Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Fung Sze Wai Veera

29 A House for Men: A Study of the Dong Minority Residential Architecture in the Southern Dialect Areas from a Gender Perspective

Authors: Fung Sze Wai Veera, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Gender functions as a principle in organizing society based on the cultural meanings given to males and females. It is an essential component in constructing the spatial reality, one that is in most cases in favor of men’s needs and disregards that of women’s. Similar to other minorities in China, men of the Dong community hold the primary position in policymaking, moral standards, social values, and, furthermore, the building of the physical environment. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the residential architecture of Dong through the lens of gender. Specifically, it examines how the patriarchal practice of Dong is manifested in terms of the spatial organization, the architectural feature, and the construction process of Dong houses in the southern dialect areas. While the residential architecture of Dong has been extensively researched, the role of gender culture in designing and constructing it deserves more research attention. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to challenge the notion of gender-inclusive design in the rural China context while opening up a cross-disciplinary discussion concerning Chinese minority architecture and gender studies.

Keywords: Dong minority residential architecture, gender study, built environment, male-dominated society, gender-inclusive design

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28 Home-based Production of the Southern Dialect Dong Minority Women in Rural Hunan, China

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

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Since the economic reform in 1980s, many men and women of the southern dialect Dong minority have migrated to coastal cities for employment. Responding to the outgoing providers of the families, women, especially those at the middle age, resort to the informal home-based services and goods production for income generation. Homework, therefore, becomes a key economic strategy in supporting the household expenses in rural China, where formal employment is often inadequate for local women. This paper seeks to examine the intersection between gender and household strategy in the broader economic context of rural China. Based on the interviews and site survey in Tongdao Dong Autonomous County, the study analyses the variety of the home-based production activities, the experience of women in the production process, and the impact on familial relation and gender division of labor at home. The objective of this research is to advance the understanding of the informal economic landscape in the contemporary rural China, through which an alternative and possibly a more appropriate mode of development can be investigated.

Keywords: gender relation, home-based production, household strategy, informal economy, rural China, dong minority

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27 Woman, House, Identity: The Study of the Role of House in Constructing the Contemporary Dong Minority Woman’s Identity

Authors: Sze Wai Veera Fung, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Similar to most ethnic groups in China, men of the Dong minority hold the primary position in policymaking, moral authority, social values, and the control of the property. As the spatial embodiment of the patriarchal ideals, the house plays a significant role in producing and reproducing the distinctive gender status within the Dong society. Nevertheless, Dong women do not see their home as a cage of confinement, nor do they see themselves as a victim of oppression. For these women with reference to their productive identity, a house is a dwelling place with manifold meanings, including a proof of identity, an economic instrument, and a public resource operating on the community level. This paper examines the role of the house as a central site for identity construction and maintenance for the southern dialect Dong minority women in Hunan, China. Drawing on recent interviews with the Dong women, this study argues that women as productive individuals have a strong influence on the form of their house and the immediate environment, regardless of the male-dominated social construct of the Dong society. The aim of this study is not to produce a definitive relationship between women, house, and identity. Rather, it seeks to offer an alternative lens into the complexity and diversity of gender dynamics operating in and beyond the boundary of the house in the context of contemporary rural China.

Keywords: conception of home, Dong minority, house, rural China, woman’s identity

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26 A Structural Constitutive Model for Viscoelastic Rheological Behavior of Human Saphenous Vein Using Experimental Assays

Authors: Rassoli Aisa, Abrishami Movahhed Arezu, Faturaee Nasser, Seddighi Amir Saeed, Shafigh Mohammad

