Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 546

Search results for: Dong minority

546 Woman, House, Identity: The Study of the Role of House in Constructing the Contemporary Dong Minority Woman’s Identity

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Similar to most ethnic groups in China, men of the Dong minority hold the primary position in policymaking, moral authority, social values, and the control of the property. As the spatial embodiment of the patriarchal ideals, the house plays a significant role in producing and reproducing the distinctive gender status within the Dong society. Nevertheless, Dong women do not see their home as a cage of confinement, nor do they see themselves as a victim of oppression. For these women with reference to their productive identity, a house is a dwelling place with manifold meanings, including a proof of identity, an economic instrument, and a public resource operating on the community level. This paper examines the role of the house as a central site for identity construction and maintenance for the southern dialect Dong minority women in Hunan, China. Drawing on recent interviews with the Dong women, this study argues that women as productive individuals have a strong influence on the form of their house and the immediate environment, regardless of the male-dominated social construct of the Dong society. The aim of this study is not to produce a definitive relationship between women, house, and identity. Rather, it seeks to offer an alternative lens into the complexity and diversity of gender dynamics operating in and beyond the boundary of the house in the context of contemporary rural China.

Keywords: conception of home, Dong minority, house, rural China, woman’s identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
545 A House for Men: A Study of the Dong Minority Residential Architecture in the Southern Dialect Areas from a Gender Perspective

Authors: Fung Sze Wai Veera, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Gender functions as a principle in organizing society based on the cultural meanings given to males and females. It is an essential component in constructing the spatial reality, one that is in most cases in favor of men’s needs and disregards that of women’s. Similar to other minorities in China, men of the Dong community hold the primary position in policymaking, moral standards, social values, and, furthermore, the building of the physical environment. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the residential architecture of Dong through the lens of gender. Specifically, it examines how the patriarchal practice of Dong is manifested in terms of the spatial organization, the architectural feature, and the construction process of Dong houses in the southern dialect areas. While the residential architecture of Dong has been extensively researched, the role of gender culture in designing and constructing it deserves more research attention. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to challenge the notion of gender-inclusive design in the rural China context while opening up a cross-disciplinary discussion concerning Chinese minority architecture and gender studies.

Keywords: Dong minority residential architecture, gender study, built environment, male-dominated society, gender-inclusive design

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
544 Home-based Production of the Southern Dialect Dong Minority Women in Rural Hunan, China

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Since the economic reform in 1980s, many men and women of the southern dialect Dong minority have migrated to coastal cities for employment. Responding to the outgoing providers of the families, women, especially those at the middle age, resort to the informal home-based services and goods production for income generation. Homework, therefore, becomes a key economic strategy in supporting the household expenses in rural China, where formal employment is often inadequate for local women. This paper seeks to examine the intersection between gender and household strategy in the broader economic context of rural China. Based on the interviews and site survey in Tongdao Dong Autonomous County, the study analyses the variety of the home-based production activities, the experience of women in the production process, and the impact on familial relation and gender division of labor at home. The objective of this research is to advance the understanding of the informal economic landscape in the contemporary rural China, through which an alternative and possibly a more appropriate mode of development can be investigated.

Keywords: gender relation, home-based production, household strategy, informal economy, rural China, dong minority

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
543 Under the ‘Fourth World’: A Discussion to the Transformation of Character-Settings in Chinese Ethnic Minority Films

Authors: Sicheng Liu

Abstract:

Based on the key issue of the current fourth world studies, the article aims to analyze the features of character-settings in Chinese ethnic minority films. As a generalizable transformation, this feature progresses from a microcosmic representation. It argues that, as the mediation, films note down the current state of people and their surroundings, while the ‘fourth world’ theorization (or the fourth cinema) provides a new perspective to ethnic minority topics in China. Like the ‘fourth cinema’ focusing on the depiction of indigeneity groups, the ethnic minority films portrait the non-Han nationalities in China. Both types possess the motif of returning history-writing to the minority members’ own hand. In this article, the discussion entirely involves three types of cinematic role-settings in Chinese minority themed films, which illustrates that, similar to the creative principle of the fourth film, the themes and narratives of these films are becoming more individualized, with more concern to minority grassroots.

