Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 982

Search results for: hierarchical coordination

982 Optimal Power Exchange of Multi-Microgrids with Hierarchical Coordination

Authors: Beom-Ryeol Choi, Won-Poong Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Young-Hak Shin, Dong-Jun Won


A Microgrid (MG) has a major role in power system. There are numerous benefits, such as ability to reduce environmental impact and enhance the reliability of a power system. Hence, Multi-MG (MMG) consisted of multiple MGs is being studied intensively. This paper proposes the optimal power exchange of MMG with hierarchical coordination. The whole system architecture consists of two layers: 1) upper layer including MG of MG Center (MoMC) which is in charge of the overall management and coordination and 2) lower layer comprised of several Microgrid-Energy Management Systems (MG-EMSs) which make a decision for own schedule. In order to accomplish the optimal power exchange, the proposed coordination algorithm is applied to MMG system. The objective of this process is to achieve optimal operation for improving economics under the grid-connected operation. The simulation results show how the output of each MG can be changed through coordination algorithm.

Keywords: microgrids, multi-microgrids, power exchange, hierarchical coordination

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981 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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980 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas


Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

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979 Hybrid Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Community Detection in Social Network

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi


Social Networks generally present a hierarchy of communities. To determine these communities and the relationship between them, detection algorithms should be applied. Most of the existing algorithms, proposed for hierarchical communities identification, are based on either agglomerative clustering or divisive clustering. In this paper, we present a hybrid hierarchical clustering approach for community detection based on both bottom-up and bottom-down clustering. Obviously, our approach provides more relevant community structure than hierarchical method which considers only divisive or agglomerative clustering to identify communities. Moreover, we performed some comparative experiments to enhance the quality of the clustering results and to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering, community structure, divisive hierarchical clustering, hybrid hierarchical clustering, opinion mining, social network, social network analysis

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978 Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan


Clustering is a process of grouping objects and data into groups of clusters to ensure that data objects from the same cluster are identical to each other. Clustering algorithms in one of the areas in data mining and it can be classified into partition, hierarchical, density based, and grid-based. Therefore, in this paper, we do a survey and review for four major hierarchical clustering algorithms called CURE, ROCK, CHAMELEON, and BIRCH. The obtained state of the art of these algorithms will help in eliminating the current problems, as well as deriving more robust and scalable algorithms for clustering.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, algorithms, hierarchical

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977 Interoperable Design Coordination Method for Sharing Communication Information Using Building Information Model Collaboration Format

Authors: Jin Gang Lee, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park


The utilization of BIM and IFC allows project participants to collaborate across different areas by consistently sharing interoperable product information represented in a model. Comments or markups generated during the coordination process can be categorized as communication information, which can be shared in less standardized manner. It can be difficult to manage and reuse such information compared to the product information in a model. The present study proposes an interoperable coordination method using BCF (the BIM Collaboration Format) for managing and sharing the communication information during BIM based coordination process. A management function for coordination in the BIM collaboration system is developed to assess its ability to share the communication information in BIM collaboration projects. This approach systematically links communication information during the coordination process to the building model and serves as a type of storage system for retrieving knowledge created during BIM collaboration projects.

Keywords: design coordination, building information model, BIM collaboration format, industry foundation classes

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976 Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control

Authors: Pavol Tanuska, Pavel Vazan, Michal Kebisek, Dominika Jurovata


The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system, thus, the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how it is possible to apply new discovery knowledge to be used in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.

Keywords: hierarchical process control, knowledge discovery from databases, neural network, process control

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975 Why Do We Need Hierachical Linear Models?

Authors: Mustafa Aydın, Ali Murat Sunbul


Hierarchical or nested data structures usually are seen in many research areas. Especially, in the field of education, if we examine most of the studies, we can see the nested structures. Students in classes, classes in schools, schools in cities and cities in regions are similar nested structures. In a hierarchical structure, students being in the same class, sharing the same physical conditions and similar experiences and learning from the same teachers, they demonstrate similar behaviors between them rather than the students in other classes.

