Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4547

Search results for: flow mixing

4547 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu


Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

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4546 Robust Design of Electroosmosis Driven Self-Circulating Micromixer for Biological Applications

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Emily Earl, Mina Hoorfar


One of the issues that arises with microscale lab-on-a-chip technology is that the laminar flow within the microchannels limits the mixing of fluids. To combat this, micromixers have been introduced as a means to try and incorporate turbulence into the flow to better aid the mixing process. This study presents an electroosmotic micromixer that balances vortex generation and degeneration with the inlet flow velocity to greatly increase the mixing efficiency. A comprehensive parametric study was performed to evaluate the role of the relevant parameters on the mixing efficiency. It was observed that the suggested micromixer is perfectly suited for biological applications due to its low pressure drop (below 10 Pa) and low shear rate. The proposed micromixer with optimized working parameters is able to attain a mixing efficiency of 95% in a span of 0.5 seconds using a frequency of 10 Hz, a voltage of 0.7 V, and an inlet velocity of 0.366 mm/s.

Keywords: microfluidics, active mixer, pulsed AC electroosmosis flow, micromixer

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4545 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee


Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

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4544 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi


Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer

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4543 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo


This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: curved channel, microfluidics, mixing, non-newtonian fluids, vortex

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4542 Effect of Swirling Mixer on the Exhaust Flow in a Diesel SCR Aftertreatment System

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim, In Jae Song


The widespread utilization of mixer in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system marks a remarkable advantage in diesel engines. In the automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, the de-NOX efficiency can be improved by highly uniform flow with effective turbulent mixing. In this paper, the exhaust pipe is complemented with the swirling mixers of three different vane angles installed at the upstream of the SCR reactor. The attributes of the mixer are established by the variation in flow behavior followed by the drawback owing to the absence of mixer. In particular, the information pertaining to the selection of proper static mixer is provided based on the correlation between the uniformity index (UI) and the pressure drop. The uniform distribution of the flow at the entrance of the SCR reactor aids to determine the configuration which gives high mixing performance and comprehend the function of the mixer.

Keywords: pressure drop, selective catalytic reduction, static mixer, turbulent mixing, uniformity index

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4541 CFD Simulation of Spacer Effect on Turbulent Mixing Phenomena in Sub Channels of Boiling Nuclear Assemblies

Authors: Shashi Kant Verma, S. L. Sinha, D. K. Chandraker


Numerical simulations of selected subchannel tracer (Potassium Nitrate) based experiments have been performed to study the capabilities of state-of-the-art of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology can be useful for investigating the spacer effect on turbulent mixing to predict turbulent flow behavior such as Dimensionless mixing scalar distributions, radial velocity and vortices in the nuclear fuel assembly. A Gibson and Launder (GL) Reynolds stress model (RSM) has been selected as the primary turbulence model to be applied for the simulation case as it has been previously found reasonably accurate to predict flows inside rod bundles. As a comparison, the case is also simulated using a standard k-ε turbulence model that is widely used in industry. Despite being an isotropic turbulence model, it has also been used in the modeling of flow in rod bundles and to produce lateral velocities after thorough mixing of coolant fairly. Both these models have been solved numerically to find out fully developed isothermal turbulent flow in a 30º segment of a 54-rod bundle. Numerical simulation has been carried out for the study of natural mixing of a Tracer (Passive scalar) to characterize the growth of turbulent diffusion in an injected sub-channel and, afterwards on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The mixing with water has been numerically studied by means of steady state CFD simulations with the commercial code STAR-CCM+. Flow enters into the computational domain through the mass inflow at the three subchannel faces. Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter of 1% and 5.9 mm respectively were used for the inlet. A passive scalar (Potassium nitrate) is injected through the mass fraction of 5.536 PPM at subchannel 2 (Upstream of the mixing section). Flow exited the domain through the pressure outlet boundary (0 Pa), and the reference pressure was 1 atm. Simulation results have been extracted at different locations of the mixing zone and downstream zone. The local mass fraction shows uniform mixing. The effect of the applied turbulence model is nearly negligible just before the outlet plane because the distributions look like almost identical and the flow is fully developed. On the other hand, quantitatively the dimensionless mixing scalar distributions change noticeably, which is visible in the different scale of the colour bars.