Keywords: 'fourth world', Chinese ethnic minority films, ethnicity and culture reflection, 'mother tongue' (muyu), highlighting to individual spiritual

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
542 The Analysis of Language Shift, Accommodation, Attrition and Effects On Minority Languages In Pakistan

Authors: Afsheen Kashifa, Muhammad Saad Khan

Abstract:

The present study examines the linguistic use of English as a permanent part of the regional languages of Pakistan. This research has delimited its investigation to the language used by the students of English language who speak different regional languages. It deals with the attitudes, causes, and effects of the language shift from regional and minority languages to English. It further gets insights from the feedback provided by the students as respondents that English is replacing the minority languages for being the language of prestige, convenience, and rich vocabulary. These concepts have been achieved through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The findings of this research exhibit that the respondents speak English because of its vocabulary and easy way of communication; therefore, they enjoy a high place in society. This research also shows that the speakers of the regional languages are encouraged by their parents to speak English. Eventually, the words and expressions of English, the dominant language, have become a permanent part of the minority languages. Therefore, the minority languages are becoming endangered languages.

Keywords: language shift, language accommodation, language attrition, effects on minority languages

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
541 The Influence of English Learning on Ethnic Kazakh Minority Students’ Identity (Re)Construction at Chinese Universities

Authors: Sharapat Sharapat

Abstract:

English language is perceived as cultural capital in many non-native English-speaking countries, and minority groups in these social contexts seem to invest in the language to be empowered and reposition themselves from the imbalanced power relation with the dominant group. This study is devoted to explore how English learning influence minority Kazakh students’ identity (re)construction at Chinese universities from the scope of ‘imagined community, investment, and identity’ theory of Norton (2013). To this end the three research questions were designed as follows: 1) Kazakh minority students’ English learning experiences at Chinese universities; 2) Kazakh minority students’ views about benefits and opportunities of English learning; 3) the influence of English learning on Kazakh minority students’ identity (re)construction. The study employs an interview-based qualitative research method by interviewing nine Kazakh minority students in universities in Xinjiang and other inland cities in China. The findings suggest that through English learning, some students have reconstructed multiple identities as multicultural and global identities, which created ‘a third space’ to break limits of their ethnic and national identities and confused identity as someone in-between. Meanwhile, most minority students were empowered by the English language to resist inferior or marginalized positions and reconstruct imagined elite identity. However, English learning disempowered students who have little previous English education in school and placed them on unequal footing with other students, which further escalated the educational inequities.

Keywords: minority in China, identity construction, multilingual education, language empowerment

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
540 The Europeanization of Minority and Disability Rights: A Comparative View

Authors: Katharina Crepaz

Abstract:

Both minority rights and disability rights are relatively new fields for policy-making in a European context, and both are affected by the EU’s diversity mainstreaming approach, as well as by the non-discrimination legislation drafted at the European level. These processes correspond to the classic understanding of Europeanization, namely a “top-down” stream of influence from the European to the national and subnational levels. However, both minority and disability rights movements also show instances of “bottom-up” Europeanization, e.g. transnational advocacy networks and efforts to reach joint goals at the EU-level. This paper aims to provide a comparative perspective on Europeanization in both fields, pointing out similar dynamics and patterns, but also explaining in which sectors outcomes may be different and which domestic and other scope conditions may be responsible for these differences.

