Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 484

Search results for: Dong Ho Shin

484 A House for Men: A Study of the Dong Minority Residential Architecture in the Southern Dialect Areas from a Gender Perspective

Authors: Fung Sze Wai Veera, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Gender functions as a principle in organizing society based on the cultural meanings given to males and females. It is an essential component in constructing the spatial reality, one that is in most cases in favor of men’s needs and disregards that of women’s. Similar to other minorities in China, men of the Dong community hold the primary position in policymaking, moral standards, social values, and, furthermore, the building of the physical environment. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the residential architecture of Dong through the lens of gender. Specifically, it examines how the patriarchal practice of Dong is manifested in terms of the spatial organization, the architectural feature, and the construction process of Dong houses in the southern dialect areas. While the residential architecture of Dong has been extensively researched, the role of gender culture in designing and constructing it deserves more research attention. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to challenge the notion of gender-inclusive design in the rural China context while opening up a cross-disciplinary discussion concerning Chinese minority architecture and gender studies.

Keywords: Dong minority residential architecture, gender study, built environment, male-dominated society, gender-inclusive design

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
483 Woman, House, Identity: The Study of the Role of House in Constructing the Contemporary Dong Minority Woman’s Identity

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Similar to most ethnic groups in China, men of the Dong minority hold the primary position in policymaking, moral authority, social values, and the control of the property. As the spatial embodiment of the patriarchal ideals, the house plays a significant role in producing and reproducing the distinctive gender status within the Dong society. Nevertheless, Dong women do not see their home as a cage of confinement, nor do they see themselves as a victim of oppression. For these women with reference to their productive identity, a house is a dwelling place with manifold meanings, including a proof of identity, an economic instrument, and a public resource operating on the community level. This paper examines the role of the house as a central site for identity construction and maintenance for the southern dialect Dong minority women in Hunan, China. Drawing on recent interviews with the Dong women, this study argues that women as productive individuals have a strong influence on the form of their house and the immediate environment, regardless of the male-dominated social construct of the Dong society. The aim of this study is not to produce a definitive relationship between women, house, and identity. Rather, it seeks to offer an alternative lens into the complexity and diversity of gender dynamics operating in and beyond the boundary of the house in the context of contemporary rural China.

Keywords: conception of home, Dong minority, house, rural China, woman’s identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
482 Convolutional Neural Networks Architecture Analysis for Image Captioning

Authors: Jun Seung Woo, Shin Dong Ho

Abstract:

The Image Captioning models with Attention technology have developed significantly compared to previous models, but it is still unsatisfactory in recognizing images. We perform an extensive search over seven interesting Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) architectures to analyze the behavior of different models for image captioning. We compared seven different CNN Architectures, according to batch size, using on public benchmarks: MS-COCO datasets. In our experimental results, DenseNet and InceptionV3 got about 14% loss and about 160sec training time per epoch. It was the most satisfactory result among the seven CNN architectures after training 50 epochs on GPU.

Keywords: deep learning, image captioning, CNN architectures, densenet, inceptionV3

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
481 Pushover Experiment of Traditional Dieh-Dou Timber Frame

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to investigate the joint behaviors of the Dieh-Dou structure. A pushover experiment of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong is implemented. NDI, LVDT and image measurement system are used to measure displacements of joints and deformations of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong. In addition, joint rotation-moment relationships of column restoring force, purlin-supporting, Dou-Shu, Dou-Gong brackets, primary beam-Gua Tong, secondary beam-Gua Tong, Tertiary beam are builied. From Jia-Dong experiments, formulations of joint rotation are proposed.

Keywords: pushover experiment, Dieh-Dou timber frame, image measurement system, joint rotation-moment relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
480 On Chvátal’s Conjecture for the Hamiltonicity of 1-Tough Graphs and Their Complements

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Yuan-Kang Shih, Hsun Su

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that the conjecture of Chv tal, which states that any 1-tough graph is either a Hamiltonian graph or its complement contains a specific graph denoted by F, does not hold in general. More precisely, it is true only for graphs with six or seven vertices, and is false for graphs with eight or more vertices. A theorem is derived as a correction for the conjecture.