Keywords: single-phase flow, turbulent mixing, tracer, sub channel analysis

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4540 Porous Bluff-Body Disc on Improving the Gas-Mixing Efficiency

Authors: Shun-Chang Yen, You-Lun Peng, Kuo-Ching San


A numerical study on a bluff-body structure with multiple holes was conducted using ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics analysis. The effects of the hole number and jet inclination angles were considered under a fixed gas flow rate and nonreactive gas. The bluff body with multiple holes can transform the axial momentum into a radial and tangential momentum as well as increase the swirl number (S). The concentration distribution in the mixing of a central carbon dioxide (CO2) jet and an annular air jet was utilized to analyze the mixing efficiency. Three bluff bodies with differing hole numbers (H = 3, 6, and 12) and three jet inclination angles (θ = 45°, 60°, and 90°) were designed for analysis. The Reynolds normal stress increases with the inclination angle. The Reynolds shear stress, average turbulence intensity, and average swirl number decrease with the inclination angle. For an unsymmetrical hole configuration (i.e., H = 3), the streamline patterns exhibited an unsymmetrical flow field. The highest mixing efficiency (i.e., the lowest integral gas fraction of CO2) occurred at H = 3. Furthermore, the highest swirl number coincided with the strongest effect on the mass fraction of CO2. Therefore, an unsymmetrical hole arrangement induced a high swirl flow behind the porous disc.

Keywords: bluff body with multiple holes, computational fluid dynamics, swirl-jet flow, mixing efficiency

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4539 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low


This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: geopolymer, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing, physical properties, mechanical properties

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4538 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos


This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration

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4537 Flow Field Analysis of a Liquid Ejector Pump Using Embedded Large Eddy Simulation Methodology

Authors: Qasim Zaheer, Jehanzeb Masud


The understanding of entrainment and mixing phenomenon in the ejector pump is of pivotal importance for designing and performance estimation. In this paper, the existence of turbulent vortical structures due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the free surface between the motive and the entrained fluids streams are simulated using Embedded LES methodology. The efficacy of Embedded LES for simulation of complex flow field of ejector pump is evaluated using ANSYS Fluent®. The enhanced mixing and entrainment process due to breaking down of larger eddies into smaller ones as a consequence of Vortex Stretching phenomenon is captured in this study. Moreover, the flow field characteristics of ejector pump like pressure velocity fields and mass flow rates are analyzed and validated against the experimental results.

Keywords: Kelvin Helmholtz instability, embedded LES, complex flow field, ejector pump

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4536 Numerical Analysis of Fluid Mixing in Three Split and Recombine Micromixers at Different Inlets Volume Ratio

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, M. Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte


Numerical simulation were carried out to study the mixing of miscible liquid at different inlets volume ratio (1 to 3) within two existing mixers namely Chain, Tear-drop and one new “C-H” mixer. The new passive C-H micromixer is developed based on split and recombine principles, combining the operation concepts of known Chain mixer and H mixer. The mixing performances of the three micromixers were predicted by a preliminary numerical analysis of the flow patterns inside the channel in terms of the segregation or distribution of path lines. Afterward, the efficiency and the pressure drop were investigated numerically, taking into account species transport. All numerical calculations were computed at a wide range of Reynolds number from 1 to 100. Among the presented three micromixers, tear-drop provides fairly good efficiency except in the middle range of Re numbers but has high-pressure drop. In addition, inlets flow ratio has a significant influence on efficiency, especially at the Re number range of 10 to 50, Moreover maximum increase of efficiency is almost 10% when inlets flow ratio is increased by 1. Chain mixer presents relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle range of Re numbers (5≤Re≤50) but has reasonable pressure drop. Furthermore, Chain mixer shows almost no dependence on inlets flow ratio. Whereas, C-H mixer poses excellent mixing efficiency (more than 93%) for all range of Re numbers and causes the lowest pressure drop, On top of that efficiency has slight dependency on inlets flow ratio. In addition, C-H mixer shows respectively about three and two times lower pressure drop than Tear-drop and Chain mixers.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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4535 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni


This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics®, electrokinetic, electroosmotic, microfluidics, zeta potential

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4534 Gas-Liquid Flow Regimes in Vertical Venturi Downstream of Horizontal Blind-Tee