Keywords: europeanization, disability rights, minority rights, comparative perspective

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
539 Corporate Governance and Minority Shareholders Protection in the United Kingdom

Authors: Meltem Karatepe Kaya

Abstract:

The concept of corporate governance is not new but, due to the recent international financial crisis, it has become prominent in contemporary business, accounting and legal debates. There is a wealth of anecdotal evidence which shows that protection of minority shareholders is an important issue in the corporate governance literature. Minority shareholders typically hold low amounts of stocks, so the benefits gained from their participation in shareholder meetings are very asymmetric to the cost. Therefore, the presence of a good corporate governance structure is the proper protection of and respect for the rights and interests of shareholders, particularly those of minority shareholders. The research will attempt to find answers to the following questions: Why minority shareholders’ rights should be protected? How minority shareholders’ rights could be improved? Does the legal framework in the United Kingdom provide adequate protection for minority shareholders? This study will assess regulations about the legal protections of minority shareholders and try to find answer this question: ’Why is it inevitable for company law to treat in a successful way the problems arising from minority shareholders' conflict with other shareholders of a company?’The protection of minority shareholders is not only a corporate governance objective in its own right but also has added importance particularly in developing countries. In the United Kingdom(UK) and the United States of America(USA), there are diffused ownership structures so that any shareholders do not influence the management of the company. This is in stark contrast to companies in developing countries such as Turkey where controlling shareholders and related insiders are a well-known feature of ownership structures, and where companies are often governed and managed by controlling shareholders such as family firms and associated companies through cross-shareholdings and pyramiding ownership structures. In Turkey, the agency problem is not between shareholders and management. Rather it gives rise to another dimension of the agency problem – a conflict of interest between majority shareholders (controlling) and minority shareholders. This research will make a particularly useful contribution to knowledge-based information and understanding of company law in the UK, particularly minority shareholders' remedies. It will not only give information about law and regulations of minority shareholders' remedies but also it will provide some knowledge about doctrinal discussions and relevant cases. The major contribution to study will be in the knowledge of law and regulation in the legal protections of minority shareholders in the United Kingdom and Turkey. In this study, the recommendations will be given for the development of the legal framework and practices of protections for minority shareholders and small investors.

Keywords: controlling shareholders, corporate governance, derivative actions, minority shareholders

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
538 Minority Students' Attitudes on Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: Case Study of an Institute of Education for Ethnic Minorities

Authors: Xiaoxu Liu, Yuwen Chen

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated ethnic minority students’ perception of the implementation of preferential policies in China. Using a mixed methods design, we surveyed 320 students from an institute of education for ethnic minorities and conducted further in-depth interviews with seven respondents. Although interviewees were from 30 ethnic groups, most of them were from mainstream high schools. We found that minority students from preparatory classes have an overall positive attitude towards preferential policies and preparatory class but lack sense of belonging to the university for various reasons. Findings indicate that although preparatory class is regarded as being helpful for minority students’ academic development, there are differences of attitude mainly depending on the high schools they graduated from and their ethnic identities. Our analyses suggest that ethnicity, high school graduated from, hometown and family income are more important than gender, religion, and political affiliation when accounting for their perceptions of the implementation of preferential policies in China.

Keywords: Chinese minority education, higher education, preferential policies, survey analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
537 Comparing Breast Cancer Risk and the Risk Factors between Heterosexual Women and Sexual Minority Women in Taiwan: A Preliminary Result

Authors: Ya-Ching Wang, Yi-Maun Subeq

Abstract:

Background: There is a lack of evidence to understand differences in risk for developing breast cancer between sexual minority women and heterosexual women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to compare differences in risk for developing breast cancer between the two groups of Taiwanese women. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. A total of 238 Taiwanese women (mean age 30.69 years old, SD=8.231, range 20-60) were recruited between December 2016 and February 2017, including 115 heterosexual women and 123 sexual minority women. Results: There were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in body mass index, history of non-malignant breast disease, age at menarche and menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, use of hormone replacement therapy, nor the prevalence of breast cancer. The sexual minority women had higher rates of current drinking, smoking and using breast-bindings and also reported exercise more a week; the heterosexual women had higher rates of pregnancy, children, breastfeed, miscarriages, abortion and use of birth control pills. Discussion/Conclusion: There were significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in reproductive factors and behavioral risk factors for the development of breast cancer. In particular, the finding that the sexual minority women had higher rate of using breast-bindings (56.6%) than the heterosexual women (4.7%) should be further explore, in order to understand whether long-term breast compression is associated with the development of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, risk, sexual orientation, Taiwan