Keywords: complement, degree sum, hamiltonian, tough

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
479 Enhancement of Seed Longevity in Japonica Rice Cultivars Using Weed Rice

Authors: Jun-Hyeon Cho, Ji-Yoon Lee, Young-Bo Sohn, Dong-Jin Shin, You-Chun Song, Dong-Soo Park, Min-Hee Nam, Young-Up Kwon

Abstract:

Seed germination is a main factor in japonica rice cultivation. For japonica strains unlike indica lines, fast loss of germination ability during storage leads to risk of seeding and deterioration in the quality. To resolve these problems, germplasms screening for longevity was conducted using six days of compulsory aging stress of high temperature (50℃) and humidity (~95% RH). ‘Dharial’, a weedy rice collected in Bangladesh, was chosen as a source of seed longevity for long term storage. The strong germination trait originated from ‘Dharial’ was incorporated into Korean elite japonica cultivars, ‘Ilmi’ and ‘Gopum’, through backcross method. The germination ratio was evaluated after two years of room temperature storage conditions. A high germination ratio of 80.5% in donor plant of ‘Dharial’ and 77.3% in an introgression line were observed based on the two years of storage while the recurrent japonica cultivars, ‘Ilmi’ and ‘Gopum’, were failed in germination. As a result, we investigated the changes of quality affected by germination ability during storage. A gentle slope of palatability which is one of the measurement items for indirect selection indicator of high eating quality in japonica varieties was studied in a high germination ratio introgression line during storage. The introgression line could be useful to increase longevity and quality of japonica rice seed if molecular breeding strategy such as QTLs analysis is combined.

Keywords: rice, longevity, germination, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
478 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
477 Big Data Analysis with RHadoop

Authors: Ji Eun Shin, Byung Ho Jung, Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

It is almost impossible to store or analyze big data increasing exponentially with traditional technologies. Hadoop is a new technology to make that possible. R programming language is by far the most popular statistical tool for big data analysis based on distributed processing with Hadoop technology. With RHadoop that integrates R and Hadoop environment, we implemented parallel multiple regression analysis with different sizes of actual data. Experimental results showed our RHadoop system was much faster as the number of data nodes increases. We also compared the performance of our RHadoop with lm function and big lm packages available on big memory. The results showed that our RHadoop was faster than other packages owing to paralleling processing with increasing the number of map tasks as the size of data increases.

Keywords: big data, Hadoop, parallel regression analysis, R, RHadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
476 Home-based Production of the Southern Dialect Dong Minority Women in Rural Hunan, China

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Since the economic reform in 1980s, many men and women of the southern dialect Dong minority have migrated to coastal cities for employment. Responding to the outgoing providers of the families, women, especially those at the middle age, resort to the informal home-based services and goods production for income generation. Homework, therefore, becomes a key economic strategy in supporting the household expenses in rural China, where formal employment is often inadequate for local women. This paper seeks to examine the intersection between gender and household strategy in the broader economic context of rural China. Based on the interviews and site survey in Tongdao Dong Autonomous County, the study analyses the variety of the home-based production activities, the experience of women in the production process, and the impact on familial relation and gender division of labor at home. The objective of this research is to advance the understanding of the informal economic landscape in the contemporary rural China, through which an alternative and possibly a more appropriate mode of development can be investigated.

Keywords: gender relation, home-based production, household strategy, informal economy, rural China, dong minority

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
475 Improved K-Means Clustering Algorithm Using RHadoop with Combiner

Authors: Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

Data clustering is a common technique used in data analysis and is used in many applications, such as artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, economics, ecology, psychiatry and marketing. K-means clustering is a well-known clustering algorithm aiming to cluster a set of data points to a predefined number of clusters. In this paper, we implement K-means algorithm based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop to make the clustering method applicable to large scale data. RHadoop is a collection of R packages that allow users to manage and analyze data with Hadoop. The main idea is to introduce a combiner as a function of our map output to decrease the amount of data needed to be processed by reducers. The experimental results demonstrated that K-means algorithm using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also showed that our K-means algorithm using RHadoop with combiner was faster than regular algorithm without combiner as the size of data set increases.