Keywords: hierarchical linear modeling, nested data, hierarchical structure, data structure

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974 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi


Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: metal oxide, nanostructure, hydrothermal, sensor

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973 Research on Supply Chain Coordination Based on Lateral Transshipment in the Background of New Retail

Authors: Yue Meng, Lingyun Wei


In this paper, the coordination problem of a supply chain system composed of multiple retailers and manufacturers is studied under the background of the new retail supply chain. Taking a system composed of two retailers and one manufacturer as an example, this paper introduces an online store owned by the manufacturer to reflect the characteristics of the combination of online and offline new retail. Then, this paper gives the conditions that need to be satisfied to realize the coordination between retailers and manufacturers, such as the revenue sharing coefficient. The supply chain coordination model is compared with the newsboy model through a specific example. Finally, the conclusion is drawn that the profits of the coordinated supply chain and its members are better than the corresponding profits under the newsboy model; that is, the coordination of the supply chain is realized by using the revenue sharing contract and the transshipment fund mechanism.

Keywords: transshipment, coordination, multi-retailer, revenue-sharing contract

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972 A Model Based Metaheuristic for Hybrid Hierarchical Community Structure in Social Networks

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi


In recent years, the study of community detection in social networks has received great attention. The hierarchical structure of the network leads to the emergence of the convergence to a locally optimal community structure. In this paper, we aim to avoid this local optimum in the introduced hybrid hierarchical method. To achieve this purpose, we present an objective function where we incorporate the value of structural and semantic similarity based modularity and a metaheuristic namely bees colonies algorithm to optimize our objective function on both hierarchical level divisive and agglomerative. In order to assess the efficiency and the accuracy of the introduced hybrid bee colony model, we perform an extensive experimental evaluation on both synthetic and real networks.

Keywords: social network, community detection, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, divisive hierarchical clustering, similarity, modularity, metaheuristic, bee colony

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971 An E-Assessment Website to Implement Hierarchical Aggregate Assessment

Authors: M. Lesage, G. Raîche, M. Riopel, F. Fortin, D. Sebkhi


This paper describes a Web server implementation of the hierarchical aggregate assessment process in the field of education. This process describes itself as a field of teamwork assessment where teams can have multiple levels of hierarchy and supervision. This process is applied everywhere and is part of the management, education, assessment and computer science fields. The E-Assessment website named “Cluster” records in its database the students, the course material, the teams and the hierarchical relationships between the students. For the present research, the hierarchical relationships are team member, team leader and group administrator appointments. The group administrators have the responsibility to supervise team leaders. The experimentation of the application has been performed by high school students in geology courses and Canadian army cadets for navigation patrols in teams. This research extends the work of Nance that uses a hierarchical aggregation process similar as the one implemented in the “Cluster” application.

Keywords: e-learning, e-assessment, teamwork assessment, hierarchical aggregate assessment

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970 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Using the Tθ Family of Similarity Measures

Authors: Salima Kouici, Abdelkader Khelladi


In this work, we begin with the presentation of the Tθ family of usual similarity measures concerning multidimensional binary data. Subsequently, some properties of these measures are proposed. Finally, the impact of the use of different inter-elements measures on the results of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Methods is studied.

Keywords: binary data, similarity measure, Tθ measures, agglomerative hierarchical clustering

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969 Digital Geography and Geographic Information System in Schools: Towards a Hierarchical Geospatial Approach

Authors: Mary Fargher


This paper examines the opportunities of using a more hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry in using GIS in school geography. A case is made that it is not just the lack of teacher technological knowledge that is stopping some teachers from using GIS in the classroom but that there is a gap in their understanding of how to link GIS use more specifically to the pedagogy of teaching geography with GIS. Using a hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry as a theoretical framework, the analysis shows clearly how concepts of spatial distribution, interaction, relation, comparison, and temporal relationships can be used by teachers more explicitly to capitalise on the analytical power of GIS and to construct what can be interpreted as powerful geographical knowledge. An exemplar illustrating this approach on the topic of geo-hazards is then presented for critical analysis and discussion. Recommendations are then made for a model of progression for geography teacher education with GIS through hierarchical geospatial enquiry that takes into account beginner, intermediate, and more advanced users.

