Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13521

Search results for: core thermal design

13521 ELectromagnetic-Thermal Coupled Analysis of PMSM with Cooling Channel

Authors: Hyun-Woo Jun, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee

Abstract:

The paper presents the electromagnetic-thermal flow coupled analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which has cooling channel in stator core for forced air cooling. Unlike the general PMSM design, to achieve ohmic loss reduction for high efficiency, cooling channel actively used in the stator core. Equivalent thermal network model was made to analyze the effect of the formation of the additional flow path in the core. According to the shape and position changing of the channel design, electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis results were reviewed.

Keywords: coupled problems, electric motors, equivalent circuits, fluid flow, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
13520 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

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13519 The Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Thermal Design of Fluidized Bed Cooler

Authors: Damiaa Saad Khudor

Abstract:

The paper describes an investigation for the thermal design of a fluidized bed cooler and prediction of heat transfer rate among the media categories. It is devoted to the thermal design of such equipment and their application in the industrial fields. It outlines the strategy for the fluidization heat transfer mode and its implementation in industry. The thermal design for fluidized bed cooler is used to furnish a complete design for a fluidized bed cooler of Sodium Bicarbonate. The total thermal load distribution between the air-solid and water-solid along the cooler is calculated according to the thermal equilibrium. The step by step technique was used to accomplish the thermal design of the fluidized bed cooler. It predicts the load, air, solid and water temperature along the trough. The thermal design for fluidized bed cooler revealed to the installation of a heat exchanger consists of (65) horizontal tubes with (33.4) mm diameter and (4) m length inside the bed trough.

Keywords: fluidization, powder technology, thermal design, heat exchangers

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13518 Microstructural Investigations of Metal Oxides Encapsulated Thermochromic Materials

Authors: Yusuf Emirov, Abdullatif Hakami, Prasanta K Biswas, Elias K Stefanakos, Sesha S Srinivasan

Abstract:

This study is aimed to develop microencapsulated thermochromic materials and the analysis of core-shell formation using high resolution electron microscopy. The candidate metal oxides (e.g., titanium oxide and silicon oxide) used for the microencapsulation of thermochromic materials are based on the microemulsion route that involves the micelle formation using different surfactants. The effectiveness of the core-shell microstructure formationrevealed the influence of surfactants and the metal oxide precursor concentrations. Additionally, a detailed thermal and color chromic behavior of these core-shell microcapsules are evaluated with the pristine thermochromic dye particles.

Keywords: core-shell thermochromic materials, core-shell microstructure formation, thermal and color chromic behavior of core-shell microcapsules, development micro-capsulated thermochromic materials

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13517 Electrical Resistivity of Solid and Liquid Pt: Insight into Electrical Resistivity of ε-Fe

Authors: Innocent C. Ezenwa, Takashi Yoshino

Abstract:

Knowledge of the transport properties of Fe and its alloys at extreme high pressure (P), temperature (T) conditions are essential for understanding the generation and sustainability of the magnetic field of the rocky planets with a metallic core. Since Pt, an unfilled d-band late transition metal with an electronic structure of Xe4f¹⁴5d⁹6s¹, is paramagnetic and remains close-packed structure at ambient conditions and high P-T, it is expected that its transport properties at these conditions would be similar to those of ε-Fe. We investigated the T-dependent electrical resistivity of solid and liquid Pt up to 8 GPa and found it constant along its melting curve both on the liquid and solid sides in agreement with theoretical prediction and experimental results estimated from thermal conductivity measurements. Our results suggest that the T-dependent resistivity of ε-Fe is linear and would not saturate at high P, T conditions. This, in turn, suggests that the thermal conductivity of liquid Fe at Earth’s core conditions may not be as high as previously suggested by models employing saturation resistivity. Hence, thermal convection could have powered the geodynamo before the birth of the inner core. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity on the liquid and solid sides of the inner core boundary of the Earth would be significantly different in values.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, transport properties, geodynamo and geomagnetic field

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13516 3D Simulation for Design and Predicting Performance of a Thermal Heat Storage Facility using Sand

Authors: Nadjiba Mahfoudi, Abdelhafid Moummi , Mohammed El Ganaoui

Abstract:

Thermal applications are drawing increasing attention in the solar energy research field, due to their high performance in energy storage density and energy conversion efficiency. In these applications, solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems are the two core components. This paper presents a thermal analysis of the transient behavior and storage capability of a sensible heat storage device in which sand is used as a storage media. The TES unit with embedded charging tubes is connected to a solar air collector. To investigate it storage characteristics a 3D-model using no linear coupled partial differential equations for both temperature of storage medium and heat transfer fluid (HTF), has been developed. Performances of thermal storage bed of capacity of 17 MJ (including bed temperature, charging time, energy storage rate, charging energy efficiency) have been evaluated. The effect of the number of charging tubes (3 configurations) is presented.