Keywords: big data, combiner, K-means clustering, RHadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
474 Big Data Analysis with Rhipe

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

Rhipe that integrates R and Hadoop environment made it possible to process and analyze massive amounts of data using a distributed processing environment. In this paper, we implemented multiple regression analysis using Rhipe with various data sizes of actual data. Experimental results for comparing the performance of our Rhipe with stats and biglm packages available on bigmemory, showed that our Rhipe was more fast than other packages owing to paralleling processing with increasing the number of map tasks as the size of data increases. We also compared the computing speeds of pseudo-distributed and fully-distributed modes for configuring Hadoop cluster. The results showed that fully-distributed mode was faster than pseudo-distributed mode, and computing speeds of fully-distributed mode were faster as the number of data nodes increases.

Keywords: big data, Hadoop, Parallel regression analysis, R, Rhipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
473 Non-Fungible Token and Block Chain Platform Revenue Model

Authors: Cho Seung Wan, Shin Dong Ho

Abstract:

In this research paper throughout Block chain and NFT's revenue model. Block chain used newest system for improve that security system. Past, lots of company used server base system. So, they can solve problem faster. But today's blockchain system is usually used for other company. Blockchain is lots of block is chaining each other to one chain. So, all the server has same data and power. Blockchain can solve hard security problem. While server base is one center have all the data and power. That two system is completely different. Anyway, the blockchain's cryptocurrency is very particular then other system to be use blockchain. Cryptocurrency came out to alternate for today's currency system. Typical kind of cryptocurrency is Bitcoin and Ethereum. That two types of cryptocurrencies are using a lot of things. Investigate NFT and resulting revenue model.

Keywords: blockchain, non-fungible token, revenue model, cryptocurrency

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
472 Optimal Power Exchange of Multi-Microgrids with Hierarchical Coordination

Authors: Beom-Ryeol Choi, Won-Poong Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Young-Hak Shin, Dong-Jun Won

Abstract:

A Microgrid (MG) has a major role in power system. There are numerous benefits, such as ability to reduce environmental impact and enhance the reliability of a power system. Hence, Multi-MG (MMG) consisted of multiple MGs is being studied intensively. This paper proposes the optimal power exchange of MMG with hierarchical coordination. The whole system architecture consists of two layers: 1) upper layer including MG of MG Center (MoMC) which is in charge of the overall management and coordination and 2) lower layer comprised of several Microgrid-Energy Management Systems (MG-EMSs) which make a decision for own schedule. In order to accomplish the optimal power exchange, the proposed coordination algorithm is applied to MMG system. The objective of this process is to achieve optimal operation for improving economics under the grid-connected operation. The simulation results show how the output of each MG can be changed through coordination algorithm.

Keywords: microgrids, multi-microgrids, power exchange, hierarchical coordination

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
471 Shape Optimization of a Hole for Water Jetting in a Spudcan for a Jack-Up Rig

Authors: Han Ik Park, Jeong Hyeon Seong, Dong Seop Han, Su-Chul Shin, Young Chul Park

Abstract:

A Spudcan is mounted on the lower leg of the jack-up rig, a device for preventing a rollover of a structure and to support the structure in a stable sea floor. At the time of inserting the surface of the spud can to penetrate when the sand layer is stable and smoothly pulled to the clay layer, and at that time of recovery when uploading the spud can is equipped with a water injection device. In this study, it is significant to optimize the shape of pipelines holes for water injection device and it was set in two kinds of shape, the oval and round. Interpretation of the subject into the site of Gulf of Mexico offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessels (WTIV)was chosen as a target platform. Using the ANSYS Workbench commercial programs, optimal design was conducted. The results of this study can be applied to the hole-shaped design of various marine structures.

Keywords: kriging method, jack-up rig, shape optimization, spudcan

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
470 Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery from Excavator

Authors: Young Min Kim, Dong Gil Shin, Assmelash Assefa Negash

Abstract:

This study describes the application of a single loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for recovering waste heat from an excavator. In the case of waste heat recovery of the excavator, the heat of hydraulic oil can be used in the ORC system together with the other waste heat sources including the exhaust gas and engine coolant. The performances of four different cases of single loop ORC systems were studied at the main operating condition, and critical design factors are studied to get the maximum power output from the given waste heat sources. The energy and exergy analysis of the cycles are performed concerning the available heat source to determine the best fluid and system configuration. The analysis demonstrates that the ORC in the excavator increases 14% of the net power output at the main operating condition with a simpler system configuration at a lower expander inlet temperature than in a conventional vehicle engine without the heat of the hydraulic oil.