Keywords: digital geography, GIS, education, hierarchical geospatial enquiry, powerful geographical knowledge

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968 Coordination of Traffic Signals on Arterial Streets in Duhok City

Authors: Dilshad Ali Mohammed, Ziyad Nayef Shamsulddin Aldoski, Millet Salim Mohammed


The increase in levels of traffic congestion along urban signalized arterials needs efficient traffic management. The application of traffic signal coordination can improve the traffic operation and safety for a series of signalized intersection along the arterials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits achievable through actuated traffic signal coordination and make a comparison in control delay against the same signalized intersection in case of being isolated. To accomplish this purpose, a series of eight signalized intersections located on two major arterials in Duhok City was chosen for conducting the study. Traffic data (traffic volumes, link and approach speeds, and passenger car equivalent) were collected at peak hours. Various methods had been used for collecting data such as video recording technique, moving vehicle method and manual methods. Geometric and signalization data were also collected for the purpose of the study. The coupling index had been calculated to check the coordination attainability, and then time space diagrams were constructed representing one-way coordination for the intersections on Barzani and Zakho Streets, and others represented two-way coordination for the intersections on Zakho Street with accepted progression bandwidth efficiency. The results of this study show great progression bandwidth of 54 seconds for east direction coordination and 17 seconds for west direction coordination on Barzani Street under suggested controlled speed of 60 kph agreeable with the present data. For Zakho Street, the progression bandwidth is 19 seconds for east direction coordination and 18 seconds for west direction coordination under suggested controlled speed of 40 kph. The results show that traffic signal coordination had led to high reduction in intersection control delays on both arterials.

Keywords: bandwidth, congestion, coordination, traffic, signals, streets

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967 Semi-Supervised Hierarchical Clustering Given a Reference Tree of Labeled Documents

Authors: Ying Zhao, Xingyan Bin


Semi-supervised clustering algorithms have been shown effective to improve clustering process with even limited supervision. However, semi-supervised hierarchical clustering remains challenging due to the complexities of expressing constraints for agglomerative clustering algorithms. This paper proposes novel semi-supervised agglomerative clustering algorithms to build a hierarchy based on a known reference tree. We prove that by enforcing distance constraints defined by a reference tree during the process of hierarchical clustering, the resultant tree is guaranteed to be consistent with the reference tree. We also propose a framework that allows the hierarchical tree generation be aware of levels of levels of the agglomerative tree under creation, so that metric weights can be learned and adopted at each level in a recursive fashion. The experimental evaluation shows that the additional cost of our contraint-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering algorithm (HAC) is negligible, and our combined semi-supervised HAC algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world datasets. The experiments also show that our proposed methods can improve clustering performance even with a small number of unevenly distributed labeled data.

Keywords: semi-supervised clustering, hierarchical agglomerative clustering, reference trees, distance constraints

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966 Management of Interdependence in Manufacturing Networks

Authors: Atour Taghipour


In the real world each manufacturing company is an independent business unit. These business units are linked to each other through upstream and downstream linkages. The management of these linkages is called coordination which, could be considered as a difficult engineering task. The degree of difficulty of coordination depends on the type and the nature of information exchanged between partners as well as the structure of relationship from mutual to the network structure. The literature of manufacturing systems comprises a wide range of varieties of methods and approaches of coordination. In fact, two main streams of research can be distinguished: central coordination versus decentralized coordination. In the centralized systems a high degree of information exchanges is required. The high degree of information exchanges sometimes leads to difficulties when independent members do not want to share information. In order to address these difficulties, decentralized approaches of coordination of operations planning decisions based on some minimal information sharing have been proposed in many academic disciplines. This paper first proposes a framework of analysis in order to analyze the proposed approaches in the literature, based on this framework which includes the similarities between approaches we categorize the existing approaches. This classification can be used as a research map for future researches. The result of our paper highlights several opportunities for future research. First, it is proposed to develop more dynamic and stochastic mechanisms of planning coordination of manufacturing units. Second, in order to exploit the complementarities of approaches proposed by diverse science discipline, we propose to integrate the techniques of coordination. Finally, based on our approach we proposed to develop coordination standards to guaranty both the complementarity of these approaches as well as the freedom of companies to adopt any planning tools.