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
536 Ethnic Minority, Oil Theft and Insecurity in the North: Where the Gap and the Compromise are

Authors: Elaiho Osaruwense, Ajuzie Godson Chidiebere

Abstract:

Nigeria of at least 250 ethnic group a have suffered a lot of social, economic and political setback especially in the regime of oil and gas, that are exploited from the minority region of the Niger south -south areas. The rate of insecurity in the north gives a lot of questioning and concern, with the series of killings by the Boko Haram in some part of the north etc. the fact still remains on how the gap and the compromise will be reconciling especially with the incoming president of Muhammadu Buhari with all the problems which was not resolve by the past administration (President Ebele Jonathan), considering the configuration and the character of the Nigerian state. This paper tends to critically evaluate all this problems, assertion, proffering possible solution.

Keywords: ethnic minority, oil theft, insecurity, the gap and the compromise

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
535 Youth Voter Turnout in Jamaica: A Case Study of the 2016 General Election

Authors: Tracy-Ann Johnson-Myers

Abstract:

Since the early 1990’s voter turnout in Jamaica has been abysmal. More troubling, the group less interested in voting are the ‘articulate minority’ (educated youths, aged 18-35). Using surveys, media commentaries and data from the Electoral Commission of Jamaica, this study explores the relationship between educated youths and traditional politics in Jamaica. Specifically, it raises questions about why the ‘articulate minority’ did not vote in the 2016 general election. This will be done by highlighting the political and socio-economic reasons affecting their participation in the electoral process, their opinions of who is responsible for low voter turnout in Jamaica, and what they think needs to be done to encourage people in general to vote. The findings reveal that lack of interest in the democratic and electoral process by the ‘articulate minority’ is due to their growing distrust of politicians and political parties, and lack of confidence in the political process.

Keywords: articulate minority, Jamaica, voter apathy, voter turnout

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
534 Pushover Experiment of Traditional Dieh-Dou Timber Frame

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to investigate the joint behaviors of the Dieh-Dou structure. A pushover experiment of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong is implemented. NDI, LVDT and image measurement system are used to measure displacements of joints and deformations of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong. In addition, joint rotation-moment relationships of column restoring force, purlin-supporting, Dou-Shu, Dou-Gong brackets, primary beam-Gua Tong, secondary beam-Gua Tong, Tertiary beam are builied. From Jia-Dong experiments, formulations of joint rotation are proposed.

Keywords: pushover experiment, Dieh-Dou timber frame, image measurement system, joint rotation-moment relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
533 A Sociocultural View of Ethnicity of Parents and Children's Language Learning

Authors: Thapanee Musiget

Abstract:

Ethnic minority children’s language learning is believed that it can be developed through school system. However, many cases prove that these kids are left to challenge with multicultural context at school and sometimes decreased the ability to acquire new learning. Consequently, it is significant for ethnicity parents to consider that prompting their children at home before their actual school age can eliminate negative outcome of children's language acquisition. This paper discusses the approach of instructional use of parents and children language learning in the context of minority language group in Thailand. By conducting this investigation, secondary source of data was gathered with the purpose to point out some primary methods for parents and children in ethnicity. The process of language learning is based on the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, which highlights expressive communication among individuals as the best motivating force in human development and learning. The article also highlights the role of parents as they lead the instruction approach. In the discussion part, the role of ethnic minority parents as a language instructor is offered as mediator.