Keywords: engine, excavator, hydraulic oil, organic Rankine cycle (ORC), waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
469 Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations

Authors: Shih-Yan Chen, Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn, the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n +1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n +2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness, basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems are presented, and include some open problems at the end.

Keywords: dual-cubes, dual-cube extensive networks, dual-cube-like networks, hypercubes, fault-tolerant hamiltonian property

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
468 A Further Study on the 4-Ordered Property of Some Chordal Ring Networks

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Hsiu-Chunj Pan

Abstract:

Given a graph G. A cycle of G is a sequence of vertices of G such that the first and the last vertices are the same. A hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle containing all vertices of G. The graph G is k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) if for any sequence of k distinct vertices of G, there exists a cycle (resp. hamiltonian cycle) in G containing these k vertices in the specified order. Obviously, any cycle in a graph is 1-ordered, 2-ordered and 3-ordered. Thus the study of any graph being k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) always starts with k = 4. Most studies about this topic work on graphs with no real applications. To our knowledge, the chordal ring families were the first one utilized as the underlying topology in interconnection networks and shown to be 4-ordered [1]. Furthermore, based on computer experimental results in [1], it was conjectured that some of them are 4-ordered hamiltonian. In this paper, we intend to give some possible directions in proving the conjecture.

Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, 4-ordered, Chordal rings, 3-regular

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
467 Urban Big Data: An Experimental Approach to Building-Value Estimation Using Web-Based Data

Authors: Sun-Young Jang, Sung-Ah Kim, Dongyoun Shin

Abstract:

Current real-estate value estimation, difficult for laymen, usually is performed by specialists. This paper presents an automated estimation process based on big data and machine-learning technology that calculates influences of building conditions on real-estate price measurement. The present study analyzed actual building sales sample data for Nonhyeon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea, measuring the major influencing factors among the various building conditions. Further to that analysis, a prediction model was established and applied using RapidMiner Studio, a graphical user interface (GUI)-based tool for derivation of machine-learning prototypes. The prediction model is formulated by reference to previous examples. When new examples are applied, it analyses and predicts accordingly. The analysis process discerns the crucial factors effecting price increases by calculation of weighted values. The model was verified, and its accuracy determined, by comparing its predicted values with actual price increases.

Keywords: apartment complex, big data, life-cycle building value analysis, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
466 Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Saemee Jun, Dong-Hyeon Shin, Tae-Sang Ahn, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.004% in a year.

Keywords: expected annual loss, loss estimation, RC structure, fragility analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
465 A Study on Human Musculoskeletal Model for Cycle Fitting: Comparison with EMG

Authors: Yoon- Ho Shin, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Joo-Hack Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

Abstract:

It is difficult to study the effect of various variables on cycle fitting through actual experiment. To overcome such difficulty, the forward dynamics of a musculoskeletal model was applied to cycle fitting in this study. The measured EMG data were compared with the muscle activities of the musculoskeletal model through forward dynamics. EMG data were measured from five cyclists who do not have musculoskeletal diseases during three minutes pedaling with a constant load (150 W) and cadence (90 RPM). The muscles used for the analysis were the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Bicep Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Medial (GM). Person’s correlation coefficients of the muscle activity patterns, the peak timing of the maximum muscle activities, and the total muscle activities were calculated and compared. BIKE3D model of AnyBody (Anybodytech, Denmark) was used for the musculoskeletal model simulation. The comparisons of the actual experiments with the simulation results showed significant correlations in the muscle activity patterns (VL: 0.789, TA: 0.503, BF: 0.468, GM: 0.670). The peak timings of the maximum muscle activities were distributed at particular phases. The total muscle activities were compared with the normalized muscle activities, and the comparison showed about 10% difference in the VL (+10%), TA (+9.7%), and BF (+10%), excluding the GM (+29.4%). Thus, it can be concluded that muscle activities of model & experiment showed similar results. The results of this study indicated that it was possible to apply the simulation of further improved musculoskeletal model to cycle fitting.