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Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality in developed countries. Coronary artery abnormalities and carotid artery stenosis, also known as silent death, are among these diseases. One of the treatment methods for these diseases is to create a deviatory pathway to conduct blood into the heart through a bypass surgery. The saphenous vein is usually used in this surgery to create the deviatory pathway. Unfortunately, a re-surgery will be necessary after some years due to ignoring the disagreement of mechanical properties of graft tissue and/or applied prostheses with those of host tissue. The objective of the present study is to clarify the viscoelastic behavior of human saphenous tissue. The stress relaxation tests in circumferential and longitudinal direction were done in this vein by exerting 20% and 50% strains. Considering the stress relaxation curves obtained from stress relaxation tests and the coefficients of the standard solid model, it was demonstrated that the saphenous vein has a non-linear viscoelastic behavior. Thereafter, the fitting with Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was performed based on stress relaxation time curves. Finally, the coefficients of Fung’s QLV model, which models the behavior of saphenous tissue very well, were presented.

Keywords: Viscoelastic behavior, stress relaxation test, uniaxial tensile test, Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model, strain rate

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25 Optimization of Transmission Loss on a Series-Coupled Muffler by Taguchi Method

Authors: Jing-Fung Lin, Jer-Jia Sheu

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In this study, an approach has been developed for the noise reduction of a muffler. The transmission loss (TL) in the muffler is maximized by the use of a double-chamber muffler, and a baffle with a hole is inserted between chambers. Taguchi method is used to optimize the design for the acoustical performance of the muffler. The TL performance is evaluated by COMSOL software. The excellent parameter combination for the maximum TL is attained as high as 35.30 dB in a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 1400 Hz. The influence sequence of four parameters on TL is determined by the range analysis. The effects of length and expansion ratio of the first chamber on TL performance for the excellent program were discussed. Comparisons of the TL results from different designs are made.

Keywords: acoustics, baffle, chamber, muffler, Taguchi method, transmission loss

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24 A Security Study for Smart Metering Systems

Authors: Musaab Hasan, Farkhund Iqbal, Patrick C. K. Hung, Benjamin C. M. Fung, Laura Rafferty

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In modern societies, the smart cities concept raised simultaneously with the projection towards adopting smart devices. A smart grid is an essential part of any smart city as both consumers and power utility companies benefit from the features provided by the power grid. In addition to advanced features presented by smart grids, there may also be a risk when the grids are exposed to malicious acts such as security attacks performed by terrorists. Considering advanced security measures in the design of smart meters could reduce these risks. This paper presents a security study for smart metering systems with a prototype implementation of the user interfaces for future works.

Keywords: security design, smart city, smart meter, smart grid, smart metering system

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23 Evaluation of DNA Paternity Testing Accuracy of Child Trafficking Cases

Authors: Wing Kam Fung, Kexin Yu

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Child trafficking has been a serious problem in modern China. The Chinese government has established a national anti-trafficking DNA database to help reunite missing children with their families. The database collects DNA information from missing children's parents, trafficked and homeless children, then conducts paternity tests to find matched pairs. This paper considers the matching accuracy in such cases by looking into the exclusion probability in paternity testing. First, the situation of child trafficking in China is introduced. Next, derivations of the exclusion probability for both one-parent and two-parents cases are given, followed by extension to allow for 1 or 2 mutations. The accuracy of paternity testing of child trafficking cases is then assessed using the exclusion probabilities and available data. Finally, the number of loci that should be used to ensure a correct match is investigated.

Keywords: child trafficking, DNA database, exclusion probability, paternity testing

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22 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu

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Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

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21 ICT Education: Digital History Learners

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Elvis Fung

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This article is to review and understand the new generation of students to understand their expectations and attitudes. There are a group of students on school projects, creative work, educational software and digital signal source, the use of social networking tools to communicate with friends and a part in the competition. Today's students have been described as the new millennium students. They use information and communication technology in a more creative and innovative at home than at school, because the information and communication technologies for different purposes, in the home, usually occur in school. They collaborate and communicate more effectively when they are at home. Most children enter school, they will bring about how to use information and communication technologies, some basic skills and some tips on how to use information and communication technology will provide a more advanced than most of the school's expectations. Many teachers can help students, however, still a lot of work, "tradition", without a computer, and did not see the "new social computing networks describe young people to learn and new ways of working life in the future", in the education system of the benefits of using a computer.