Authors: Muhammad Alif Bin Razali, Cheng-Gang Xie, Wai Lam Loh


A venturi device is commonly used as an integral part of a multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) in real-time oil-gas production monitoring. For an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flowrate, a gas-liquid flow ideally needs to be well mixed in the venturi measurement section. Partial flow mixing is achieved by installing a venturi vertically downstream of the blind-tee pipework that ‘homogenizes’ the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow. In order to study in-depth the flow-mixing effect of the blind-tee, gas-liquid flows are captured at blind-tee and venturi sections by using a high-speed video camera and a purpose-built transparent test rig, over a wide range of superficial liquid velocities (0.3 to 2.4m/s) and gas volume fractions (10 to 95%). Electrical capacitance sensors are built to measure the instantaneous holdup (of oil-gas flows) at the venturi inlet and throat. Flow regimes and flow (a)symmetry are investigated based on analyzing the statistical features of capacitance sensors’ holdup time-series data and of the high-speed video time-stacked images. The perceived homogenization effect of the blind-tee on the incoming intermittent horizontal flow regimes is found to be relatively small across the tested flow conditions. A horizontal (blind-tee) to vertical (venturi) flow-pattern transition map is proposed based on gas and liquid mass fluxes (weighted by the Baker parameters).

Keywords: blind-tee, flow visualization, gas-liquid two-phase flow, MPFM

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4533 Effect of Submerged Water Jet's Cross Section Shapes on Mixing Length

Authors: Mohsen Solimani Babarsad, Mohammad Rastgoo, Payam Taheri


One of the important applications of hydraulic jets is used for discharge industrial, agricultural and urban wastewater into the rivers or other ambient water to reduce negative effects of pollutant water. Submerged jets due to turbulent condition can mix large amount of dense pollutant water with ambient flow. This study is conducted to investigate the distribution and length of the mixing zone in hydraulic jet's flow field with change in cross section shapes of nozzle. Toward this end, three shapes of cross section (square, circle and rectangular) and three saline densities current with different concentration are considered in a flume with 600 cm as long, 100 cm as high and 150 cm in width. Various discharges were used to evaluate mixing length for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers, Frd, from 100 to 550 that is defined at the nozzle. Consequently, the circular nozzle, in comparison with other sections, has a densimetric Froude number 11% higher than square nozzle and 26% higher than rectangular nozzle.

Keywords: hydraulic jet, mixing zone, densimetric Froude number, nozzle

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4532 Condition Monitoring for Twin-Fluid Nozzles with Internal Mixing

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer


Liquid sprays of water are frequently used in air pollution control for gas cooling purposes and for gas cleaning. Twin-fluid nozzles with internal mixing are often used for these purposes because of the small size of the drops produced. In these nozzles the liquid is dispersed by compressed air or another pressurized gas. In high efficiency scrubbers for particle separation, several nozzles are operated in parallel because of the size of the cross section. In such scrubbers, the scrubbing water has to be re-circulated. Precipitation of some solid material can occur in the liquid circuit, caused by chemical reactions. When such precipitations are detached from the place of formation, they can partly or totally block the liquid flow to a nozzle. Due to the resulting unbalanced supply of the nozzles with water and gas, the efficiency of separation decreases. Thus, the nozzles have to be cleaned if a certain fraction of blockages is reached. The aim of this study was to provide a tool for continuously monitoring the status of the nozzles of a scrubber based on the available operation data (water flow, air flow, water pressure and air pressure). The difference between the air pressure and the water pressure is not well suited for this purpose, because the difference is quite small and therefore very exact calibration of the pressure measurement would be required. Therefore, an equation for the reference air flow of a nozzle at the actual water flow and operation pressure was derived. This flow can be compared with the actual air flow for assessment of the status of the nozzles.

Keywords: condition monitoring, dual flow nozzles, flow equation, operation data

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4531 The Influence of Bentonite on the Rheology of Geothermal Grouts

Authors: A. N. Ghafar, O. A. Chaudhari, W. Oettel, P. Fontana


This study is a part of the EU project GEOCOND-Advanced materials and processes to improve performance and cost-efficiency of shallow geothermal systems and underground thermal storage. In heat exchange boreholes, to improve the heat transfer between the pipes and the surrounding ground, the space between the pipes and the borehole wall is normally filled with geothermal grout. Traditionally, bentonite has been a crucial component in most commercially available geothermal grouts to assure the required stability and impermeability. The investigations conducted in the early stage of this project during the benchmarking tests on some commercial grouts showed considerable sensitivity of the rheological properties of the tested grouts to the mixing parameters, i.e., mixing time and velocity. Further studies on this matter showed that bentonite, which has been one of the important constituents in most grout mixes, was probably responsible for such behavior. Apparently, proper amount of shear should be applied during the mixing process to sufficiently activate the bentonite. The higher the amount of applied shear the more the activation of bentonite, resulting in change in the grout rheology. This explains why, occasionally in the field applications, the flow properties of the commercially available geothermal grouts using different mixing conditions (mixer type, mixing time, mixing velocity) are completely different than expected. A series of tests were conducted on the grout mixes, with and without bentonite, using different mixing protocols. The aim was to eliminate/reduce the sensitivity of the rheological properties of the geothermal grouts to the mixing parameters by replacing bentonite with polymeric (non-clay) stabilizers. The results showed that by replacing bentonite with a proper polymeric stabilizer, the sensitivity of the grout mix on mixing time and velocity was to a great extent diminished. This can be considered as an alternative for the developers/producers of geothermal grouts to provide enhanced materials with less uncertainty in obtained results in the field applications.

