanding of Said`s theories on dislocation and exile theoretically and personally. The combination of these two strands of narrative will eventually shed more light on self location in postcolonial theories and further the understanding of Said's theories and personal life narratives. The paper propose the difficulty dislocation poses in counter colonial narratives such as those written by Said. As an exile, the mission of defining the self and the other becomes obscure when place becomes impossible or prohibited. The clear result becomes a self which proclaims rather than inhabits reality, a treat Said criticized in colonial representation. The self becomes trapped between the worlds of distant reality of dislocation and the estranged world of exile. The outcome would reveal a more weakened attempt at defining the self and countering the postcolonial narrative. The reason for such confusion and contradiction is directly connected to place and dis-location. To summarize, the paper proposes to examine and investigate the implications exile and dislocation have inflected on Said as a prominent postcolonial figure and how that affects his theories and personal life. The outcome, it is argued, would be a vast and lasting effect which such colonial and postcolonial phenomenon have on personal and theoretical narratives written by Said.

Keywords: Edward Said, exile, postcolonialism, dislocation

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172 The Process of Sanctification: A Bourdieusian Approach to the Declension of Power in New England Puritan Clergy

Authors: W. Scott Jackson

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This paper explains the declension of Puritan clerical power following the Great Migration up until when Massachusetts lost its charter in 1684. Historian Perry Miller argued that an overall declension in Puritan culture occurred during this period. However, that notion has been dispelled. There is a resurging field exploring declension in areas outside of Miller’s scope of Puritan culture. I determine that colonial New England existed as a functional theocracy by using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic capital to explain clerical power through symbolic and religious misdirection and conversion. I explore civil and economic power struggles in colonial New England during the decades following the Great Migration to establish that Puritan culture did not largely decline. Instead, it was the Puritan clergy’s power that waned during this period.

Keywords: Bourdieu, Historical Sociology, Symbolic Capital, Puritan

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171 Revising Australia’s Collective Memory through Post-Colonial Storytelling

Authors: Linda Jane Wells

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In 1914 Topsy Smith, a woman of the First Nations Arabana tribe arrived in Alice Springs with her seven children and a herd of goats. They had come in from the goldfields at Arltunga where they had been living, and Topsy’s husband, Welsh-born Bill Smith, had recently died. Sergeant Stott, the local policeman and sub-protector of Aborigines for the region, erected a tin shed for Topsy and the children to live in, which became known as the Bungalow for half-castes. Over the years that followed many more children of mixed descent were removed from their families and brought to live at the Bungalow until, a decade later, sixty children were growing up there, cared for predominantly by Topsy Smith; Ida Standley who was the first, white schoolteacher for the town; and Sergeant Stott. The story of the Bungalow is pivotal to the foundations of social relations in the town of Alice Springs and beyond. At the same time, it is little known, recognised or understood locally, let alone more broadly. This is typical of the dominant historic narratives that have emerged out of the Australian colonial project and led to ‘the Great Australian Silence.’ The term was coined by Australian anthropologist WEH Stanner in his 1968 Boyer Lectures, in reference to the omission of the Aboriginal experience from the dominant narratives of the nation’s history. In his lecture, he attributed this silence to something that may have begun as a simple forgetting of other possible views which turned, under habit and over time, into something like a cult of forgetfulness practised on a national scale. This doctoral project, underpinned by a methodology of practice-led research, engages a bricolage of methods including archival research, ethnography, and oral histories to research the bungalow and the context in which it operated. Techniques of fictocriticism, speculative biography, autoethnography, and archival poetics are then engaged to write the research outcomes into a post-colonial, multi-genre work of creative non-fiction that speaks into the silences in the archives. The overall intent of this doctoral work is to explore and demonstrate how techniques of creative non-fiction can be used to rewrite narratives of Australian colonial history that resonate beyond the academy, thus contributing to the bank of post-colonial stories and working towards a more just, honest and inclusive national ‘memory’ and identity.