Keywords: ICT education, digital history, new generation of students, benefits of using a computer

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20 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung

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This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors,). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.

Keywords: normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression

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19 Topical Delivery of Griseofulvin via Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Yann Jean Tan, Hui Meng Er, Choy Sin Lee, Shew Fung Wong, Wen Huei Lim

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Griseofulvin is a long standing fungistatic agent against dermatophytosis. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks such as poor and highly variable bio availability, long duration of treatment, systemic side effects and drug interactions. Targeted treatment for the superficial skin infection, dermatophytosis via topical route could be beneficial. Nevertheless, griseofulvin is only available in the form of oral preparation. Hence, it generates interest in developing a topical formulation for griseofulvin, by using lipid nano particle as the vehicle. Lipid nanoparticle is a submicron colloidal carrier with a core that is solid in nature (lipid). It has combined advantages of various traditional carriers and is a promising vehicle for topical delivery. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nano particles produced using high pressure homogenization method were characterized and investigated for its skin targeting effect in vitro. It has a mean particle size of 179.8±4.9 nm with polydispersity index of 0.306±0.011. Besides, it showed higher skin permeation and better skin targeting effect compared to the griseofulvin suspension.

Keywords: lipid nanoparticles, griseofulvin, topical, dermatophytosis

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18 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang

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Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component

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17 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu

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In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

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16 Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool

Authors: Qiao Pei Wen, Ng Seng Lee, Sae Tae Veera, Chiu Ah Fong, Loke Weng Onn

Abstract:

Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.

Keywords: PECVD SiN deposition, sapphire wafer, substrate electrical conductivity, RF power coupling, high frequency RF power, low frequency RF power, film deposition rate, thickness uniformity

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15 Everyday Solitude, Affective Experiences, and Well-Being in Old Age: The Role of Culture versus Immigration

Authors: Da Jiang, Helene H. Fung, Jennifer C. Lay, Maureen C. Ashe, Peter Graf, Christiane A. Hoppmann

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Being alone is often equated with loneliness. Yet, recent findings suggest that the objective state of being alone (i.e., solitude) can have both positive and negative connotations. The present research aimed to examine (1) affective experience in daily solitude; and (2) the association between everyday affect in solitude and well-being. We examined the distinct roles of culture and immigration in moderating these associations. Using up to 35 daily life assessments of momentary affect, solitude, and emotional well-being in two samples (Vancouver, Canada, and China), the study compared older adults who aged in place (local Caucasians in Vancouver Canada and local Hong Kong Chinese in Hong Kong, China) and older adults of different cultural heritages who immigrated to Canada (immigrated Caucasians and immigrated East Asians). We found that older adults of East Asian heritage experienced more positive and less negative affect when alone than did Caucasians. Reporting positive affect in solitude was more positively associated with well-being in older adults who had immigrated to Canada as compared to those who had aged in place. These findings speak to the unique effects of culture and immigration on the affective correlates of solitude and their associations with well-being in old age.

Keywords: solitude, emotion, age, immigration, culture

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14 Transportation Mode Classification Using GPS Coordinates and Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Taylor Kolody, Farkhund Iqbal, Rabia Batool, Benjamin Fung, Mohammed Hussaeni, Saiqa Aleem

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The rising threat of climate change has led to an increase in public awareness and care about our collective and individual environmental impact. A key component of this impact is our use of cars and other polluting forms of transportation, but it is often difficult for an individual to know how severe this impact is. While there are applications that offer this feedback, they require manual entry of what transportation mode was used for a given trip, which can be burdensome. In order to alleviate this shortcoming, a data from the 2016 TRIPlab datasets has been used to train a variety of machine learning models to automatically recognize the mode of transportation. The accuracy of 89.6% is achieved using single deep neural network model with Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) architecture applied directly to trip data points over 4 primary classes, namely walking, public transit, car, and bike. These results are comparable in accuracy to results achieved by others using ensemble methods and require far less computation when classifying new trips. The lack of trip context data, e.g., bus routes, bike paths, etc., and the need for only a single set of weights make this an appropriate methodology for applications hoping to reach a broad demographic and have responsive feedback.

