Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 521

Search results for: dairy farms

521 Cows Milk Quality on Different Sized Dairy Farms

Authors: Ramutė Miseikienė, Saulius Tusas

Abstract:

Somatic cell count and bacteria count are the main indicators of cow milk quality. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare parameters of milk quality in different-sized cows herds. Milk quality of ten dairy cows farms during one year period was analyzed. Dairy farms were divided into five groups according to number of cows in the farm (under 50 cows, 51–100 cows, 101–200 cows, 201–400 cows and more than 400 cows). The averages of somatic cells bacteria count in milk and milk freezing temperature were analyzed. Also, these parameters of milk quality were compared during outdoor (from May to September) and indoor (from October to April) periods. The largest number of SCC was established in the smallest farms, i.e., in farms under 50 cows and 51-100 cows (respectively 264±9,19 and 300±10,24 thousand/ml). Reliable link between the smallest and largest dairy farms and farms with 101-200 and 201-400 cows and count of somatic cells in milk has not been established (P > 0.05). Bacteria count had a low tendency to decrease when the number of cows in farms increased. The highest bacteria number was determined in the farms with 51-100 cows and the the lowest bacteria count was in milk when 201-400 and more than 401 cows were kept. With increasing the number of cows milk maximal freezing temperature decreases (significant negative trend), i. e, indicator is improving. It should be noted that in all farms milk freezing point never exceeded requirements (-0.515 °C). The highest difference between SCC in milk during the indoor and outdoor periods was established in farms with 201-400 cows (respectively 218.49 thousand/ml and 268.84 thousand/ml). However, the count of SC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during outdoor period in large farms (201-400 and more cows). There was no significant difference between bacteria count in milk during both – outdoor and indoor – periods (P > 0.05).

Keywords: bacteria, cow, farm size, somatic cell count

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
520 Educational Experience, Record Keeping, Genetic Selection and Herd Management Effects on Monthly Milk Yield and Revenues of Dairy Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience, and farm management effect on monthly milk yield per farm, average milk yield per cow, monthly milk revenue per farm, and monthly milk revenue per cow of dairy farms in the Southern region of Vietnam. The dataset contained 5448 monthly record collected from January 2013 to May 2015. Results showed that longer experience increased (P < 0.001) monthly milk yields and revenues. Better educated farmers produced more monthly milk per farm and monthly milk per cow and revenues (P < 0.001) than lower educated farmers. Farm that kept records on individual animals had higher (P < 0.001) for monthly milk yields and revenues than farms that did not. Farms that used hired people produced the highest (p < 0.05) monthly milk yield per farm, milk yield per cow and revenues, followed by farms that used both hire and family members, and lowest values were for farms that used family members only. Farms that used crosses Holstein in herd were higher performance (p < 0.001) for all traits than farms that used purebred Holstein and other breeds. Farms that used genetic information and phenotypes when selecting sires were higher (p < 0.05) for all traits than farms that used only phenotypes and personal option. Farms that received help from Vet, organization staff, or government officials had higher monthly milk yield and revenues than those that decided by owner. These findings suggest that dairy farmers should be training in systematic, must be considered and continuous support to improve farm milk production and revenues, to increase the likelihood of adoption on a sustainable way.

Keywords: dairy farming, education, milk yield, Southern Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
519 Management Practices and Economic Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

Although dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity, milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize husbandry practices, educational experiences, decision-making practices, constraints, income and expenses of smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. A total of 200 farms, located in the regions Ho Chi Minh (HCM, N=80 farms), Lam Dong (N=40 farms), Binh Duong (N=40 farms) and Long An (N=40 farms) were included. Between October 2013 and December 2014 farmers were interviewed twice. On average, farms owned 3.200m2, 2.000m2, and 193m2 of pasture, cropping and housing area, respectively. The number of total, milking and dry cows, heifers, and calves were 20.4, 11.6, 4.7, 3.3, and 2.9 head. The number of lactating dairy cows was higher (p<0.001) in HCM (15.5) and Lam Dong (14.7) than in Binh Duong (6.7) and Long An (10.7). Animals were mainly crossbred Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with at least 75% HF origin (84%), whereas a higher (P<0.001) percentage of purebred HF was found in HCM and Lam Dong and crossbreds in Binh Duong and Long An. Animals were mainly raised in tie-stalls (94%) and machine-milked (80%). Farmers used their own replacement animals (76%), and both genetic and phenotypic information (67%) for selecting sires. Farmers were predominantly educated at primary school level (53%). Major constraints for dairy farming were the lack of capital (43%), diseases (17%), marketing (22%), lack of knowledge (8%) and feed (7%). Monthly profit per lactating cow was superior in Lam Dong (2,817 thousand VND) and HCM (2,798 thousand VND) compared to other regions in Long An (2,597 thousand VND), and Binh Duong (1,775 thousand VND). Regional differences may be mainly attributed to environmental factors, urbanization, and particularly governmental support and the availability of extension and financial institutions. Results from this study provide important information on farming practices of smallholders in Southern Vietnam that are useful in determining regions that need to be addressed by authorities in order to improve dairy production.