Keywords: network coordination, manufacturing, operations planning, supply chain

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965 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek


Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: 3-nithrophethalic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis

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964 Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands

Authors: P. Mirahmadpour, M. H. Banitaba, D. Nematollahi


The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylate, coordination polymer, copper, 2, 2’-thiodiacetic acid

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963 An Electromyographic Study of Muscle Coordination during Dynamic Glenohumeral Joint Elevation

Authors: Omid Khaiyat, David Hawkes


Introduction: There remains a lack of information on sophisticated coordination patterns across shoulder girdle muscles. Considering the stability of the shoulder being heavily dependent on coordinated muscle activity during its wide-ranging movements, it is important that key intermuscular relationships are well-defined for a better understanding of underlying pathology. This study investigated shoulder intermuscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Materials and Methods: EMG was recorded from 14 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants during shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction, and extension. Cross-correlation by means of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Results: Coordination between rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups was significantly higher (p =0.020-0.035) during the initial (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) phases of elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34). Furthermore, a high level of coordination (PCC = 0.89) was noted between the deltoid group and the adductor group (latissimus dorsi and teres major) during the initial stage of shoulder elevation. Conclusion: The destabilising force of the deltoid during the initial stage of shoulder elevation is balanced by coordinated activity of rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major. This is also the case for the end-range of movement, where increased demand for stability again leads to higher coordination between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. Appreciation of the sophistication of normal shoulder function evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

Keywords: shoulder, coordination, EMG, muscle activity, upper limb

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962 Social Processes and Organizational Structures for the Management of Exploration and Exploration within and across Organization Boundaries

Authors: Linda O. N. Nwabunike


The role of internal and external efforts in the management of exploration and exploitation has been highlighted in literature. External ties support ambidexterity at different levels with, for instance: business unit ambidexterity, individual ambidexterity, organizational ambidexterity, and alliance ambidexterity. Recently studies have highlighted the combination of organization, alliance, and acquisition strategies for ambidexterity by conceptualizing ambidexterity across modes of operation. Literature still lacks detailed understanding of how these different processes are combined in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. This study plans to propose a conceptual model that illustrates the social processes involved in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. Main arguments are integrated from social structures, organizational design, and ambidexterity literature. The framework illustrates that how social capital is promoted by hierarchical relations within the organization and business relations across the boundaries of the organization. Whereby such social relations within and outside the organization are supported by the dual structures of the organization in the coordination of multiple efforts. This paper has potential to contribute to the understanding about how ambidexterity is attained.

Keywords: ambidexterity, coordination, external-ties, social-capital

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961 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini


Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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960 Changes in Postural Stability after Coordination Exercise

Authors: Ivan Struhár, Martin Sebera, Lenka Dovrtělová


The aim of this study was to find out if the special type of exercise with elastic cord can improve the level of postural stability. The exercise programme was conducted twice a week for 3 months. The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The electronic balance board was used for testing of postural stability. All participants trained for 18 hours at the time of experiment without any special form of coordination programme. The experimental group performed 90 minutes plus of coordination exercise. The result showed that differences between pre-test and post-test occurred in the experimental group. It was used the nonparametric Wilcoxon t-test for paired samples (p=0.012; the significance level 95%). We calculated effect size by Cohen´s d. In the experimental group d is 1.96 which indicates a large effect. In the control group d is 0.04 which confirms no significant improvement.

Keywords: balance board, balance training, coordination, stability

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959 Systematic Study of Mutually Inclusive Influence of Temperature and Substitution on the Coordination Geometry of Co(II) in a Series of Coordination Polymer and Their Properties

Authors: Manasi Roy, Raju Mondal


During last two decades the synthesis and design of MOFs or novel coordination polymers (CPs) has flourished as an emerging area of research due to their role as functional materials. Accordingly, ten new cobalt-based MOFs have been synthesized using a simple bispyrazole ligand, 4,4′-methylene-bispyrazole (H2MBP), and isophthalic acid (H2IPA) and its four 5-substituted derivatives R-H2IPA (R = COOH, OH, tBu, NH2). The major aim of this study was to validate the mutual influence of temperature and substitutions on the final structural self-assembly. Five different isophthalic acid derivatives were used to study the influence of substituents while each reaction was carried out at two different temperatures to assess the temperature effect. A clear correlation was observed between the reaction temperature and the coordination number of the cobalt atoms which consequently changes the self assembly pattern. Another fact that the periodical change in coordination number did bring about some systematic changes in the structural network via secondary building unit selectivity. With the presence of a tunable cavity inside the network, and unsaturated metal centers, MOFs show highly encouraging photocatalytic degradation of toxic dye with a potential application in waste water purification. Another fascinating aspect of this work is the construction of magnetic coordination polymers with the occurrence of a not-so-common MCE behavior of cobalt-based MOF.