Keywords: classification, gated recurrent unit, recurrent neural network, transportation

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13 Perceptions of Cybersecurity in Government Organizations: Case Study of Bhutan

Authors: Pema Choejey, David Murray, Chun Che Fung

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Bhutan is becoming increasingly dependent on Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), especially the Internet for performing the daily activities of governments, businesses, and individuals. Consequently, information systems and networks are becoming more exposed and vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. This paper highlights the findings of the survey study carried out to understand the perceptions of cybersecurity implementation among government organizations in Bhutan. About 280 ICT personnel were surveyed about the effectiveness of cybersecurity implementation in their organizations. A questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale was used to assess the perceptions of respondents. The questions were asked on cybersecurity practices such as cybersecurity policies, awareness and training, and risk management. The survey results show that less than 50% of respondents believe that the cybersecurity implementation is effective: cybersecurity policy (40%), risk management (23%), training and awareness (28%), system development life cycle (34%); incident management (26%), and communications and operational management (40%). The findings suggest that many of the cybersecurity practices are inadequately implemented and therefore, there exist a gap in achieving a required cybersecurity posture. This study recommends government organizations to establish a comprehensive cybersecurity program with emphasis on cybersecurity policy, risk management, and awareness and training. In addition, the research study has practical implications to both government and private organizations for implementing and managing cybersecurity.

Keywords: awareness and training, cybersecurity policy, risk management, security risks

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12 A Gap Analysis of Attitude Towards Sustainable Sportswear Product Development between Consumers and Suppliers

Authors: Y. N. Fung, R. Liu, T. M. Choi

Abstract:

Over the past decades, previous studies have explored different consumers’ attitudes towards sustainable fashion and how these attitudes affect consumer behaviors. Researchers have attempted to provide solutions for product suppliers (e.g., retailers, designers, developers, and manufacturers) through studying consumers’ attitudes towards sustainable fashion. However, based on the studies of consumer attitudes, investigations on the sales and market share of sustainable sportswear products remain under-explored. Gaps may exist between the consumers’ expectations and the developed sustainable sportswear products. In this study, a novel study has been carried out to examine the attitude gaps existing between the sustainable sportswear suppliers’ (SSSs) and the sustainable sportswear consumers (SSCs). This study firstly identifies the key attitudes towards sustainable sportswear product development. It analyses how sustainable attitudes affect the products being developed, as well as the effects of the attitude’s difference between the SSSs and the SSCs on the consumers’ satisfaction towards sportswear product consumption. A gap analysis research framework is adopted with the use of collected questionnaire survey data. The results indicate that a significant difference exists between SSSs and SSCs’ attitudes towards sustainable design, manufacture, product features, and branding. Based on in-depth interviews, the major causes of the difference in attitudes are studied to provide managerial insights for sustainable sportswear product management and business development.

Keywords: sustainability, sportswear, attitude, gap analysis, suppliers, consumers

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11 Relationships among Sleep Quality and Quality of Life in Oncology Nurses

Authors: Yi-Fung Lin, Pei-Chen Tsai

Abstract:

Background: The hospital healthcare team provides 24-hour patient care, and therefore shift-work is inevitable in the nursing field. There is an increased awareness that shift-work affecting circadian rhythms may cause various health problems, especially in poor sleep quality, which may harm the quality of life. Purposes: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of demographic characteristics on nurses’ sleep quality and quality of life and the relationship between these predictors of nurses’ quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study was conducted with purposive sampling of 520 female nurses in a medical center in north Taiwan from July to September 2014. Data were collected with structured questionnaires using Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF). Outcomes: The main results include: 1) Irregular menstruation, non-regular exercisers, and more daily caffeine consumption have negative impacts on sleep quality. 2) Younger age, fewer children, low education level, low annual income, irregular menstruation, pain during menstrual cycles, non-regular exercisers, constipation, and poor sleep quality all contribute negative impacts on the quality of life. 3) The odds ratio of sleep disturbance between 12-hour shifts and 8-hour shifts was 2.26, but there was no significant difference regarding their quality of life scores. Conclusion: This study showed that there is a strong correlation between oncology nurses’ sleep quality and quality of life. Sleep quality is a significant predictor of quality of life in oncology nurses.