Keywords: dairy farms, milk yield, Southern Vietnam, socio-economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
518 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn

Abstract:

Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
517 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, J. Walsh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: behavior, milk yield, temperature, precision technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
516 Factors Influencing Milk Yield, Quality, and Revenue of Dairy Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

Dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity and milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing milk yield and quality (milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count) and revenue of dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. The collection of data was at the farm level; individual animal records were unavailable. The 539 studied farms were located in the provinces Lam Dong (N=111 farms), Binh Duong (N=69 farms), Long An (N=174 farms), and Ho Chi Minh city (N=185 farms). The dataset included 9221 monthly test-day records of the farms from January 2013 to May 2015. Seasons were defined as rainy and dry. Farms sizes were classified as small (< 10 milking cows), medium (10 to 19 milking cows) and large (≥ 20 milking cows). The model for each trait contained year-season and farm region-farm size as subclass fixed effects, and individual farm and residual as random effects. Results showed that year-season, region, and farm size were determining sources of variation affecting all studied traits. Milk yield was higher in dry than in rainy seasons (P < 0.05), while it tended to increase from years 2013 to 2015. Large farms had higher yields (445.6 kg/cow) than small (396.7 kg/cow) and medium (428.0 kg/cow) farms (P < 0.05). Small farms, in contrast, were superior to large farms in terms of milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count than large farms (P < 0.05). Revenue per cow was higher in large compared with medium and small farms. In conclusion, large farms achieved higher milk yields and revenues per cow, while small farms were superior in milk quality. Overall, milk yields were low and better training, financial support and marketing opportunities for farmers are needed to improve dairy production and increase farm revenues in Southern Vietnam.

Keywords: farm size, milk yield and quality, season, Southern Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
515 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

Abstract:

Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: VTEC O157, prevalence, dairy cattle, tripoli

Procedia PDF Downloads 601
514 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
513 Microbiological Assessment of Soft Cheese (Wara), Raw Milk and Dairy Drinking Water from Selected Farms in Ido, Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Blessing C. Nwachukwu, Michael O. Taiwo, Wasiu A. Abibu, Isaac O. Ayodeji

Abstract:

Milk is an important source of micro and macronutrients for humans. Soft Cheese (Wara) is an example of a by-product of milk. In addition, water is considered as one of the most vital resources in cattle farms. Due to the high consumption rate of milk and soft cheese and the traditional techniques involved in their production in Nigeria, there was a need for a microbiological assessment which will be of utmost public health importance. The study thus investigated microbial risk assessments associated with consumption of milk and soft cheese (Wara). It also investigated common pathogens present in dairy water in farms and antibiotic sensitivity profiling for implicated pathogens were conducted. Samples were collected from three different Fulani dairy herds in Ido local government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and subjected to microbiological evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Aspergillus flavus was the only isolated fungal isolate from Wara while Staphylococcus aureus, Vibro cholera, Hafnia alvei, Proteus mirabilis, Escherishia coli, Psuedomonas aeuroginosa, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumonia were the bacteria genera isolated from Wara, dairy milk and dairy drinking water. Bacterial counts from Wara from the three selected farms A, B and C were 3.5×105 CFU/ml, 4.0×105 CFU/ml and 5.3×105 CFU/ml respectively while the fungal count was 3CFU/100µl. The total bacteria count from dairy milk from the three selected farms A, B and C were Farms 2.0 ×105 CFU/ml, 3.5 × 105 CFU/ml and 6.5 × 105 CFU/ml respectively. 1.4×105 CFU/ml, 1.9×105 CFU/ml and 4.9×105 CFU/ml were the recorded bacterial counts from dairy water from farms A, B and C respectively. The highest antimicrobial resistance of 100% was recorded in Wara with Enrofloxacin, Gentamycin, Cefatriaxone and Colistin. The highest antimicrobial susceptibility of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin. Highest antimicrobial intermediate response of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Streptomycin. The study revealed that most of the cheeses sold at Ido local Government are contaminated with pathogens. Further research is needed on standardizing the production method to prevent pathogens from gaining access. The presence of bacteria in raw milk indicated contamination due to poor handling and unhygienic practices. Thus, drinking unpasteurized milk is hazardous as it increases the risk of zoonoses. Also, the Provision of quality drinking water is crucial for optimum productivity of dairy. Health education programs aiming at increasing awareness of the importance of clean water for animal health will be helpful.