Keywords: musculoskeletal modeling, EMG, cycle fitting, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
464 Optimal Design of Linear Generator to Recharge the Smartphone Battery

Authors: Jin Ho Kim, Yujeong Shin, Seong-Jin Cho, Dong-Jin Kim, U-Syn Ha

Abstract:

Due to the development of the information industry and technologies, cellular phones have must not only function to communicate, but also have functions such as the Internet, e-banking, entertainment, etc. These phones are called smartphones. The performance of smartphones has improved, because of the various functions of smartphones, and the capacity of the battery has been increased gradually. Recently, linear generators have been embedded in smartphones in order to recharge the smartphone's battery. In this study, optimization is performed and an array change of permanent magnets is examined in order to increase efficiency. We propose an optimal design using design of experiments (DOE) to maximize the generated induced voltage. The thickness of the poleshoe and permanent magnet (PM), the height of the poleshoe and PM, and the thickness of the coil are determined to be design variables. We made 25 sampling points using an orthogonal array according to four design variables. We performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the generated induced voltage using the commercial electromagnetic analysis software ANSYS Maxwell. Then, we made an approximate model using the Kriging algorithm, and derived optimal values of the design variables using an evolutionary algorithm. The commercial optimization software PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation, and Optimization) was used with these algorithms. The result of the optimization shows that the generated induced voltage is improved.

Keywords: smartphone, linear generator, design of experiment, approximate model, optimal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
463 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
462 Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome at Emergency Department

Authors: Taerim Kim, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Won Young Kim

Abstract:

Object: Reversible cerebral vasospasm syndrome (RCVS) remains an underrated cause of thunderclap headache which shares similar history of the ‘worst-ever’ headache with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to the emergency physicians. This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, radiological features, and outcomes of patients with RCVS so that the physicians could raise the high index of suspicion to detect RCVS in more patients with thunderclap headache before having life-threatening complications. Methods: The electric medical records of 18 patients with diagnostic criteria of RCVS at the emergency department (ED) between January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospective reviewed. Results: The mean age was 50.7 years, and 80% were women. Patients with RCVS visit an average of 4.7 physicians before receiving an accurate diagnosis and mean duration of symptom until diagnosis is 9.3 days. All patients except one experienced severe headache, from 8 to 10 pain intensity on a numerical rating scale (NRS). 44% of patients had nausea as an associated symptom, 66% of patients experienced worsening of headache while gagging, leaning forward, defecating, urinating or having sex. The most frequently affected vessels are middle cerebral arteries demonstrating the characteristic diffuse “string of beads” appearance. Four patients had SAH as a complication. Conclusion: Patients with RCVS have a unique set of clinical and imaging features. Emergency physicians should raise the high index of suspicion to detect RCVS in more patients with thunderclap headache before life-threatening complications.

Keywords: headache, thunderclap, subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
461 Latent Factors of Severity in Truck-Involved and Non-Truck-Involved Crashes on Freeways

Authors: Shin-Hyung Cho, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

Truck-involved crashes have higher crash severity than non-truck-involved crashes. There have been many studies about the frequency of crashes and the development of severity models, but those studies only analyzed the relationship between observed variables. To identify why more people are injured or killed when trucks are involved in the crash, we must examine to quantify the complex causal relationship between severity of the crash and risk factors by adopting the latent factors of crashes. The aim of this study was to develop a structural equation or model based on truck-involved and non-truck-involved crashes, including five latent variables, i.e. a crash factor, environmental factor, road factor, driver’s factor, and severity factor. To clarify the unique characteristics of truck-involved crashes compared to non-truck-involved crashes, a confirmatory analysis method was used. To develop the model, we extracted crash data from 10,083 crashes on Korean freeways from 2008 through 2014. The results showed that the most significant variable affecting the severity of a crash is the crash factor, which can be expressed by the location, cause, and type of the crash. For non-truck-involved crashes, the crash and environment factors increase severity of the crash; conversely, the road and driver factors tend to reduce severity of the crash. For truck-involved crashes, the driver factor has a significant effect on severity of the crash although its effect is slightly less than the crash factor. The multiple group analysis employed to analyze the differences between the heterogeneous groups of drivers.