Keywords: ethnic minority, language learning, multicultural context, sociocultural theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
532 Multilingual Females and Linguistic Change: A Quantitative and Qualitative Sociolinguistic Case Study of Minority Speaker in Southeast Asia

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Men and women use minority and majority languages differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors of minority language speakers in Southeast Asia. Language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender. Potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes will be given. Moreover, it is analyzed whether women in multilingual minority speakers’ society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It is asked whether the societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal speaking preferences and suggest predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism. The study further exhibits differences between male and females identity-forming processes and shows why females are the leaders of (socio-) linguistic change.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, multilingual minorities, linguistic change, social networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
531 Multiple Identity Construction among Multilingual Minorities: A Quantitative Sociolinguistic Case Study

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

This paper aims to reveal criterions involved in the process of identity-forming among multilingual minority language speakers in Northeastern Thailand and in the capital Bangkok. Using sociolinguistic interviews and questionnaires, it is asked which factors are important for speakers and how they define their identity by their interactions socially as well as linguistically. One key question to answer is how sociolinguistic factors may force or diminish the process of forming social identity of multilingual minority speakers. However, the motivation for specific language use is rarely overt to the speaker’s themselves as well as to others. Therefore, identifying the intentions included in the process of identity construction is to approach by scrutinizing speaker’s behavior and attitudes. Combining methods used in sociolinguistics and social psychology allows uncovering the tools for identity construction that ethnic Kui uses to range themselves within a multilingual setting. By giving an overview of minority speaker’s language use in context of the specific border near multilingual situation and asking how speakers construe identity within this spatial context, the results exhibit some of the subtle and mostly unconscious criterions involved in the ongoing process of identity construction.

Keywords: social identity, identity construction, minority language, multilingualism, social networks, social boundaries

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
530 The Relevance of Shared Cultural Leadership in the Survival of the Language and of the Francophone Culture in a Minority Language Environment

Authors: Lyne Chantal Boudreau, Claudine Auger, Arline Laforest

Abstract:

As an English-speaking country, Canada faces challenges in French-language education. During both editions of a provincial congress on education planned and conducted under shared cultural leadership, three organizers created a Francophone space where, for the first time in the province of New Brunswick (the only officially bilingual province in Canada), a group of stakeholders from the school, post-secondary and community sectors have succeeded in contributing to reflections on specific topics by sharing winning practices to meet the challenges of learning in a minority Francophone environment. Shared cultural leadership is a hybrid between theories of leadership styles in minority communities and theories of shared leadership. Through shared cultural leadership, the goal is simply to guide leadership and to set up all minority leaderships in minority context through shared leadership. This leadership style requires leaders to transition from a hierarchical to a horizontal approach, that is, to an approach where each individual is at the same level. In this exploratory research, it has been demonstrated that shared leadership exercised under the T-learning model best fosters the mobilization of all partners in advancing in-depth knowledge in a particular field while simultaneously allowing learning of the elements related to the domain in question. This session will present how it is possible to mobilize the whole community through leaders who continually develop their knowledge and skills in their specific field but also in related fields. Leaders in this style of management associated to shared cultural leadership acquire the ability to consider solutions to problems from a holistic perspective and to develop a collective power derived from the leadership of each and everyone in a space where all are rallied to promote the ultimate advancement of society.

Keywords: education, minority context, shared leadership, t-leaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
529 Protest Poetry in South Africa: A Study of Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s Sounds of a Cowhide Drum

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

Abstract:

This paper examines protest as a literary mechanism against the unpopular political policy of the white minority regime in South Africa. It examines some of Mtshali’s poems as examples of protest poetry, showing how he deploys his artistic acumen in the popular struggle of the oppressed South Africans against the aberrations and obnoxious apartheid policy.

Keywords: protest poetry, poems, minority, oppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
528 From Protector to Violator: Assessing State's Role in Protecting Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that upholds the law, human rights and religious freedom. The freedom that implied in various laws and constitution (Undang-undang 1945) is not necessarily applicable in practice of religious life. In one side, the state has a duty as protector and guarantor of freedom, on the other side, however, it turns into one of the actors of freedom violations of religion minority. State action that interferes freedom of religion is done in various ways both intentionally or negligently or not to perform its obligations in the enforcement of human rights (human rights due diligence). Besides the state, non-state actors such as religious organizations, individuals also become violators of the rights of religious freedom. This article will discuss two fundamental issues that interfere freedom of religion in Indonesia after democratic era. In addition, this article also discusses a comprehensive state policy that discriminates minority religions to manifest their faith.