Keywords: Australian history, collective memory, creative non-fiction, postcolonialism

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170 Hindi Cinema in a Post-Colonial India: A Study on Guru Dutt's Self-Expression in 'Pyasa'

Authors: Mrunmayee Das

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This study aims to explore the film 'Pyasa' directed by actor-director Guru Dutt, filmed during the 1950’s golden age of Hindi cinema. 'Pyasa' was filmed after a decade of India being a new nation and narrates the world-view of a poet dressed in western ideals, tasting modernity, uprooted from his familial and social moorings causing friction of being between survival and self- expression. The research is based on literature review to study the attitudes, particularly the post-colonial, informing the film. In terms of the structure, the relational study of the film and the historical background of that time came first. Further explorations deal with the use of image making, dialogue, and poetry in the form of songs facilitating the central theme of the human plight of poverty, not of material but of thought. The literature review establishes Dutt’s style of expressing melodic melodrama through a dance between light and shadow majorly in the form of song sequences signifying the greys of the society. It was found in this research that melodrama is created by the changing contrasts and use of close-ups. The song sequences convey the tensions of being a contemporary liberal educated youth and having to deal with the societal-ills of this world, which highlights the theme of compulsion towards self-destruction. It is concluded that Dutt’s 'Pyasa' is a autobiographical commentary on the state of a nation doing away with a borrowed identity and refashioning its own.

Keywords: cinema, Guru Dutt, post-colonial India, self-expression

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169 The Post-Colonial Yoruba Poets as Agents of Political and Economic Emancipation in Nigeria

Authors: Isaac Alonge Olusola

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One of the major peculiarities of man is the ability to communicate and interact with language. The original Yoruba society, before the advent of the Europeans, was purely oral. That is the major means of inter- personal communication was through speaking. The abolition of slave trade by Britain marked the beginning of development of Yoruba alphabet and introduction of writing around 1800. However, most of the writing was Christian religion-focused. Later, the introduction of British colonial rule led to the introduction of writing that dwelt on political and economic emancipation. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria was granted independence by the British colonial masters and self-rule started in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the military and civilian administrations brought about political and economic oppression instead of comfort. The discomfort brought about by Nigerian political and military rulers turned the Yoruba poets to activists, reactionaries and critics. This paper will give a brief preamble on the history of Nigeria and how she got her political independence from the British in 1960. It will thereafter go further to mention some political and economic hardship brought about by Nigerian leaders. Using literary theories called semiotics and structuralism, the reactions and criticisms of some Yoruba poets will be mentioned and analyzed vis-à-vis the counter reactions of the governments in power. Moreover, the paper will bring about a conclusion on how to create a conducive atmosphere for the Yoruba poets to operate in Nigeria. Finally, suggestions will be offered on how the Nigerian government and Yoruba poets can co-exist positively to bring about a better standard of living to Nigerians and also promote good governance

Keywords: Yoruba, Yoruba language, Yoruba poets, political leaders

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168 US-Iran Hostage Crisis by the Metaphor of Argo in the Light of Post-Modernist Post-Colonial and Realist Theories

Authors: Hatice Idil Gorgen

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This paper argues that discourses and textuality which is literary tool of Western ethnocentrism create aggressive foreign policy against the West by Non-West countries. Quasi-colonial experiences create an inferiority complex on officially or not colonized areas by reconstructing their identity. This reconstructed identity leads revolution and resistance movement to feel secure themselves as a psychological defense against colonial powers. Knowledge learned by successful implementation of discourses grants right to has power for authority, in addition to serving as a tool to reinforce power of authority by its cognitive traits on foreign policy decision making. The combination of these points contributes to shaping and then make predictable state policies. In the methodology of paper, secondary data was firstly reviewed through university library using a range of sources such as academic abstract, OPAC system, bibliography databases and internet search engines. The film of Argo was used to strengthen and materialize theoretical explanations as a metaphor. This paper aims to highlight the cumulative effects on the construction of the identity throughout embedded discourses by textuality. To demonstrate it by a metaphor, Argo will be used as a primary source for good story-telling about history. U.S-Iran hostage crisis is mainly applied by aiming to see foundations Iran’s behavior in the context of its revolutionary identity and major influences of actions of U.S on it.

Keywords: discourse, post colonialism, post modernism, objectivity

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167 Understanding Human Rights Violations in the Fight against Boko Haram: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Anthony Mpiani

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Recent media and NGO reports suggest that human rights violations have been a salient characteristic of the government Joint Task Force (JTF) in the war on Boko Haram. However, there has been relatively scant scholarly engagement with the forms of abuses committed by the JTF against civilians and why such human rights violations occur. The focus of this paper is to analyse the various human rights violations committed by JTF in the war against Boko Haram. Employing a historical approach, it argues that the JTF's human rights violations is shaped by the philosophy of colonial policing in Nigeria. Consequently, the failure of successive post-colonial governments to ideologically transform policing is accountable for the human rights abuses being witnessed in Nigeria today. A philosophical transformation in Nigeria's security forces especially the police and military is a prerequisite for ending human rights abuses in the fight against Boko Haram.

Keywords: colonialism, policing, joint task force, counterinsurgency, Boko Haram, human rights violations

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