Keywords: crash severity, structural structural equation modeling (SEM), truck-involved crashes, multiple group analysis, crash on freeway

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
460 Management Practices and Economic Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

Although dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity, milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize husbandry practices, educational experiences, decision-making practices, constraints, income and expenses of smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. A total of 200 farms, located in the regions Ho Chi Minh (HCM, N=80 farms), Lam Dong (N=40 farms), Binh Duong (N=40 farms) and Long An (N=40 farms) were included. Between October 2013 and December 2014 farmers were interviewed twice. On average, farms owned 3.200m2, 2.000m2, and 193m2 of pasture, cropping and housing area, respectively. The number of total, milking and dry cows, heifers, and calves were 20.4, 11.6, 4.7, 3.3, and 2.9 head. The number of lactating dairy cows was higher (p<0.001) in HCM (15.5) and Lam Dong (14.7) than in Binh Duong (6.7) and Long An (10.7). Animals were mainly crossbred Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with at least 75% HF origin (84%), whereas a higher (P<0.001) percentage of purebred HF was found in HCM and Lam Dong and crossbreds in Binh Duong and Long An. Animals were mainly raised in tie-stalls (94%) and machine-milked (80%). Farmers used their own replacement animals (76%), and both genetic and phenotypic information (67%) for selecting sires. Farmers were predominantly educated at primary school level (53%). Major constraints for dairy farming were the lack of capital (43%), diseases (17%), marketing (22%), lack of knowledge (8%) and feed (7%). Monthly profit per lactating cow was superior in Lam Dong (2,817 thousand VND) and HCM (2,798 thousand VND) compared to other regions in Long An (2,597 thousand VND), and Binh Duong (1,775 thousand VND). Regional differences may be mainly attributed to environmental factors, urbanization, and particularly governmental support and the availability of extension and financial institutions. Results from this study provide important information on farming practices of smallholders in Southern Vietnam that are useful in determining regions that need to be addressed by authorities in order to improve dairy production.

Keywords: dairy farms, milk yield, Southern Vietnam, socio-economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
459 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim

Abstract:

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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458 Myths and Strategies for Teaching Calculus in English for Taiwanese Students: A Report Based on Three-Years of Practice

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

This paper reviews the crucial situation in higher education in Taiwan due to the rapid decline of the birth rate in the past three decades, and how the government and local colleges/universities work to face the challenge. Recruiting international students is one of the possible ways to resolve the problem, but offering enough courses in English is one of the main obstacles when the majority of learners are still Taiwanese students. In the academic year of 2012, Chung Yuan Christian University determined to make its campus international and began to enforce two required courses for freshmen taught in English. It failed in the beginning, but succeeded in the following academic year of 2013. Using the teaching evaluations accumulated in the past three years, this paper aims to clarify the myths which had been bothering most faculties. It also offers some suggestions for college/university teachers interested in giving lectures in English to English as Second Language (ESL) learners. A conclusion is presented at the end of the paper, in which the author explained why Taiwanese students could learn their profession in English.

Keywords: calculus, English, teaching evaluation, teaching strategy, vocabulary

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
457 Induction of G1 Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Panaxydol

Authors: Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Sang Yoon Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we focused on the anti-proliferative effects of panaxydol, a C17 polyacetylenic compound derived from Panax ginseng roots, against various human cancer cells. We treated with panaxydol to various cancer cells and panaxydol treatment was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) and human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), of which AsPC-1 cells were most sensitive to its treatment. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that panaxydol blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in A549 cells, which accompanied by a parallel reduction of protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs), such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1, were gradually upregulated after panaxydol treatment at the protein levels. Furthermore, panaxydol induced the activation of p53 in A549 cells. In addition, panaxydol also induced apoptosis of AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, as shown by accumulation of subG1 and apoptotic cell populations. Panaxydol triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by panaxydol was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, panaxydol suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-2, and increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and Bad. In addition, panaxydol inhibited the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK). Our results suggest that panaxydol is an anti-tumor compound that causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in various cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, G1 arrest, panaxydol

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456 Development of Nondestructive Imaging Analysis Method Using Muonic X-Ray with a Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector

Authors: I-Huan Chiu, Kazuhiko Ninomiya, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Meito Kajino, Miho Katsuragawa, Shunsaku Nagasawa, Atsushi Shinohara, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryota Tomaru, Shin Watanabe, Goro Yabu