Keywords: religious freedom, constitution, minority faith, state actor

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
527 The Erasure of Sex and Gender Minorities by Misusing Sex and Gender in Public Health

Authors: Tessalyn Morrison, Alexis Dinno, Taurica Salmon

Abstract:

Sex and gender conflation continue to perpetuate the invisibility of gender minorities and obscure information about the ways that biological sex and gender affect health. The misuse of sex and gender terms, and their respective binaries, can yield inaccurate results. But more importantly, it contributes to the erasure of sex and gender minority health experiences. This paper discusses ways in which public health researchers can use sex and gender terms correctly and center the health experiences of intersex, transgender, non binary, and a-gender individuals. It includes promoting sensitivity in approaching minority communities, improving survey questions, and collaborating with sex and gender minority communities to improve research quality and participant experiences. Improving our standards for the quality of sex and gender term usage and centering sex and gender minorities in public health research are imperative to address the health inequalities faced by sex and gender minorities.

Keywords: epidemiology, gender, intersex, research methods, sex, transgender

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
526 Maintaining Minority Languages; Evidence from Italy

Authors: Carmela Perta

Abstract:

Following the example of both International and European legislation, on 15 December 1999 the national law 482/99 Regulations regarding the protection of historic language minorities was approved, providing a national framework for the preservation and renaissance of minority languages «The Italian Republic sustains the language and culture of people speaking Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Francoprovençal, Friulan, Ladin, Occitan and Sard». The legislation made it possible to use these languages in education, in public offices, in local government, in the judicial system, in mass media, and allowed for the reinstatement of place and personal names. However, several practical problems have emerged, particularly those concerning the variety that should be used in education, in official documents and in other formal domains, i.e. the local variety, the standard of reference (if there is any), or an over regional koinè. In minority settings, it might seem eminently sensible to use the ready made standard of reference, accepting the Ausbausprache, rather than the language as practice, that is the local variety. However, this process seems to be pointless, as is demonstrated by the results of a fieldwork that was carried out in a small town in the South of Italy where members speak Faetar, the local variety of Francoprovençal. Here the language is largely used by the community members in all domains, moreover a deep sense of loyalty towards the variety they use and a manifested minority identity can be observed analysing the speakers’ attitudes. However, these positive attitudes are towards the vehicle for their distinctive history and culture, and not for an “external” standard, a system which local authorities and planners are trying to introduce in the community. In other words, according to the speakers' reactions, there is little point in struggling to maintain a language, if what is conserved is not the group’s language but another.

Keywords: maintenance, minority languages, endangered languages, francoprovençal

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
525 Assessing Finance by Ethnic Entrepreneurs in United Kingdom and Policy Implication

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba

Abstract:

Ethnic entrepreneurship is defined as a set of connections and regular patterns of interaction among people sharing common national background or migration experience. The disadvantage faced by ethnic minority on paid labour induced them to become self-employed. Also, enclaves motivates trading, creativity, innovation are all to provide specific service or products to certain people. These ethnic minorities are African –Caribbean, Indians, Pakistanis, Banghaladashi and Chinese. For policy development ethnic diversity was among the problem of developing policy in United Kingdom. The study finds that there is a danger in treating all ethnic minority businesses as homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. The diversity is due to religious beliefs, culture and race. This indicates that there is a wide range have shortfall in addressing the peculiarities of ethnic minority businesses in policy formulation. Also, there are differences between ethnic minorities in accessing finance. It is recommended that diversity and peculiarities between ethnic minorities should be considered in policy formulation.