Keywords: design, thermal modeling, heat transfer enhancement, sand, sensible heat storage

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13515 Transfer Function Model-Based Predictive Control for Nuclear Core Power Control in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

Authors: Mohd Sabri Minhat, Nurul Adilla Mohd Subha

Abstract:

The 1MWth PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) in Malaysia Nuclear Agency has been operating more than 35 years. The existing core power control is using conventional controller known as Feedback Control Algorithm (FCA). It is technically challenging to keep the core power output always stable and operating within acceptable error bands for the safety demand of the RTP. Currently, the system could be considered unsatisfactory with power tracking performance, yet there is still significant room for improvement. Hence, a new design core power control is very important to improve the current performance in tracking and regulating reactor power by controlling the movement of control rods that suit the demand of highly sensitive of nuclear reactor power control. In this paper, the proposed Model Predictive Control (MPC) law was applied to control the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, MPC, and control rods selection algorithm. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on point kinetics model, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The proposed MPC was presented in a transfer function model of the reactor core according to perturbations theory. The transfer function model-based predictive control (TFMPC) was developed to design the core power control with predictions based on a T-filter towards the real-time implementation of MPC on hardware. This paper introduces the sensitivity functions for TFMPC feedback loop to reduce the impact on the input actuation signal and demonstrates the behaviour of TFMPC in term of disturbance and noise rejections. The comparisons of both tracking and regulating performance between the conventional controller and TFMPC were made using MATLAB and analysed. In conclusion, the proposed TFMPC has satisfactory performance in tracking and regulating core power for controlling nuclear reactor with high reliability and safety.

Keywords: core power control, model predictive control, PUSPATI TRIGA reactor, TFMPC

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
13514 Development and Analysis of SFR Control Rod Design

Authors: Lenka Dujčíková, Laurent Buiron, Ján Haščík

Abstract:

The study is dedicated to safety management of SFR CAPRA core with CFV design improvements. In the case of CAPRA core, demands for reactivity control are higher than for reference core. There are two possible ways how to ensure the certain amount of negative reactivity. One option is to boost control rods worth. The Greater part of the study is aimed at the proposal of appropriate control rod design. At first, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) control rod design with high-enriched boron carbide B4C as absorber material was tested. Considering costly and difficult enrichment process, usage of natural boron carbide absorbator is desired. Obviously, the use of natural boron leads to CR worth reduction. In order to increase it to required value, moderator material was inserted inside the control rod. Various materials and geometric configurations were examined to find optimal solution corresponding with EFR based CR worth value.

Keywords: boron carbide, CAPRA core, control rod design, low void effect design, melting temperature, moderator material

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13513 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller

Abstract:

A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids, environmental engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
13512 Effect of Core Puncture Diameter on Bio-Char Kiln Efficiency

Authors: W. Intagun, T. Khamdaeng, P. Prom-ngarm, N. Panyoyai

Abstract:

Biochar has been used as a soil amendment since it has high porous structure and has proper nutrients and chemical properties for plants. Product yields produced from biochar kiln are dependent on process parameters and kiln types used. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of core puncture diameter on biochar kiln efficiency, i.e., yields of biochar and produced gas. Corncobs were used as raw material to produce biochar. Briquettes from agricultural wastes were used as fuel. Each treatment was performed by changing the core puncture diameter. From the experiment, it is revealed that the yield of biochar at the core puncture diameter of 3.18 mm, 4.76 mm, and 6.35 mm was 10.62 wt. %, 24.12 wt. %, and 12.24 wt. %, of total solid yields, respectively. The yield of produced gas increased with increasing the core puncture diameter. The maximum percentage by weight of the yield of produced gas was 81.53 wt. % which was found at the core puncture diameter of 6.35 mm. The core puncture diameter was furthermore found to affect the temperature distribution inside the kiln and its thermal efficiency. In conclusion, the high efficient biochar kiln can be designed and constructed by using the proper core puncture diameter.