Keywords: flow properties, geothermal grout, mixing time, mixing velocity, rheological properties

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4530 Predicting Mixing Patterns of Overflows from a Square Manhole

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh


During manhole overflows, its contents pollute the immediate environment. Understanding the pollutant transfer characteristics between manhole’s incoming sewer and the overflow is therefore of great importance. A square manhole with sides 388 mm by 388 mm and height 700 mm with an overflow facility was used in the laboratory to carry out overflow concentration measurements. Two scenarios were investigated using three flow rates. The first scenario corresponded to when the exit of the pipe becomes blocked and the only exit for the flow is the manhole. The second scenario is when there is an overflow in combination with a pipe exit. The temporal concentration measurements showed that the peak concentration of pollutants in the flow was attenuated between the inlet and the overflow. A deconvolution software was used to predict the Residence time distribution (RTD) and consequently the Cumulative Residence time distribution (CRTD). The CRTDs suggest that complete mixing is occurring between the pipe inlet and the overflow, like what is obtained in a low surcharged manhole. The results also suggest that an instantaneous stirred tank reactor model can describe the mixing characteristics.

Keywords: CRTDs, instantaneous stirred tank reactor model, overflow, square manholes, surcharge, temporal concentration profiles

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4529 Interfacial Instability and Mixing Behavior between Two Liquid Layers Bounded in Finite Volumes

Authors: Lei Li, Ming M. Chai, Xiao X. Lu, Jia W. Wang


The mixing process of two liquid layers in a cylindrical container includes the upper liquid with higher density rushing into the lower liquid with lighter density, the lower liquid rising into the upper liquid, meanwhile the two liquid layers having interactions with each other, forming vortices, spreading or dispersing in others, entraining or mixing with others. It is a complex process constituted of flow instability, turbulent mixing and other multiscale physical phenomena and having a fast evolution velocity. In order to explore the mechanism of the process and make further investigations, some experiments about the interfacial instability and mixing behavior between two liquid layers bounded in different volumes are carried out, applying the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and the high speed camera (HSC) techniques. According to the results, the evolution of interfacial instability between immiscible liquid develops faster than theoretical rate given by the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) theory. It is reasonable to conjecture that some mechanisms except the RTI play key roles in the mixture process of two liquid layers. From the results, it is shown that the invading velocity of the upper liquid into the lower liquid does not depend on the upper liquid's volume (height). Comparing to the cases that the upper and lower containers are of identical diameter, in the case that the lower liquid volume increases to larger geometric space, the upper liquid spreads and expands into the lower liquid more quickly during the evolution of interfacial instability, indicating that the container wall has important influence on the mixing process. In the experiments of miscible liquid layers’ mixing, the diffusion time and pattern of the liquid interfacial mixing also does not depend on the upper liquid's volumes, and when the lower liquid volume increases to larger geometric space, the action of the bounded wall on the liquid falling and rising flow will decrease, and the liquid interfacial mixing effects will also attenuate. Therefore, it is also concluded that the volume weight of upper heavier liquid is not the reason of the fast interfacial instability evolution between the two liquid layers and the bounded wall action is limited to the unstable and mixing flow. The numerical simulations of the immiscible liquid layers’ interfacial instability flow using the VOF method show the typical flow pattern agree with the experiments. However the calculated instability development is much slower than the experimental measurement. The numerical simulation of the miscible liquids’ mixing, which applying Fick’s diffusion law to the components’ transport equation, shows a much faster mixing rate than the experiments on the liquids’ interface at the initial stage. It can be presumed that the interfacial tension plays an important role in the interfacial instability between the two liquid layers bounded in finite volume.