Keywords: MOFs, temperature effect, MCE, dye degradation

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958 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki


Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: child development, interpersonal coordination, prosociality, synchrony, wavelet transform

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957 Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony

Authors: M. H. Hussain, I. Musirin, A. F. Abidin, S. R. A. Rahim


This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.

Keywords: artificial bees colony, directional overcurrent relay coordination problem, relay settings, time multiplier setting

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956 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan, Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan


Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: balance, coordination, intellectual disability, motor skills, sport

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955 Electrochemical Performance Enhancement in Hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Fayssal Ynineb, Toufik Hadjersi, Fatsah Moulai, Wafa Achour


Currently, tremendous attention has been paid to the rational design and synthesis of core/shell heterostructures for high-performance supercapacitors. In this study, the hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ Core-Shell Nanorods Arrays on ITO substrate were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal and electrodeposition methods. The effect of the thin carbon layer between NiO and ZnCo₂O₄ in this multi-scale hierarchical structure was investigated in detail. The choice of this last was based on: (a) a high specific area of pseudo-capacitive NiO to maximize specific capacitance; (b) an effective NiO-electrolyte interface to facilitate fast charging/discharging; and (c) conducting carbon layer between ZnCo₂O₄ and NiO to enhance the electric conductivity which reduces energy loss, and also protect the corrosion of ZnCo₂O₄ in alkaline solution. Electrochemical results indicate that hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ possessed a high specific capacitance of 61.8⁻² at a current density of 0.1⁻², which is higher than that of pristine ZnCo₂O₄ and NiO (3.5 and 5.5⁻² respectively). In the hierarchical NiO/C/ZnCo₂O₄ where the carbon layer improves the electrical conductivity between NiO and ZnCo₂O₄ also increases the specific capacitance to high as 94.8⁻² at a current density of 0.1⁻². Moreover, this multi-scale hierarchical structure exhibits superior cycling stability with ~100% capacitance retention at the scan rate of 100 mV.s⁻¹ after 10000 cycles. These results indicate that the NiO/C/ZnCo₂O₄ nanocomposite material is an outstanding electrode material for supercapacitors.

Keywords: NiO/ZnCo₂O₄, specific capacitance, hydrothermal, supercapacitors

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954 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário


This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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953 The Use of Layered Neural Networks for Classifying Hierarchical Scientific Fields of Study

Authors: Colin Smith, Linsey S Passarella


Due to the proliferation and decentralized nature of academic publication, no widely accepted scheme exists for organizing papers by their scientific field of study (FoS) to the author’s best knowledge. While many academic journals require author provided keywords for papers, these keywords range wildly in scope and are not consistent across papers, journals, or field domains, necessitating alternative approaches to paper classification. Past attempts to perform field-of-study (FoS) classification on scientific texts have largely used a-hierarchical FoS schemas or ignored the schema’s inherently hierarchical structure, e.g. by compressing the structure into a single layer for multi-label classification. In this paper, we introduce an application of a Layered Neural Network (LNN) to the problem of performing supervised hierarchical classification of scientific fields of study (FoS) on research papers. In this approach, paper embeddings from a pretrained language model are fed into a top-down LNN. Beginning with a single neural network (NN) for the highest layer of the class hierarchy, each node uses a separate local NN to classify the subsequent subfield child node(s) for an input embedding of concatenated paper titles and abstracts. We compare our LNN-FOS method to other recent machine learning methods using the Microsoft Academic Graph (MAG) FoS hierarchy and find that the LNN-FOS offers increased classification accuracy at each FoS hierarchical level.

Keywords: hierarchical classification, layer neural network, scientific field of study, scientific taxonomy

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