Keywords: anila stove, bio-char, soil conditioning materials, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
13511 A Study on the Pulse Transformer Design Considering Inrush Current in the Welding Machine

Authors: In-Gun Kim, Hyun-Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee

Abstract:

An Inverter type arc-welding machine is inclined to be designed for higher frequency in order to reduce the size and cost. The need of the core material reconsideration for high frequency pulse transformer is more important since core loss grows as the frequency rises. An arc welding machine’s pulse transformer is designed using an Area Product (Ap) method and is considered margin air gap core design in order to prevent the burning of the IGBT by the inrush current. Finally, the reduction of the core weight and the core size are compared according to different materials for 30kW inverter type arc welding machine.

Keywords: pulse transformers, welding, inrush current, air gaps

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13510 Thermal Characterization of Smart and Large-Scale Building Envelope System in a Subtropical Climate

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan

Abstract:

The thermal behavior of a large-scale, phase change material (PCM) enhanced building envelope system was studied in regard to the need for pre-fabricated construction in subtropical regions. The proposed large-scale envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum skin, insulation core, phase change material and reinforced gypsum board. The PCM impact on an energy efficiency of an enveloped room was resolved by validation of the Energy Plus numerical scheme and optimization of a smart material location in the core. The PCM location was optimized by a minimization method of a cooling energy demand. It has been shown that there is good agreement between the test and simulation results. The optimal location of the PCM layer in Hong Kong summer conditions has been then recomputed for core thicknesses of 40, 60 and 80 mm. A non-dimensional value of the optimal PCM location was obtained to be same for all the studied cases and the considered external and internal conditions.

Keywords: thermal performance, phase change material, energy efficiency, PCM optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
13509 Mapping Thermal Properties Using Resistivity, Lithology and Thermal Conductivity Measurements

Authors: Riccardo Pasquali, Keith Harlin, Mark Muller

Abstract:

The ShallowTherm project is focussed on developing and applying a methodology for extrapolating relatively sparsely sampled thermal conductivity measurements across Ireland using mapped Litho-Electrical (LE) units. The primary data used consist of electrical resistivities derived from the Geological Survey Ireland Tellus airborne electromagnetic dataset, GIS-based maps of Irish geology, and rock thermal conductivities derived from both the current Irish Ground Thermal Properties (IGTP) database and a new programme of sampling and laboratory measurement. The workflow has been developed across three case-study areas that sample a range of different calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, and volcanic lithologies. Statistical analysis of resistivity data from individual geological formations has been assessed and integrated with detailed lithological descriptions to define distinct LE units. Thermal conductivity measurements from core and hand samples have been acquired for every geological formation within each study area. The variability and consistency of thermal conductivity measurements within each LE unit is examined with the aim of defining a characteristic thermal conductivity (or range of thermal conductivities) for each LE unit. Mapping of LE units, coupled with characteristic thermal conductivities, provides a method of defining thermal conductivity properties at a regional scale and facilitating the design of ground source heat pump closed-loop collectors.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, ground source heat pumps, resistivity, heat exchange, shallow geothermal, Ireland

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13508 A Dual-Mode Infinite Horizon Predictive Control Algorithm for Load Tracking in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

Authors: Mohd Sabri Minhat, Nurul Adilla Mohd Subha

Abstract:

The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), Malaysia reached its first criticality on June 28, 1982, with power capacity 1MW thermal. The Feedback Control Algorithm (FCA) which is conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, was used for present power control method to control fission process in RTP. It is important to ensure the core power always stable and follows load tracking within acceptable steady-state error and minimum settling time to reach steady-state power. At this time, the system could be considered not well-posed with power tracking performance. However, there is still potential to improve current performance by developing next generation of a novel design nuclear core power control. In this paper, the dual-mode predictions which are proposed in modelling Optimal Model Predictive Control (OMPC), is presented in a state-space model to control the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, OMPC, and control rods selection algorithm. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutronic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The dual-mode prediction in OMPC for transient and terminal modes was based on the implementation of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) in designing the core power control. The combination of dual-mode prediction and Lyapunov which deal with summations in cost function over an infinite horizon is intended to eliminate some of the fundamental weaknesses related to MPC. This paper shows the behaviour of OMPC to deal with tracking, regulation problem, disturbance rejection and caters for parameter uncertainty. The comparison of both tracking and regulating performance is analysed between the conventional controller and OMPC by numerical simulations. In conclusion, the proposed OMPC has shown significant performance in load tracking and regulating core power for nuclear reactor with guarantee stabilising in the closed-loop.