Keywords: dairy, raw milk, soft cheese, Wara

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
512 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein-Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords: calving season, economic, production, efficiency, dairy

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
511 Analyzing of Good Dairy Practices in Dairy Farm Management in Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: The Effect of Good Management in Milk Production

Authors: Dandi Riswanto, Mahendra Wahyu Eka Pradana, Hutomo Abdurrohman

Abstract:

The dairy farm has strategic roles in meeting the demand of foods. Sleman Regency is a central dairy production in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Sleman district has a population of 3954 heads dairy cattle with an environmental temperature of 22 to 35 degrees Celsius and humidity 74 to 87% which makes a good location for a dairy cattle farm. The dairy cattle that are kept by the majority of the Friesian Holstein Crossbreed are predominantly reared by conventional management. Sleman Regency accounts for 7.3% of national milk production. Factors influencing include genetic, environmental, and management. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) application on milk production in Sleman Regency. The data collection was conducted in January 2017 until May 2017 using survey and interviews methods at 5 locations of dairy farms selected randomly. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test. The result of this research showed that GDFP point was management 1,47 points (less good). The result showed that Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) has a positive effect on milk production.

Keywords: dairy cattle, GDFP, milk production, Sleman regency

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
510 Serological Evidence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis in Dairy Cattle Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Lulwa Saeed Al Badi, Mouza Ghafan Alkhyeli, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad, Robert Barigye

Abstract:

The present study was done to elucidate the prevalence of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in the UAE, the seroprevalence rates of EBL in dairy herds from the Al Ain area, Abu Dhabi (AD) and indigenous cattle at the Al Ain livestock market (AALM) were assessed. Of the 949 sera tested by ELISA, 657 were from adult Holstein-Friesians from three farms and 292 from indigenous cattle at the AALM. The level of significance between the proportions of seropositive cattle were analyzed by the Marascuilo procedure and questionnaire data on husbandry and biosecurity practices evaluated. Overall, the aggregated farm and AALM data demonstrated a seroprevalence of 25.9%, compared to 37.0% for the study farms, and 1.0% for the indigenous cattle. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates at farms #1, #2 and #3 were 54.7%, 0.0%, and 26.3% respectively. Except for farm #2 and the AALM, statistically significant differences were noted between the proportions of seropositive cattle for farms #1 and #2 (Critical Range or CR=0.0803), farms #1 and #3 (p=0.1069), and farms #2 and #3 (CR=0.0707), farm #1 and the AALM (CR=0.0819), and farm #3 and the AALM (CR=0.0726). Also, the proportions of seropositive animals on farm #1 were 9.8%, 59.8%, 29.3%, and 1.2% in the 12-36, 37-72, 73-108, and 109-144-mo-old age groups respectively compared to 21.5%, 60.8%, 15.2%, and 2.5% in the respective age groups for farm #2. On both farms and the AALM, the 37-72-mo-old age group showed the highest EBL seroprevalence rate while all the 57 cattle on farm #2 were seronegative. Additionally, farms #1 and #3 had 3,130 and 2,828 intensively managed Holstein-Friesian cattle respectively, and all animals were routinely immunized against several diseases except EBL. On both farms #1 and #3, artificial breeding was practiced using semen sourced from the USA, and USA and Canada respectively, all farms routinely quarantined new stock, and farm #1 previously imported dairy cattle from an unspecified country, and farm #3 from the Netherlands, Australia and South Africa. While farm #1 provided no information on animal nutrition, farm #3 cited using hay, concentrates, and ad lib water. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first serological evidence of EBL in the UAE and as previously reported, the seroprevalence rates are comparatively higher in the intensively managed dairy herds than in indigenous cattle. As two of the study farms previously sourced cattle and semen from overseas, biosecurity protocols need to be revisited to avoid inadvertent EBL incursion and the possibility of regional transboundary disease spread also needs to be assessed. After the proposed molecular studies have adduced additional data, the relevant UAE animal health authorities may need to develop evidence-based EBL control policies and programs.

Keywords: cattle, enzootic bovine leukosis, seroprevalence, UAE

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
509 Decision-Making Strategies on Smart Dairy Farms: A Review

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, G. Corkery, E. Broderick, J. Walsh

Abstract:

Farm management and operations will drastically change due to access to real-time data, real-time forecasting, and tracking of physical items in combination with Internet of Things developments to further automate farm operations. Dairy farms have embraced technological innovations and procured vast amounts of permanent data streams during the past decade; however, the integration of this information to improve the whole farm-based management and decision-making does not exist. It is now imperative to develop a system that can collect, integrate, manage, and analyse on-farm and off-farm data in real-time for practical and relevant environmental and economic actions. The developed systems, based on machine learning and artificial intelligence, need to be connected for useful output, a better understanding of the whole farming issue, and environmental impact. Evolutionary computing can be very effective in finding the optimal combination of sets of some objects and, finally, in strategy determination. The system of the future should be able to manage the dairy farm as well as an experienced dairy farm manager with a team of the best agricultural advisors. All these changes should bring resilience and sustainability to dairy farming as well as improving and maintaining good animal welfare and the quality of dairy products. This review aims to provide an insight into the state-of-the-art of big data applications and evolutionary computing in relation to smart dairy farming and identify the most important research and development challenges to be addressed in the future. Smart dairy farming influences every area of management, and its uptake has become a continuing trend.