Keywords: oncology nurses, sleep quality, quality of life, shift-work

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10 Paternity Index Analysis on Disputed Paternity Cases at Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Taufik Hidayat, Yudha Nurhantari, Bambang U. D. Rianto

Abstract:

Introduction: The examination of the Short Tandem Repeats (STR) locus on nuclear DNA is very useful in solving the paternity cases. The purpose of this study is to know the description of paternity cases and paternity index/probability of paternity analysis based on Indonesian allele frequency at Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta. Method: This was an observational study with cross-sectional analytic method. Population and sample were all cases of disputed paternity from January 2011 to June 2015 that fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were examined at Forensic Medicine Unit of Sardjito Hospital, Medical Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. The paternity index was calculated with EasyDNA Program by Fung (2013). Analysis of the study was conducted by comparing the results through unpaired categorical test using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. This study was designed with 95% confidence interval (CI) with α = 5% and significance level is p < 0,05. Results: From 42 disputed paternity cases we obtained trio paternity cases were 32 cases (76.2%) and duo without a mother was 10 cases (23.8%). The majority of the fathers' estimated ages were 21-30 years (33.3%) and the mother's age was 31-40 years (38.1%). The majority of the ages of children examined for paternity were under 12 months (47.6%). The majority of ethnic clients are Javanese. Conclusion of inclusion was 57.1%, and exclusion was 42.9%. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test obtained p-value = 0.673. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between paternity index/probability of paternity based on Indonesian allele frequency between trio and duo of paternity.

Keywords: disputed paternity, paternity index, probability of paternity, short tandem

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9 A Three-Dimensional Assessment Approach on Sustainable Development Process of Sportswear Products

Authors: Y. N. Fung, R. Liu, T. M. Choi

Abstract:

The life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely applied in the study of the sustainable fashion industry. Through the LCA, the social, environmental, and economic performances of the fashion industry can be assessed, which helps sustainable product developers (designers, retailers, and manufacturers) to address problems in product development. In prior studies, environmental impact, economic performance, and social responsibility are commonly considered separately. Inter-relations between dimensions of sustainability and LCA are rarely reported. The development process of sustainable sportswear products is complicated. Changes in the product components (e.g., materials, manufacturing methods, and product design) of sportswear will correspondingly influence supply chain activities and meanwhile affect environmental, economic, and social performances. In this study, the interrelations between different LCAs and how the interrelated LCAs can help product developers to strike a balance among environmental, economic, and social performances are explored. Based on the findings, a three-dimensional assessment framework on the sustainability life cycle is introduced. To examine the applicability of the developed framework, proof-of-concept sportswear legging products were developed. The developed sportswear legging products were assessed in terms of the interrelated dimensions of environmental, economic, and social performances. The results demonstrate the effects of shifting in desig¬n details and product functions on the environmental, social, and economic performances of sportswear products. The outcome of this study provides insights on the approach to balance sustainability and the development of cost-effective and sustainable sportswear products for sportswear developers.