Keywords: core power control, dual-mode prediction, load tracking, optimal model predictive control

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13507 A Case for Introducing Thermal-Design Optimisation Using Excel Spreadsheet

Authors: M. M. El-Awad

Abstract:

This paper deals with the introduction of thermal-design optimisation to engineering students by using Microsoft's Excel as a modelling platform. Thermal-design optimisation is an iterative process which involves the evaluation of many thermo-physical properties that vary with temperature and/or pressure. Therefore, suitable modelling software, such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) or Interactive Thermodynamics (IT), is usually used for this purpose. However, such proprietary applications may not be available to many educational institutions in developing countries. This paper presents a simple thermal-design case that demonstrates how the principles of thermo-fluids and economics can be jointly applied so as to find an optimum solution to a thermal-design problem. The paper describes the solution steps and provides all the equations needed to solve the case with Microsoft Excel. The paper also highlights the advantage of using VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) for developing user-defined functions when repetitive or complex calculations are met. VBA makes Excel a powerful, yet affordable, the computational platform for introducing various engineering principles.

Keywords: engineering education, thermal design, Excel, VBA, user-defined functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
13506 Seismic Behavior of Short Core Buckling Restrained Braces

Authors: Nader Hoveidae

Abstract:

This paper investigates the seismic behavior of a new type of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) called "Short Core BRBs" in which a shorter core segment is used as an energy dissipating part and an elastic part is serially connected to the core. It seems that a short core BRB is easy to be fabricated, inspected and replaced after a severe earthquake. In addition, the energy dissipating capacity in a short core BRB is higher because of larger core strains. However, higher core strain demands result in high potential of low-cycle fatigue fracture. In this paper, a strategy is proposed to estimate the minimum core length in a short core BRBs. The seismic behavior of short core buckling restrained brace is experimentally examined. The results revealed that the short core buckling restrained brace is able to sustain large inelastic strains without any significant instability or strength degradation.

Keywords: short core, Buckling Restrained Brace, finite element analysis, cyclic test

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13505 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song

Abstract:

The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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13504 Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures

Authors: WooYoung Jung, V. Sim

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance strength of polymer matrix composite (PMC) infill panels system under the influence of temperature on the foam core. Failure mode under in-plane compression is investigated by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of its Young's Modulus under the thermal influence. Variation of temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core. Indeed, it is shown that the effect of temperature on the panel system mechanical properties is significance. Moreover, the variations of temperature result in the decrements of the system strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Hence, by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be reducing.

Keywords: buckling, contact length, foam core, temperature dependent

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13503 A Method to Predict the Thermo-Elastic Behavior of Laser-Integrated Machine Tools

Authors: C. Brecher, M. Fey, F. Du Bois-Reymond, S. Neus

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing has emerged into a fast-growing section within the manufacturing technologies. Established machine tool manufacturers, such as DMG MORI, recently presented machine tools combining milling and laser welding. By this, machine tools can realize a higher degree of flexibility and a shorter production time. Still there are challenges that have to be accounted for in terms of maintaining the necessary machining accuracy - especially due to thermal effects arising through the use of high power laser processing units. To study the thermal behavior of laser-integrated machine tools, it is essential to analyze and simulate the thermal behavior of machine components, individual and assembled. This information will help to design a geometrically stable machine tool under the influence of high power laser processes. This paper presents an approach to decrease the loss of machining precision due to thermal impacts. Real effects of laser machining processes are considered and thus enable an optimized design of the machine tool, respective its components, in the early design phase. Core element of this approach is a matched FEM model considering all relevant variables arising, e.g. laser power, angle of laser beam, reflective coefficients and heat transfer coefficient. Hence, a systematic approach to obtain this matched FEM model is essential. Indicating the thermal behavior of structural components as well as predicting the laser beam path, to determine the relevant beam intensity on the structural components, there are the two constituent aspects of the method. To match the model both aspects of the method have to be combined and verified empirically. In this context, an essential machine component of a five axis machine tool, the turn-swivel table, serves as the demonstration object for the verification process. Therefore, a turn-swivel table test bench as well as an experimental set-up to measure the beam propagation were developed and are described in the paper. In addition to the empirical investigation, a simulative approach of the described types of experimental examination is presented. Concluding, it is shown that the method and a good understanding of the two core aspects, the thermo-elastic machine behavior and the laser beam path, as well as their combination helps designers to minimize the loss of precision in the early stages of the design phase.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, laser beam machining, machine tool, thermal effects