Keywords: big data, evolutionary computing, cloud, precision technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
508 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

Abstract:

Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
507 Enhancing of Biogas Production from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste with Pasteurization

Authors: Mahmoud Hassan Onsa, Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

Abstract:

Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse the anaerobic digestion and biogas production. The paper presents the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production with and without pasteurization using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at two proportions, 72.3% manure, 21.7%, rumen content and 6% blood for bio digester1with 62% dry matter at the beginning and without pasteurization and 72.3% manure, 21.7%, rumen content and 6% blood for bio-digester2 with 10% dry matter and pasteurization. The paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 2.9 mL/g dry matter/day (from bio-digester2) together with a high quality biogas of 87.4% methane content which is useful for combustion and energy production and healthy bio-fertilizer but biodigester1 gave 1.68 mL/g dry matter/day with methane content 85% which is useful for combustion, energy production and can be considered as new technology of dryer bio-digesters.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 627
506 The Application of Animal Welfare Certification System for Farm Animal in South Korea

Authors: Ahlyum Mun, Ji-Young Moon, Moon-Seok Yoon, Dong-Jin Baek, Doo-Seok Seo, Oun-Kyong Moon

Abstract:

There is a growing public concern over the standards of farm animal welfare, with higher standards of food safety. In addition, the recent low incidence of Avian Influenza in laying hens among certificated farms is receiving attention. In this study, we introduce animal welfare systems covering the rearing, transport and slaughter of farm animals in South Korea. The concepts of animal welfare farm certification are based on ensuring the five freedoms of animal. The animal welfare is also achieved by observing the condition of environment including shelter and resting area, feeding and water and the care for the animal health. The certification of farm animal welfare is handled by the Animal Protection & Welfare Division of Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA). Following the full amendment of Animal Protection Law in 2011, animal welfare farm certification program has been implemented since 2012. The certification system has expanded to cover laying hen, swine, broiler, beef cattle and dairy cow, goat and duck farms. Livestock farmers who want to be certified must apply for certification at the APQA. Upon receipt of the application, the APQA notifies the applicant of the detailed schedule of the on-site examination after reviewing the document and conducts the on-site inspection according to the evaluation criteria of the welfare standard. If the on-site audit results meet the certification criteria, APQA issues a certificate. The production process of certified farms is inspected at least once a year for follow-up management. As of 2017, a total of 145 farms have been certified (95 laying hen farms, 12 swine farms, 30 broiler farms and 8 dairy cow farms). In addition, animal welfare transportation vehicles and slaughterhouses have been designated since 2013 and currently 6 slaughterhouses have been certified. Animal Protection Law has been amended so that animal welfare certification marks can be affixed only to livestock products produced by animal welfare farms, transported through animal welfare vehicles and slaughtered at animal welfare slaughterhouses. The whole process including rearing–transportation- slaughtering completes the farm animal welfare system. APQA established its second 5-year animal welfare plan (2014-2019) that includes setting a minimum standard of animal welfare applicable to all livestock farms, transportation vehicles and slaughterhouses. In accordance with this plan, we will promote the farm animal welfare policy in order to truly advance the Korean livestock industry.

Keywords: animal welfare, farm animal, certification system, South Korea

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
505 Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding

Authors: Lohendy Munoz-Vargas, Stephen O. Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L. Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing

Abstract:

Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: dairy cattle, microbiome, periparturient, Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
504 Diagnostics of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

Authors: G. Tanbayeva, Z. Myrzabekov, O. Tagayev, B. Barakhov, M. Tokayeva

Abstract:

Mastitis is widely spread among dairy cows bringing large economic damage resulting in decreased milk yield, deterioration of the milk quality, gastrointestinal tract disorders among young animals, culling of breeding stock, and expenses for sick animal treatment. Up-to-date and accurate diagnostics of subclinical (latent) mastitis in dairy cows has huge practical and economical significance. The aim of the research was to develop a new optimal alternative rapid method for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was performed in the laboratory of the Hygiene and Sanitation of Kazakh National Agrarian University. The first stage was to evaluate the different percentages of “Promastit” preparation. It showed that the best diagnostics capacity had 10% dilution. The second stage was to compare “Promastit” with some of the domestic and foreign analogues “Somatic-Test” (Denmark), “MastTest” (Russia), “Mastidin” (Ukraine), “Diagmast” (Kazakhstan). The observation was carried out on 520 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis on farms of Almaty region of Kazakhstan. The effectiveness was checked by milk sedimentation test. Our research tends to show that the diagnostic test "Promastitis" revealed subclinical mastitis in 193 out of 520 lactating cows (37.1% of those examined). At the same time, in the case of using other diagnostic tests, the given index was as follows: 35.5% (mastidin), 34.4% (masttest-AF), 33.8% (somatic-test Ecotest), 30.7% (diagmast).