Keywords: ethnic entrepreneurship, finance, policy implication, diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
524 Evaluation and Compression of Different Language Transformer Models for Semantic Textual Similarity Binary Task Using Minority Language Resources

Authors: Ma. Gracia Corazon Cayanan, Kai Yuen Cheong, Li Sha

Abstract:

Training a language model for a minority language has been a challenging task. The lack of available corpora to train and fine-tune state-of-the-art language models is still a challenge in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Moreover, the need for high computational resources and bulk data limit the attainment of this task. In this paper, we presented the following contributions: (1) we introduce and used a translation pair set of Tagalog and English (TL-EN) in pre-training a language model to a minority language resource; (2) we fine-tuned and evaluated top-ranking and pre-trained semantic textual similarity binary task (STSB) models, to both TL-EN and STS dataset pairs. (3) then, we reduced the size of the model to offset the need for high computational resources. Based on our results, the models that were pre-trained to translation pairs and STS pairs can perform well for STSB task. Also, having it reduced to a smaller dimension has no negative effect on the performance but rather has a notable increase on the similarity scores. Moreover, models that were pre-trained to a similar dataset have a tremendous effect on the model’s performance scores.

Keywords: semantic matching, semantic textual similarity binary task, low resource minority language, fine-tuning, dimension reduction, transformer models

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
523 Ethnolinguistic Identity and Language Policies: Negotiating Identity and Diversity in Modern Linguistic Environment in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

Abstract:

The question of language and identity in the post-colonial Africa has resulted in the policy inconsistencies and perceived wayward practices regarding language use. The need to reside and situate oneself in the global village has alienated local identities, with most countries, Malawi in particular promoting exogenous colonial language(s) at the expense of local languages that mirror people’s identities. This has brought a mismatch between language policy and implementation. The resultant effect has been alienation of the ‘Self’ from one’s indigenous identity and creation of the ‘other’ in the foreign identity, and the undermining of the linguistic rights of the minority language speakers. The need to negotiate the identity and modernity in the global village is thus imperative. The paper attempts to review the language situation in Malawi in light of the growing desire for international integration vis-à-vis the cultivation and maintenance of national ethnolinguistic identity. It further highlights the dilemma that the promotion of vernacular languages is facing in the modern Malawi. It also examines the Malawi language policy and its implementation. The failures, challenges, and inconsistencies are discussed in order to negotiate the position of minority languages in the modern Malawi. The paper notes that identity construction and maintenance within the framework of language policy in Malawi is undermined by attitudinal factors towards one’s culture and language. The paper then provides suggestions of negotiating identity in Malawi within the framework of globalisation through the placement of premiums on the minority languages.

Keywords: identity, language policy, minority languages, vernacular language

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
522 Monocrystalline Silicon Surface Passivation by Porous Silicon

Authors: Mohamed Ben Rabha

Abstract:

In this paper, we report on the effect of porous silicon (PS) treatment on the surface passivation of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). PS film with a thickness of 80 nm was deposited by stain etching. It was demonstrated that PS coating is a very interesting solution for surface passivation. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance and FTIR. As a results, the effective minority carrier lifetime increase from 2 µs to 7 µs at ∆n=1015 cm-3 and the reflectivity reduce from 28 % to about 7 % after PS coating.

Keywords: porous silicon, effective minority carrier lifetime, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
521 Ethnic Entrepreneurships: Minority Ethnic Students in UiTM Sabah and UMS Perceptions towards Entrepreneurialism Business Interest

Authors: Lizinis Cassendra Frederick Dony, Dewi Binti Tajuddin, Jirom Jeremy Frederick Dony, Andrew Nicholas

Abstract:

Unemployed graduates have become among the world major concerns lately. 70% of Malaysian graduates are jobless. Due to this concerns, this paper aims to identify major factors influencing Sabah minority ethnic favorable in the entrepreneurialism business interest. Hence, extensive introductory entrepreneurship syllabus clusters development beginning from the early childhood, primary, secondary and university students. This may induce interest appeal and to develop focus group of self-employment. The study focus on 7 indicators consist of demographic profiles variable (DP), social norms (SN), attitude (A), self-efficacy (SE) and business management skills (BMS) with reference to university students’ entrepreneurial intention. This study also partially mediates the relationship between product attractiveness (PA) and the minority ethnic entrepreneurialism business interest (MEEBI), by testifying their direct and indirect relationships. Hence, this study provides new perception towards improving the graduates’ characteristic, capabilities to exploit the business opportunities in the market. Furthermore, this paper will assess the relationship with the product attractiveness(PA) as a mediator. The study encompasses on the type of Sabah minority ethnic (ME) and nature of family own business (FOB) background with the 280 samples students in UiTM Sabah and UMS. The descriptive and random sampling method of research which revealed that majority of the respondents agreed that FOB and entrepreneurship education had positively influenced the ethnic students’ involvement in the entrepreneurial process and career development either full-time or part-time basis.