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13502 NFC Kenaf Core Graphene Paper: In-situ Method Application

Authors: M. A. Izzati, R. Rosazley, A. W. Fareezal, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan, M. Jani

Abstract:

Ultrasonic probe were using to produce nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) kenaf core. NFC kenaf core and graphene was mixed using in-situ method with the 5V voltage for 24 hours. The resulting NFC graphene paper was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra and thermogavimetric analysis (TGA). The properties of NFC kenaf core graphene paper are compared with properties of pure NFC kenaf core paper.

Keywords: NFC, kenaf core, graphene, in-situ method

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13501 Thermal Transmission Characteristics of Human Flesh

Authors: Hayley Kumagai

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to investigate the thermal transmission characteristics of human flesh in relation to external thermal therapy treatments, particularly for the upper limbs. We conducted our research through a detailed online search of the thermal properties of human skin. This included basic background information on its thermoregulatory properties as well as the influence of external factors such as pharmaceuticals and temperature. From our research, we found that the thermoregulatory response system in the body is divided into two main components: the core (the head and the trunk) and the periphery (arms and legs). The core regulates the thermal response system to maintain a tight range of temperature, whereas the periphery has a wider range of possible temperatures to respond to the core. The peripheral tissues are typically cooler than the core by a few degrees Celsius to maintain a thermal gradient within the skin for homeostasis. Additionally, there are thermoreceptors in the skin that are located deeper within the dermis layer at a greater frequency than the warm receptors. It is hypothesized that blood flow is an efficient method of thermal transfer to the surrounding tissues, particularly through the smaller capillary loops close to the surface of the skin. Our research indicated that, in relation to medical procedures, skin is heated through various methods to combat potential cooling from conditions such as operating room temperatures or anesthesia. Heat is often used with skin because it can be more safely applied to the surface and there is greater heat loss from the skin that would lead to less overheating. In regards to the cooler temperature of the peripheral components and the larger heat loss through the skin, cooling the surface of the skin for thermal treatments on the arms or legs could be easily accomplished. However, providing this same level of cooling treatment to the deeper levels of the skin poses a greater challenge due to potential damage to the nerves. We anticipate that this thermal behavior can be modeled using engineering drafting software. This would involve replicating the properties of human skin within the program and applying the thermal analysis software to this material. Previous research on skin modeling shows that an accurate representation is a multi-layer model (replicating the multiple layers of the skin) that portrays the veins as “fluid continuous media” and the three layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) as a “solid continuous media” following a thermal transmission equation. Most of the research on the effect of thermal treatments on the skin focuses on hot temperature applications. Our prior research on the effect of thermal therapy treatments on tremor patients requires a deeper analysis into the effects of cold temperature on the nerves and tissues for the engineering application process. This can ultimately add to the current knowledge of temperature effects on the skin at the superficial and deep levels.

Keywords: temperature, thermal transmission, human skin, therapy

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13500 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of the IAEA 10MW Benchmark Reactor under Normal Operating Condition

Authors: Hamed Djalal

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform a thermal-hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW benchmark reactor solving analytically and numerically, by mean of the finite volume method, respectively the steady state and transient forced convection in rectangular narrow channel between two parallel MTR-type fuel plates, imposed under a cosine shape heat flux. A comparison between both solutions is presented to determine the minimal coolant velocity which can ensure a safe reactor core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limit 90 °C. For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameter related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the inlet coolant velocity. Finally, a good agreement is noticed between the both analytical and numerical solutions, where the obtained results are displayed graphically.