Keywords: dairy cows, diagnostics, subclinical mastitis, test Promastit

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
503 Repurposing Dairy Manure Solids as a Non- Polluting Fertilizer and the Effects on Nutrient Recovery in Tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum)

Authors: Devon Simpson

Abstract:

Recycled Manure Solids (RMS), attained via centrifugation from Canadian dairy farms, were synthesized into a non-polluting fertilizer by bonding micronutrients (Fe, Zn, and Mn) to cellulose fibers and then assessed for the effectiveness of nutrient recovery in tomatoes. Manure management technology is critical for improving the sustainability of agroecosystems and has the capacity to offer a truly circular economy. The ability to add value to manure byproducts offers an opportunity for economic benefits while generating tenable solutions to livestock waste. The dairy industry is under increasing pressure from new environmental protections such as government restrictions on manure applications, limitations on herd size as well as increased product demand from a growing population. Current systems use RMS as bedding, so there is a lack of data pertaining to RMS use as a fertilizer. This is because of nutrient distribution, where most nutrients are retained in the liquid effluent of the solid-liquid separation. A literature review on the physical and chemical properties of dairy manure further revealed more data for raw manure than centrifuged solids. This research offers an innovative perspective and a new avenue of exploration in the use of RMS. Manure solids in this study were obtained directly from dairy farms in Salmon Arm and Abbotsford, British Columbia, and underwent physical, chemical, and biological characterizations pre- and post-synthesis processing. Samples were sent to A&L labs Canada for analysis. Once characterized and bonded to micronutrients, the effect of synthesized RMS on nutrient recovery in tomatoes was studied in a greenhouse environment. The agricultural research package ‘agricolae’ for R was used for experimental design and data analysis. The growth trials consisted of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) that allowed for analysis of variance (ANOVA). The primary outcome was to measure nutrient uptake, and this was done using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (IC-PMS) to analyze the micronutrient content of both the tissue and fruit of the tomatoes. It was found that treatments containing bonded dairy manure solids had an increased micronutrient concentration. Treatments with bonded dairy manure solids also saw an increase in yield, and a brix analysis showed higher sugar content than the untreated control and a grower standard.

Keywords: aoecosystems, dairy manure, micronutrient fertilizer, manure management, nutrient recovery, nutrient recycling, recycled manure solids, regenerative agricugrlture, sustainable farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
502 Prevalence and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Mastitic Dairy Cattle in Canada

Authors: Satwik Majumder, Dongyun Jung, Jennifer Ronholm, Saji George

Abstract:

Bovine mastitis is the most common infectious disease in dairy cattle, with major economic implications for the dairy industry worldwide. Continuous monitoring for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacterial isolates from dairy farms is vital not only for animal husbandry but also for public health. In this study, the prevalence of AMR in 113 Escherichia coli isolates from cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Canada was investigated. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test with 18 antibiotics and microdilution method with three heavy metals (copper, zinc, and silver) was performed to determine the antibiotic and heavy-metal susceptibility. Resistant strains were assessed for efflux and ß-lactamase activities besides assessing biofilm formation and hemolysis. Whole-genome sequences for each of the isolates were examined to detect the presence of genes corresponding to the observed AMR and virulence factors. Phenotypic analysis revealed that 32 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 107 showed resistance against at least one heavy metal. Quinolones and silver were the most efficient against the tested isolates. Among the AMR isolates, AcrAB-TolC efflux activity and ß-lactamase enzyme activities were detected in 13 and 14 isolates, respectively. All isolates produced biofilm but with different capacities, and 33 isolates showed α-hemolysin activity. A positive correlation (Pearson r = +0.89) between efflux pump activity and quantity of biofilm was observed. Genes associated with aggregation, adhesion, cyclic di-GMP, quorum sensing were detected in the AMR isolates, corroborating phenotype observations. This investigation showed the prevalence of AMR in E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis. The results also suggest the inadequacy of antimicrobials with a single mode of action to curtail AMR bacteria with multiple mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Therefore, it calls for combinatorial therapy for the effective management of AMR infections in dairy farms and combats its potential transmission to the food supply chain through milk and dairy products.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, E. coli, bovine mastitis, antibiotics, heavy-metals, efflux pump, ß-lactamase enzyme, biofilm, whole-genome sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
501 Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows at Different Parities: A Case Study in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf, Abdul Latief Toleng, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Ambo Ako, Sahiruddin Sahiruddin, Abdi Eriansyah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to know the reproductive performance of dairy cows at different parities. A total of 60 dairy Holstein-Friesian cows with parity one to three from five small farms raised by the farmers were used in the study. All cows were confined in tie stall barn with rubber on the concrete floor. The herds were visited twice for survey with the help of a questionnaire. Reproductive parameters used in the study were days open, calving interval, and service per conception (S/C). The results of this study showed that the mean (±SD) days open of the cows in parity 2 was slightly longer than those in parity 3 (228.2±121.5 vs. 205.5±144.5; P=0.061). None cows conceived within 85 days postpartum in parity 3 in comparison to 13.8% cows conceived in parity 2. However, total cows conceived within 150 days post partum in parity 2 and parity 3 were 30.1% and 36.4%, respectively. Likewise, after reaching 210 days after calving, number of cows conceived in parity 3 had higher than number of cows in parity 2 (72.8% vs. 44.8%; P<0.05). The mean (±SD) calving interval of the cows in parity 2 and parity 3 were 508.2±121.5 and 495.5±144.1, respectively. Number of cows with calving interval of 400 and 450 days in parity 3 was higher than those cows in parity 2 (23.1% vs. 17.2% and 53.9% vs. 31.0%). Cows in parity 1 had significantly (P<0.01) lower number of S/C in comparison to the cows with parity 2 and parity 3 (1.6±1.2 vs. 3.5±3.4 and 3.3±2.1). It can be concluded that reproductive performance of the cows is affected by different parities.