Keywords: interfacial instability and mixing, two liquid layers, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), High Speed Camera (HSC), interfacial energy and tension, Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CHNS) equations

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4528 Impact of Mixing Parameters on Homogenization of Borax Solution and Nucleation Rate in Dual Radial Impeller Crystallizer

Authors: A. Kaćunić, M. Ćosić, N. Kuzmanić


Interaction between mixing and crystallization is often ignored despite the fact that it affects almost every aspect of the operation including nucleation, growth, and maintenance of the crystal slurry. This is especially pronounced in multiple impeller systems where flow complexity is increased. By choosing proper mixing parameters, what closely depends on the knowledge of the hydrodynamics in a mixing vessel, the process of batch cooling crystallization may considerably be improved. The values that render useful information when making this choice are mixing time and power consumption. The predominant motivation for this work was to investigate the extent to which radial dual impeller configuration influences mixing time, power consumption and consequently the values of metastable zone width and nucleation rate. In this research, crystallization of borax was conducted in a 15 dm3 baffled batch cooling crystallizer with an aspect ratio (H/T) of 1.3. Mixing was performed using two straight blade turbines (4-SBT) mounted on the same shaft that generated radial fluid flow. Experiments were conducted at different values of N/NJS ratio (impeller speed/ minimum impeller speed for complete suspension), D/T ratio (impeller diameter/crystallizer diameter), c/D ratio (lower impeller off-bottom clearance/impeller diameter), and s/D ratio (spacing between impellers/impeller diameter). Mother liquor was saturated at 30°C and was cooled at the rate of 6°C/h. Its concentration was monitored in line by Na-ion selective electrode. From the values of supersaturation that was monitored continuously over process time, it was possible to determine the metastable zone width and subsequently the nucleation rate using the Mersmann’s nucleation criterion. For all applied dual impeller configurations, the mixing time was determined by potentiometric method using a pulse technique, while the power consumption was determined using a torque meter produced by Himmelstein & Co. Results obtained in this investigation show that dual impeller configuration significantly influences the values of mixing time, power consumption as well as the metastable zone width and nucleation rate. A special attention should be addressed to the impeller spacing considering the flow interaction that could be more or less pronounced depending on the spacing value.

Keywords: dual impeller crystallizer, mixing time, power consumption, metastable zone width, nucleation rate

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4527 Large-Eddy Simulations for Flow Control

Authors: Reda Mankbadi


There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is imbedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating and cooling, Etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include: Airfoil Noise Suppression: LES is used to simulate the effect of the synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In a vertical takeoff of Aircraft or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protect the structure and pay load from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.

Keywords: aerodynamics, simulations, aeroacoustics, active flow control (AFC), Large-Eddy Simulations (LES)

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4526 Hydrodynamic Study of Laminar Flow in Agitated Vessel by a Curved Blade Agitator

Authors: A. Benmoussa, M. Bouanini, M. Rebhi


The mixing and agitation of fluid in stirred tank is one of the most important unit operations for many industries such as chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, cosmetic, and food processing. Therefore, determining the level of mixing and overall behaviour and performance of the mixing tanks are crucial from the product quality and process economics point of views. The most fundamental needs for the analysis of these processes from both a theoretical and industrial perspective is the knowledge of the hydrodynamic behaviour and the flow structure in such tanks. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. Initially, a local and global study namely the velocity and power number on a typical agitation system agitated by a mobile-type two-blade straight (d/D=0.5) allowed us to test the reliability of the CFD, the result were compared with those of experimental literature, a very good concordance was observed. The stream function, the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power number are analyzed. It was shown that the hydrodynamics is modified by the curvature of the mobile which plays a key role.

Keywords: agitated tanks, curved blade agitator, laminar flow, CFD modelling

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4525 Unsteady Flow Simulations for Microchannel Design and Its Fabrication for Nanoparticle Synthesis

Authors: Mrinalini Amritkar, Disha Patil, Swapna Kulkarni, Sukratu Barve, Suresh Gosavi


Micro-mixers play an important role in the lab-on-a-chip applications and micro total analysis systems to acquire the correct level of mixing for any given process. The mixing process can be classified as active or passive according to the use of external energy. Literature of microfluidics reports that most of the work is done on the models of steady laminar flow; however, the study of unsteady laminar flow is an active area of research at present. There are wide applications of this, out of which, we consider nanoparticle synthesis in micro-mixers. In this work, we have developed a model for unsteady flow to study the mixing performance of a passive micro mixer for reactants used for such synthesis. The model is developed in Finite Volume Method (FVM)-based software, OpenFOAM. The model is tested by carrying out the simulations at Re of 0.5. Mixing performance of the micro-mixer is investigated using simulated concentration values of mixed species across the width of the micro-mixer and calculating the variance across a line profile. Experimental validation is done by passing dyes through a Y shape micro-mixer fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer and comparing variances with the simulated ones. Gold nanoparticles are later synthesized through the micro-mixer and collected at two different times leading to significantly different size distributions. These times match with the time scales over which reactant concentrations vary as obtained from simulations. Our simulations could thus be used to create design aids for passive micro-mixers used in nanoparticle synthesis.