Keywords: forced convection, pressure drop, thermal hydraulic analysis, vertical heated rectangular channel

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13499 Sustainable Design for Building Envelope in Hot Climates: A Case Study for the Role of the Dome as a Component of an Envelope in Heat Exchange

Authors: Akeel Noori Almulla Hwaish

Abstract:

Architectural design is influenced by the actual thermal behaviour of building components, and this in turn depends not only on their steady and periodic thermal characteristics, but also on exposure effects, orientation, surface colour, and climatic fluctuations at the given location. Design data and environmental parameters should be produced in an accurate way for specified locations, so that architects and engineers can confidently apply them in their design calculations that enable precise evaluation of the influence of various parameters relating to each component of the envelope, which indicates overall thermal performance of building. The present paper will be carried out with an objective of thermal behaviour assessment and characteristics of the opaque and transparent parts of one of the very unique components used as a symbolic distinguished element of building envelope, its thermal behaviour under the impact of solar temperatures, and its role in heat exchange related to a specific U-value of specified construction materials alternatives. The research method will consider the specified Hot-Dry weather and new mosque in Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Also, data will be presented in light of the criteria of indoor thermal comfort in terms of design parameters and thermal assessment for a“model dome”. Design alternatives and considerations of energy conservation, will be discussed as well using comparative computer simulations. Findings will be incorporated to outline the conclusions clarifying the important role of the dome in heat exchange of the whole building envelope for approaching an indoor thermal comfort level and further research in the future.

Keywords: building envelope, sustainable design, dome impact, hot-climates, heat exchange

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13498 Classifying the Role of Technology in Technology Development

Authors: Hyun Joung No, Chul Lee

Abstract:

Even though technology evolves and develops through interaction with each other, not all technologies contribute to the development of technology equally. While some technologies play a central role in developing technology, others play a secondary role. The role of the technological components can be classified as core or non-core (peripheral) technology. The core technologies have a considerable knowledge interaction with other technological components while the non-core technologies barely interact with others within the system. This study introduces the concept that classifies the technological components into core or peripheral technology according to their role and importance in the technology field. The study adapted the social network analysis to examine the relationship between technological components. Using a continuous core-periphery analysis, it identifies the technological network structure and classifies the core and peripheral nodes. Based on their knowledge inflow/outflow direction and their dependence/influence on core technologies, the technological clusters are classified into four categories: (1) high dependence and high influence on core technology, (2) high dependence and low influence on core technology, (3) low dependence and high influence on core technology, and (4) low dependence and low influence on core technology.

Keywords: core technology, periphery technology, technological components, technological role

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13497 Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

Keywords: building envelope, building mass effect, building thermal comfort, building thermal performance, school building

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
13496 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Flexible Composites Based on Al2O3 Aerogels

Authors: Jianzheng Wei, Duo Zhen, Zhihan Yang, Huifeng Tan

Abstract:

The deployable descent technology is a lightweight entry method using an inflatable heat shield. The heatshield consists of a pressurized core which is covered by different layers of thermal insulation and flexible ablative materials in order to protect against the thermal loads. In this paper, both aluminum and silicon-aluminum aerogels were prepared by freeze-drying method. The latter material has bigger specific surface area and nano-scale pores. Mullite fibers are used as the reinforcing fibers to prepare the aerogel matrix to improve composite flexibility. The flexible composite materials were performed as an insulation layer to an underlying aramid fabric by a thermal shock test at a heat flux density of 120 kW/m2 and uniaxial tensile test. These results show that the aramid fabric with untreated mullite fibers as the thermal protective layer is completely carbonized at the heat of about 60 s. The aramid fabric as a thermal resistance layer of the composite material still has good mechanical properties at the same heat condition.

Keywords: aerogel, aramid fabric, flexibility, thermal resistance

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13495 Light Weight Fly Ash Based Composite Material for Thermal Insulation Applications

Authors: Bharath Kenchappa, Kunigal Shivakumar

Abstract:

Lightweight, low thermal conductivity and high temperature resistant materials or the system with moderate mechanical properties and capable of taking high heating rates are needed in both commercial and military applications. A single material with these attributes is very difficult to find and one needs to come with innovative ideas to make such material system using what is available. To bring down the cost of the system, one has to be conscious about the cost of basic materials. Such a material system can be called as the thermal barrier system. This paper focuses on developing, testing and characterization of material system for thermal barrier applications. The material developed is porous, low density, low thermal conductivity of 0.1062 W/m C and glass transition temperature about 310 C. Also, the thermal properties of the developed material was measured in both longitudinal and thickness direction to highlight the fact that the material shows isotropic behavior. The material is called modified Eco-Core which uses only less than 9% weight of high-char resin in the composite. The filler (reinforcing material) is a component of fly ash called Cenosphere, they are hollow micro-bubbles made of ceramic materials. Special mixing-technique is used to surface coat the fillers with a thin layer of resin to develop a point-to-point contact of particles. One could use commercial ceramic micro-bubbles instead of Cenospheres, but it is expensive. The bulk density of Cenospheres is about 0.35 g/cc and we could accomplish the composite density of about 0.4 g/cc. One percent filler weight of 3mm length standard drywall grade fibers was used to bring the added toughness. Both thermal and mechanical characterization was performed and properties are documented. For higher temperature applications (up to 1,000 C), a hybrid system was developed using an aerogel mat. Properties of combined material was characterized and documented. Thermal tests were conducted on both the bare modified Eco-Core and hybrid materials to assess the suitability of the material to a thermal barrier application. The hybrid material system was found to meet the requirement of the application.

Keywords: aerogel, fly ash, porous material, thermal barrier

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13494 Analysis of Thermal Damage Characteristics of High Pressure Turbine Blade According to Off-Design Operating Conditions

Authors: Seon Ho Kim, Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Young Moon Lee, Dong Kwan Kim, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Gas turbines are heat engines that convert chemical energy into electrical energy through mechanical energy. Since their high energy density per unit volume and low pollutant emissions, gas turbines are classified as clean energy. In order to obtain better performance, the turbine inlet temperature of the current gas turbine is operated at about 1600℃, and thermal damage is a very serious problem. Especially, these thermal damages are more prominent in off-design conditions than in design conditions. In this study, the thermal damage characteristics of high temperature components of a gas turbine made of a single crystal material are studied numerically for the off-design operating conditions. The target gas turbine is configured as a reheat cycle and is operated in peak load operation mode, not normal operation. In particular, the target gas turbine features a lot of low-load operation. In this study, a commercial code, ANSYS 18.2, was used for analyzing the thermal-flow coupling problems. As a result, the flow separation phenomenon on the pressure side due to the flow reduction was remarkable at the off-design condition, and the high heat transfer coefficient at the upper end of the suction surface due to the tip leakage flow was appeared.

Keywords: gas turbine, single crystal blade, off-design, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
13493 An Overview of Thermal Storage Techniques for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Talha Shafiq

Abstract:

The traditional electricity operation in solar thermal plants is designed to operate on a single path initiating at power plant and executes at the consumer. Due to lack of energy storage facilities during this operation, a decrease in the efficiency is often observed with the power plant performance. This paper reviews the significance of energy storage in supply design and elaborates various methods that can be adopted in this regard which are equally cost effective and environmental friendly. Moreover, various parameters in thermal storage technique are also critically analyzed to clarify the pros and cons in this facility. Discussing the different thermal storage system, their technical and economical evaluation has also been reviewed.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
13492 Neural Network Supervisory Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control of the Pressurized Water Reactor Core Power Load Following Operation

Authors: Derjew Ayele Ejigu, Houde Song, Xiaojing Liu

Abstract:

This work presents the particle swarm optimization trained neural network (PSO-NN) supervisory proportional integral derivative (PID) control method to monitor the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core power for safe operation. The proposed control approach is implemented on the transfer function of the PWR core, which is computed from the state-space model. The PWR core state-space model is designed from the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and reactivity models using perturbation around the equilibrium value. The proposed control approach computes the control rod speed to maneuver the core power to track the reference in a closed-loop scheme. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to train the neural network (NN) and to tune the PID simultaneously. The controller performance is examined using integral absolute error, integral time absolute error, integral square error, and integral time square error functions, and the stability of the system is analyzed by using the Bode diagram. The simulation results indicated that the controller shows satisfactory performance to control and track the load power effectively and smoothly as compared to the PSO-PID control technique. This study will give benefit to design a supervisory controller for nuclear engineering research fields for control application.

Keywords: machine learning, neural network, pressurized water reactor, supervisory controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 76