Keywords: dairy cows, parity, days open, calving interval, service per conception

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
500 Biological Institute Actions for Bovine Mastitis Monitoring in Low Income Dairy Farms, Brazil: Preliminary Data

Authors: Vanessa Castro, Liria H. Okuda, Daniela P. Chiebao, Adriana H. C. N. Romaldini, Harumi Hojo, Marina Grandi, Joao Paulo A. Silva, Alessandra F. C. Nassar

Abstract:

The Biological Institute of Sao Paulo, in partnership with a private company, develops an Animal Health Family Farming Program (Prosaf) to enable communication among smallholder farmers and scientists, on-farm consulting and lectures, solving health questions that will benefit agricultural productivity. In Vale do Paraiba region, a dairy region of Sao Paulo State, southern Brazil, many of these types of farms are found with several milk quality problems. Most of these farms are profit-based business; however, with non-technified cattle rearing systems and uncertain veterinary assistance. Feedback from Prosaf showed that the biggest complaints from farmers were low milk production, sick animals and, mainly, loss of selling price due to a high somatic cell count (SCC) and a total bacterial count (TBC). The aims of this study were to improve milk quality, animal hygiene and herd health status by adjustments into general management practices and introducing techniques of sanitary control and milk monitoring in five dairy farms from Sao Jose do Barreiro municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, to increase their profits. A total of 119 milk samples from 56 animals positive for California Mastitis Test (CMT) were collected. The positive CMT indicates subclinical mastitis, therefore laboratorial exams were performed in the milk (microbiological, biochemical and antibiogram test) detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (41.8%), Bacillus sp. (11.8%), Streptococcus sp. (2.1%), nonfermenting, motile and oxidase-negative Gram-negative Bacilli (2.1%) and Enterobacter (2.1%). Antibiograms revealed high resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, probably due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics without veterinarian prescription. We suggested the improvement of hygiene management in the complete milking and cooling tanks system. Using the results of the laboratory tests, animals were properly treated, and the effects observed were better CMT outcomes, lower SCCs, and TBCs leading to an increase in milk pricing. This study will have a positive impact on the family farmers from Sao Paulo State dairy region by improving their market milk competitiveness.

Keywords: milk, family farming, food quality, antibiogram, profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
499 Analysis of Constraints and Opportunities in Dairy Production in Botswana

Authors: Som Pal Baliyan

Abstract:

Dairy enterprise has been a major source of employment and income generation in most of the economies worldwide. Botswana government has also identified dairy as one of the agricultural sectors towards diversification of the mineral dependent economy of the country. The huge gap between local demand and supply of milk and milk products indicated that there are not only constraints but also; opportunities exist in this sub sector of agriculture. Therefore, this study was an attempt to identify constraints and opportunities in dairy production industry in Botswana. The possible ways to mitigate the constraints were also identified. The findings should assist the stakeholders especially, policy makers in the formulation of effective policies for the growth of dairy sector in the country. This quantitative study adopted a survey research design. A final survey followed by a pilot survey was conducted for data collection. The purpose of the pilot survey was to collect basic information on the nature and extent of the constraints, opportunities and ways to mitigate the constraints in dairy production. Based on the information from pilot survey, a four point Likert’s scale type questionnaire was constructed, validated and tested for its reliability. The data for the final survey were collected from purposively selected twenty five dairy farms. The descriptive statistical tools were employed to analyze data. Among the twelve constraints identified; high feed costs, feed shortage and availability, lack of technical support, lack of skilled manpower, high prevalence of pests and diseases and, lack of dairy related technologies were the six major constraints in dairy production. Grain feed production, roughage feed production, manufacturing of dairy feed, establishment of milk processing industry and, development of transportation systems were the five major opportunities among the eight opportunities identified. Increasing production of animal feed locally, increasing roughage feed production locally, provision of subsidy on animal feed, easy access to sufficient financial support, training of the farmers and, effective control of pests and diseases were identified as the six major ways to mitigate the constraints. It was recommended that the identified constraints and opportunities as well as the ways to mitigate the constraints need to be carefully considered by the stakeholders especially, policy makers during the formulation and implementation of the policies for the development of dairy sector in Botswana.