Keywords: Demographic profile (DP), soci, unemployed graduates, Malaysian minority

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
520 The Influence on Sexual Minorities of School-Related Gender-Based Violence and Strategies to Respond

Authors: KangQi Jin

Abstract:

School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV) seriously impacts the victim's physical and mental health and academic and employment prospects. Due to the lack of protective policies for sexual minority students in mainland China at present, the well-being of those students in China is seriously endangered by SRGBV, and their physical and mental health is at great risk. By analyzing the current situation of stigmatization of sexual minority students and the harm brought to them by gender violence, this study proposes some strategies to reduce SRGBV on sexual minorities. First, the nation should set laws to protect the rights and interests of sexual minorities, and second, universities should make multifaceted efforts to reduce these violent phenomena. The violence experienced by students of sexual minorities has a crucial impact on their future physiology and psychology, and through the research, in this paper, the author hope can provide suggestions for scholars who try to study related fields in the future.

Keywords: sexual minority, school-related gender-based violence, response, strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
519 Improved Rare Species Identification Using Focal Loss Based Deep Learning Models

Authors: Chad Goldsworthy, B. Rajeswari Matam

Abstract:

The use of deep learning for species identification in camera trap images has revolutionised our ability to study, conserve and monitor species in a highly efficient and unobtrusive manner, with state-of-the-art models achieving accuracies surpassing the accuracy of manual human classification. The high imbalance of camera trap datasets, however, results in poor accuracies for minority (rare or endangered) species due to their relative insignificance to the overall model accuracy. This paper investigates the use of Focal Loss, in comparison to the traditional Cross Entropy Loss function, to improve the identification of minority species in the “255 Bird Species” dataset from Kaggle. The results show that, although Focal Loss slightly decreased the accuracy of the majority species, it was able to increase the F1-score by 0.06 and improve the identification of the bottom two, five and ten (minority) species by 37.5%, 15.7% and 10.8%, respectively, as well as resulting in an improved overall accuracy of 2.96%.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, data imbalance, deep learning, focal loss, species classification, wildlife conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
518 Examining Bulling Rates among Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee L. Bills

Abstract:

Adolescents and youth who are members of a minority group are more likely to experience higher rates of bullying in comparison to other student demographics. Specifically, adolescents with intellectual disabilities are a minority population that is more susceptible to experience unfair treatment in social settings. This study employs the 2015 Wave of the National Crime Victimization Survey – School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS) longitudinal dataset to explore bullying rates experienced among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This study uses chi-square testing and a logistic regression to analyze if having a disability influences the likelihood of being bullied in comparison to other student demographics. Results of the chi-square testing and the logistic regression indicate that adolescent students who were identified as having a disability were approximately four times more likely to experience higher bullying rates in comparison to all other majority and minority student populations. Thus, it means having a disability resulted in higher bullying rates in comparison to all student groups.

Keywords: disability, bullying, social work, school bullying

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
517 Socioeconomic Status and Gender Influence on Linguistic Change: A Case Study on Language Competence and Confidence of Multilingual Minority Language Speakers

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Male and female speakers use language differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors. It specifically examines how Kui minority language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender and discusses potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes. Moreover, it discusses whether women in Kui society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It discusses whether societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal current Kui speaking preferences and give predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism because the current Kui speakers will socialize and teach the prospective Kui speakers in the near future. It further confirms that Lao is losing importance in Kui speaker’s (female’s) daily life.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, language change, minority language, multilingualism, sociolinguistics, social Networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 80