Keywords: Lab-on-chip, LOC, micro-mixer, OpenFOAM, PDMS

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4524 Flow Visualization around a Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Cemre Polat, Mustafa Soyler, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, it was aimed to control the flow actively by giving an oscillating rotational motion to a vertically placed cylinder, and flow characteristics were determined. In the study, firstly, the flow structure around the flat cylinder was investigated with dye experiments, and then the cylinders with different oscillation angles (θ = 60°, θ = 120°, and θ = 180°) and different rotation speeds (15 rpm and 30 rpm) the flow structure around it was examined. Thus, the effectiveness of oscillation and rotation speed in flow control has been investigated. In the dye experiments, the dye/water mixture obtained by mixing Rhodamine 6G in powder form with water, which shines under laser light and allows detailed observation of the flow structure, was used. During the experiments, the dye was injected into the flow with the help of a thin needle at a distance that would not affect the flow from the front of the cylinder. In dye experiments, 100 frames per second were taken with a Canon brand EOS M50 (24MP) digital mirrorless camera at a resolution of 1280 * 720 pixels. Then, the images taken were analyzed, and the pictures representing the flow structure for each experiment were obtained. As a result of the study, it was observed that no separation points were formed at 180° swing angle at 15 rpm speed, 120° and 180° swing angle at 30 rpm, and the flow was controlled according to the fixed cylinder.

Keywords: active flow control, cylinder, flow visualization rotationally oscillating

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4523 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia


Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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4522 Polymer Mixing in the Cavity Transfer Mixer

Authors: Giovanna Grosso, Martien A. Hulsen, Arash Sarhangi Fard, Andrew Overend, Patrick. D. Anderson


In many industrial applications and, in particular in polymer industry, the quality of mixing between different materials is fundamental to guarantee the desired properties of finished products. However, properly modelling and understanding polymer mixing often presents noticeable difficulties, because of the variety and complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This is the case of the Cavity Transfer Mixer (CTM), for which a clear understanding of mixing mechanisms is still missing, as well as clear guidelines for the system optimization. This device, invented and patented by Gale at Rapra Technology Limited, is an add-on to be mounted downstream of existing extruders, in order to improve distributive mixing. It consists of two concentric cylinders, the rotor and stator, both provided with staggered rows of hemispherical cavities. The inner cylinder (rotor) rotates, while the outer (stator) remains still. At the same time, the pressure load imposed upstream, pushes the fluid through the CTM. Mixing processes are driven by the flow field generated by the complex interaction between the moving geometry, the imposed pressure load and the rheology of the fluid. In such a context, the present work proposes a complete and accurate three dimensional modelling of the CTM and results of a broad range of simulations assessing the impact on mixing of several geometrical and functioning parameters. Among them, we find: the number of cavities per row, the number of rows, the size of the mixer, the rheology of the fluid and the ratio between the rotation speed and the fluid throughput. The model is composed of a flow part and a mixing part: a finite element solver computes the transient velocity field, which is used in the mapping method implementation in order to simulate the concentration field evolution. Results of simulations are summarized in guidelines for the device optimization.

Keywords: Mixing, non-Newtonian fluids, polymers, rheology.

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4521 Large-Eddy Simulations for Aeronautical Systems

Authors: R. R. Mankbadi


There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is embedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating, and cooling, etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include Airfoil Noise Suppression: Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) is used to simulate the effect of synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In vertical takeoff of Aircrafts or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protecting the structure and payload from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, flow control, aerodynamics, large eddy simulations

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4520 IT Systems of the US Federal Courts, Justice, and Governance

Authors: Joseph Zernik


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: e-justice, federal courts, human rights, banking regulation, United States

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4519 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
4518 Effect of Rotation Rate on Chemical Segregation during Phase Change

Authors: Nouri Sabrina, Benzeghiba Mohamed, Ghezal Abderrahmane


Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended Darcy model, which includes the time derivative and Coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It was found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetic field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axially. When the convection is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: numerical simulation, heat and mass transfer, vertical solidification, chemical segregation

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