Keywords: dairy enterprise, milk production, opportunities, production constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
498 Effects of Nutrients Supply on Milk Yield, Composition and Enteric Methane Gas Emissions from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Rwanda

Authors: Jean De Dieu Ayabagabo, Paul A.Onjoro, Karubiu P. Migwi, Marie C. Dusingize

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of feed on milk yield and quality through feed monitoring and quality assessment, and the consequent enteric methane gas emissions from smallholder dairy farms in drier areas of Rwanda, using the Tier II approach for four seasons in three zones, namely; Mayaga and peripheral Bugesera (MPB), Eastern Savanna and Central Bugesera (ESCB), and Eastern plateau (EP). The study was carried out using 186 dairy cows with a mean live weight of 292 Kg in three communal cowsheds. The milk quality analysis was carried out on 418 samples. Methane emission was estimated using prediction equations. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA. The dry matter intake was lower (p<0.05) in the long dry season (7.24 Kg), with the ESCB zone having the highest value of 9.10 Kg, explained by the practice of crop-livestock integration agriculture in that zone. The Dry matter digestibility varied between seasons and zones, ranging from 52.5 to 56.4% for seasons and from 51.9 to 57.5% for zones. The daily protein supply was higher (p<0.05) in the long rain season with 969 g. The mean daily milk production of lactating cows was 5.6 L with a lower value (p<0.05) during the long dry season (4.76 L), and the MPB zone having the lowest value of 4.65 L. The yearly milk production per cow was 1179 L. The milk fat varied from 3.79 to 5.49% with a seasonal and zone variation. No variation was observed with milk protein. The seasonal daily methane emission varied from 150 g for the long dry season to 174 g for the long rain season (p<0.05). The rain season had the highest methane emission as it is associated with high forage intake. The mean emission factor was 59.4 Kg of methane/year. The present EFs were higher than the default IPPC value of 41 Kg from developing countries in African, the Middle East, and other tropical regions livestock EFs using Tier I approach due to the higher live weight in the current study. The methane emission per unit of milk production was lower in the EP zone (46.8 g/L) due to the feed efficiency observed in that zone. Farmers should use high-quality feeds to increase the milk yield and reduce the methane gas produced per unit of milk. For an accurate assessment of the methane produced from dairy farms, there is a need for the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach that considers all the sources of emissions.

Keywords: footprint, forage, girinka, tier

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
497 The Scale of Farms and Development Perspectives in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili, E. Kharaishvili, G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

The article presents the development trends of farms, estimates on the optimal scope of farming, as well as the experience of local and foreign countries in this area. As well, the advantages of small and large farms are discussed; herewith, the scales of farms are compared to the local reality. The study analyzes the results of farm operations and the possibilities of diversification of farms. The indicators of an effective use of land resources and land fragmentation are measured; also, a comparative analysis with other countries is presented, in particular, the measurements of agricultural lands for farming, as well as the indicators of population ensuring. The conducted research shows that most of the farms in Georgia are small and their development is at the initial stage, which outlines that the country has a high resource potential to increase the scale of the farming industry and its full integration into market relations. On the basis of the obtained results, according to the research on the scale of farming in Georgia and the identification of hampering factors of farming development, the conclusions are presented and the relevant recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: farm cooperatives.farms, farm scale, land fragmentation, small and large farms

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
496 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: Pallavi Moudgil, J. S. Bedi, R. S. Aulakh, J. P. S. Gill

Abstract:

Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, health risks, maximum residue limit, milk, Ochratoxin A

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
495 Bifidobacterial Postbiotics as Health-Promoting Agents in Dairy Products

Authors: Saba Kamalledin Moghadam, Amir M. Mortazavian, Aziz Homayouni-Rad

Abstract:

In the recent decade, bioactive-enriched foods, as well as natural health products, have caught the intention of the general and health-conscious population. In this regard, naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms have been successfully added to various dairy products during fermentation. Bifidobacteria, known as probiotics with a broad range of bioactivities, are commonly used in the dairy industry to naturally enrich dairy products. These bioactive metabolites are industrially and commercially important due to health-promoting activities on the consumers (e.g., anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation, etcetera). This review aims to discuss the potential of bifidobacteria for the elaboration of dairy foods with functional properties and added value.