Abstract:

In recent years, a nondestructive elemental analysis method based on muonic X-ray measurements has been developed and applied for various samples. Muonic X-rays are emitted after the formation of a muonic atom, which occurs when a negatively charged muon is captured in a muon atomic orbit around the nucleus. Because muonic X-rays have higher energy than electronic X-rays due to the muon mass, they can be measured without being absorbed by a material. Thus, estimating the two-dimensional (2D) elemental distribution of a sample became possible using an X-ray imaging detector. In this work, we report a non-destructive imaging experiment using muonic X-rays at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The irradiated target consisted of polypropylene material, and a double-sided silicon strip detector, which was developed as an imaging detector for astronomical observation, was employed. A peak corresponding to muonic X-rays from the carbon atoms in the target was clearly observed in the energy spectrum at an energy of 14 keV, and 2D visualizations were successfully reconstructed to reveal the projection image from the target. This result demonstrates the potential of the non-destructive elemental imaging method that is based on muonic X-ray measurement. To obtain a higher position resolution for imaging a smaller target, a new detector system will be developed to improve the statistical analysis in further research.

Keywords: DSSD, muon, muonic X-ray, imaging, non-destructive analysis

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455 RE:SOUNDING a 2000-Year-Old Vietnamese Dong Son Bronze Drum; Artist-Led Collaborations outside the Museum to Challenge the Impasse of Repatriating and Rematriating Cultural Instruments

Authors: H. A. J. Nguyen, V. A. Pham

Abstract:

RE:SOUNDING is an ongoing research project and artwork seeking to return the sound and knowledge of Dong Son bronze drums back to contemporary musicians. Colonial collections of ethnographic instruments are problematic in how they commit acts of conceptual, cultural, and acoustic silencing. The collection (or more honestly), the plagiarism, and pillaging of these instruments have systemically separated them from living and breathing cultures. This includes diasporic communities, who have come to resettle in close proximity - but still have little access - to the museums and galleries that display their cultural objects. Despite recent attempts to 'open up' and 'recognise' the tensions and violence of these ethnographic collections, many museums continue to structurally organize and reproduce knowledge with the same procedural distance and limitations of imperial condescension. Impatient with the slowness of these museums, our diaspora led collaborations participated in the opaque economy of the auction market to gain access and begin the process of digitally recording and archiving the actual sounds of the ancient Dong Son drum. This self-directed, self-initiated artwork not only acoustically reinvigorated an ancient instrument but redistributed these sonic materials back to contemporary musicians, composers, and their diasporic communities throughout Vietnam, South East Asia, and Australia. Our methodologies not only highlight the persistent inflexibility of museum infrastructures but demand that museums refrain from their paternalistic practice of risk-averse ownership, to seriously engage with new technologies and political formations that require all public institutions to be held accountable for the ethical and intellectual viability of their colonial collections. The integrated and practical resolve of diasporic artists and their communities are more than capable of working with new technologies to reclaim and reinvigorate what is culturally and spiritually theirs. The motivation to rematriate – as opposed to merely repatriate – the acoustic legacies of these instruments to contemporary musicians and artists is a new model for decolonial and restorative practices. Exposing the inadequacies of western scholarship that continues to treat these instruments as discreet, disembodied, and detached artifacts, these collaborative strategies have thus far produced a wealth of new knowledge – new to the west perhaps – but not that new to these, our own communities. This includes the little-acknowledged fact that the Dong Son drum were political instruments of war and technology, rather than their simplistic description in the museum and western academia as agrarian instruments of fertility and harvest. Through the collective and continued sharing of knowledge and sound materials produced from this research, these drums are gaining a contemporary relevance beyond the cultural silencing of the museum display cabinet. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the Wurundjeri and Boon Wurrung of the Kulin Nation and the Gadigal of the Eora Nation where we began this project. We pay our respects to the Peoples, Lands, Traditional Custodians, Practices, and Creator Ancestors of these Great Nations, as well as those First Nations peoples throughout Australia, Vietnam, and Indonesia, where this research continues, and upon whose stolen lands and waterways were never ceded.

Keywords: acoustic archaeology, decolonisation, museum collections, rematriation, repatriation, Dong Son, experimental music, digital recording

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