Keywords: dairy, probiotic, postbiotic, bifidobacteria, bifidobacterial postbiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
494 Importance of Cryptosporidiosis in Dairy Calves

Authors: Mohammad Asadpour

Abstract:

Cryptosporidium spp. is zoonotic pathogens transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Calves have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. Parasite has a different species that are the cases of zoonotic disease in immunodeficient people and neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium oocysts are extremely resistant to chlorine and other physical cases that commonly used in drinking water. Reproduction of resistant oocytes is a way for this monoxenous parasite to remain in the environment. Cryptosporidium parvum is the most important species that has human and cattle genotypes. Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in neonatal calves and also, one of the four causes of diarrhea symptoms in pre-weaned calves. Because of the incompetent immune system in calves, Cryptosporidium infection is the cause of a lot of problems in raising farms.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp, dairy calves, importance, veterinary medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
493 Identification and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Spp. in Pre-Wean Dairy Calves in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Asadpour, Gholamreza Razmi, Gholamreza Mohammadi, Abolghasem Naghibi

Abstract:

Cryptosporidium Spp., protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, have a wide spectrum of hosts including humans, domestic animals and wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. In this study, a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the Small-Subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium Spp. in 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-wean calves in 10 farms in Mashhad, Iran. Eighty five (28.3%) and forty five (15%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium by microscopic and PCR examination respectively. Restriction digestion of the PCR products by VSPI and Ssp1 restriction enzymes and analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of C. parvum, bovine genotype in all isolates. Our findings suggest that cattle can be a source of Cryptosporidial infections for humans and animals in Mashhad area. This is the first published description of Cryptosporidium sub genotyping in Mashhad.

Keywords: cryptosporidium, genotype, dairy calves, 18S rRNA, Mashhad

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
492 Evaluation of the Incidence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Associated with Soil, Hayfeed and Water in Three Agricultural Facilities in Amathole District Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province

Authors: Athini Ntloko

Abstract:

Mycobacterium bovis and other species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can result to a zoonotic infection known as Bovine tuberculosis (bTB). MTBC has members that may contaminate an extensive range of hosts, including wildlife. Diverse wild species are known to cause disease in domestic livestock and are acknowledged as TB reservoirs. It has been a main study worldwide to deliberate on bTB risk factors as a result and some studies focused on particular parts of risk factors such as wildlife and herd management. The significance of the study was to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that is associated with soil, hayfeed and water. Questionnaires were administered to thirty (30) smallholding farm owners in the two villages (kwaMasele and Qungqwala) and three (3) three commercial farms (Fort Hare dairy farm, Middledrift dairy farm and Seven star dairy farm). Detection of M. tuberculosis complex was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction using primers for IS6110; whereas a genotypic drug resistance mutation was detected using Genotype MTBDRplus assays. Nine percent (9%) of respondents had more than 40 cows in their herd, while 60% reported between 10 and 20 cows in their herd. Relationship between farm size and vaccination for TB differed from forty one percent (41%) being the highest to the least five percent (5%). The highest number of respondents who knew about relationship between TB cases and cattle location was ninety one percent (91%). Approximately fifty one percent (51%) of respondents had knowledge about wild life access to the farms. Relationship between import of cattle and farm size ranged from nine percent (9%) to thirty five percent (35%). Cattle sickness in relation to farm size differed from forty three (43%) being the highest to the least three percent (3%); while thirty three percent (33%) of respondents had knowledge about health management. Respondents with knowledge about the occurrence of TB infections in farms were forty-eight percent (48%). The frequency of DNA isolation from samples ranged from the highest forty-five percent (45%) from water to the least twenty two percent (22%) from soil. Fort Hare dairy farm had the highest number of positive samples, forty four percent (44%) from water samples; whereas Middledrift dairy farm had the lowest positive from water, seventeen percent (17%). Twelve (22%) out of 55 isolates showed resistance to INH and RIF that is, multi-drug resistance (MDR) and nine percent (9%) were sensitive to either INH or RIF. The mutations at rpoB gene differed from 58% being the highest to the least (23%). Fifty seven percent (57%) of samples showed a S315T1 mutation while only 14% possessed a S531L in the katG gene. The highest inhA mutations were detected in T8A (80 %) and the least was observed in A16G (17%). The results of this study reveal that risk factors for bTB in cattle and dairy farm workers are a serious issue abound in the Eastern Cape of South Africa; with the possibility of widespread dissemination of multidrug resistant determinants in MTBC from the environment.

Keywords: hayfeed, isoniazid, multi-drug resistance, mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, polymerase chain reaction, rifampicin, soil, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 258