Keywords: sustainable development, sports fashion, life cycle assessment, indicators for sustainability, sustainability impacts

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8 The Impact of Neighbourhood Built-Environment on the Formulation and Facilitation of Bottom-up Mutual Help Networks for Senior Residents in Singapore

Authors: Wei Zhang, Chye Kiang Heng, John Chye Fung

Abstract:

Background: The world’s demographics is currently undergoing the largest wave of both rapid ageing and dramatic urbanisation in human history. As one of the most rapidly ageing countries, Singapore will see about one in four residents aged 65 years and above by 2030 in its high-rise and high-density urban environment. Research questions: To support urban seniors ageing in place and interdependence among senior residents and their informal caregivers, this study argues a community-based care model with bottom-up mutual help networks and asks how neighbourhood built-environment influences the formulation and facilitation of bottom-up mutual help networks in Singapore. Methods: Two public housing communities with different physical environment and rich age-friendly neighbourhood initiatives were chosen as the case studies. The categories, participants and places of bottom-up mutual help activities will be obtained via field observation, non-structural interviews of participants, service providers and managers of care facilities, and documents. Mapping and content analysis will be used to explore the influences of neighbourhood built-environment on the formulation and facilitation of bottom-up mutual help networks. Results and conclusions: The results showed that neighbourhood design, place programming, and place governance have a confluence on the bottom-up mutual help networks for senior residents. Significance: The outcomes of this study will provide fresh evidence for paradigm shifts of community-based care for the elderly and neighbourhood planning. In addition, the research findings will shed light on meaningful implications of urban planners and policy makers as they tackle with the issues arising from the ageing society.

Keywords: Built environment, Mutual help, Neighbourhood, Senior residents, Singapore

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7 The Relationship Between the Skill Mix Model and Patient Mortality: A Systematic Review

Authors: Yi-Fung Lin, Shiow-Ching Shun, Wen-Yu Hu

Abstract:

Background: A skill mix model is regarded as one of the most effective methods of reducing nursing shortages, as well as easing nursing staff workloads and labor costs. According to previous studies, it has been concluded that higher staffing levels result in better outcomes, but it is an inconsistent relationship between the skill mix model and patient mortality. Objectives: This review aimed to explore the relationship between the skill mix model and patient mortality rate in acute care hospitals. Data Sources: A systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and researchers retrieved studies published between January 1986 and March2022. Review methods: Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts based on selection criteria, extracted the data, and performed critical appraisals using the STROBE checklist of each included study. The studies focused on adult patients in acute care hospitals, the skill mix model and patient mortality rate were included in the analysis. Results: Six included studies were conducted in the USA, Canada, Italy, Taiwan, and European countries(Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Spain, and Switzerland), including patients in medical, surgical, and intensive care units. There were both nurses and nursing assistants in their skill mix team. This main finding is that three studies included324,592 participants show evidence of fewer mortality rates associated with hospitals with a higher percentage of registered nurse staff which the percentage of registered nurse staff in the skill mix model ranged from 36.1% to 100%, but three articlesincluded1,122,270 participants which the percentage of registered nurse staff ranged from46% to96%did not find the same result. However, based on appraisal findings, those showing a significant association all meet good quality standards, but only one-third of their counterparts. Conclusions: In light of the limited amount and quality of published research in this review, it is prudent to treat the findings with caution. Although the evidence is not insufficient certainty to draw conclusions about the relationship between nurse staffing level and patients' mortality, this review lights the direction of relevant studies in the future. The limitation of this article is the variation in skill mix models among countries and institutions, making it impossible to do a meta-analysis to compare them further.

Keywords: nurse staffing level, nursing assistants, mortality, skill mix

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6 The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Zenah Gheblawi, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Elisa B. Pelai, Vaishali Sharma, Musa Tashfeen, Angela Fung, Francisca Claveria

Abstract:

Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: exercise therapy, musculoskeletal disorders, physical therapy, rehabilitation, tempomandibular disorders

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5 Data Refinement Enhances The Accuracy of Short-Term Traffic Latency Prediction

Authors: Man Fung Ho, Lap So, Jiaqi Zhang, Yuheng Zhao, Huiyang Lu, Tat Shing Choi, K. Y. Michael Wong

Abstract:

Nowadays, a tremendous amount of data is available in the transportation system, enabling the development of various machine learning approaches to make short-term latency predictions. A natural question is then the choice of relevant information to enable accurate predictions. Using traffic data collected from the Taiwan Freeway System, we consider the prediction of short-term latency of a freeway segment with a length of 17 km covering 5 measurement points, each collecting vehicle-by-vehicle data through the electronic toll collection system. The processed data include the past latencies of the freeway segment with different time lags, the traffic conditions of the individual segments (the accumulations, the traffic fluxes, the entrance and exit rates), the total accumulations, and the weekday latency profiles obtained by Gaussian process regression of past data. We arrive at several important conclusions about how data should be refined to obtain accurate predictions, which have implications for future system-wide latency predictions. (1) We find that the prediction of median latency is much more accurate and meaningful than the prediction of average latency, as the latter is plagued by outliers. This is verified by machine-learning prediction using XGBoost that yields a 35% improvement in the mean square error of the 5-minute averaged latencies. (2) We find that the median latency of the segment 15 minutes ago is a very good baseline for performance comparison, and we have evidence that further improvement is achieved by machine learning approaches such as XGBoost and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). (3) By analyzing the feature importance score in XGBoost and calculating the mutual information between the inputs and the latencies to be predicted, we identify a sequence of inputs ranked in importance. It confirms that the past latencies are most informative of the predicted latencies, followed by the total accumulation, whereas inputs such as the entrance and exit rates are uninformative. It also confirms that the inputs are much less informative of the average latencies than the median latencies. (4) For predicting the latencies of segments composed of two or three sub-segments, summing up the predicted latencies of each sub-segment is more accurate than the one-step prediction of the whole segment, especially with the latency prediction of the downstream sub-segments trained to anticipate latencies several minutes ahead. The duration of the anticipation time is an increasing function of the traveling time of the upstream segment. The above findings have important implications to predicting the full set of latencies among the various locations in the freeway system.

Keywords: data refinement, machine learning, mutual information, short-term latency prediction

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4 Disability Management and Occupational Health Enhancement Program in Hong Kong Hospital Settings

Authors: K. C. M. Wong, C. P. Y. Cheng, K. Y. Chan, G. S. C. Fung, T. F. O. Lau, K. F. C. Leung, J. P. C. Fok

Abstract:

Hospital Authority (HA) is the statutory body to manage all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Occupational Care Medicine Service (OMCS) is an in-house multi-disciplinary team responsible for injury management in HA. Hospital administrative services (AS) provides essential support in hospital daily operation to facilitate the provision of quality healthcare services. An occupational health enhancement program in Tai Po Hospital (TPH) domestic service supporting unit (DSSU) was piloted in 2013 with satisfactory outcome, the keys to success were staff engagement and management support. Riding on the success, the program was rolled out to another 5 AS departments of Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital (AHNH) and TPH in 2015. This paper highlights the indispensable components of disability management and occupational health enhancement program in hospital settings. Objectives: 1) Facilitate workplace to support staff with health affecting work problem, 2) Enhance staff’s occupational health. Methodology: Hospital Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) team and AS departments (catering, linen services, and DSSU) of AHNH and TPH worked closely with OMCS. Focus group meetings and worksite visits were conducted with frontline staff engagement. OSH hazards were identified with corresponding OSH improvement measures introduced, e.g., invention of high dusting device to minimize working at height; tailor-made linen cart to minimize back bending at work, etc. Specific MHO trainings were offered to each AS department. A disability management workshop was provided to supervisors in order to enhance their knowledge and skills in return-to-work (RTW) facilitation. Based on injured staff's health condition, OMCS would provide work recommendation, and RTW plan was formulated with engagement of staff and their supervisors. Genuine communication among stakeholders with expectation management paved the way for realistic goals setting and success in our program. Outcome: After implementation of the program, a significant drop of 26% in musculoskeletal disorders related sickness absence day was noted in 2016 as compared to the average of 2013-2015. The improvement was postulated by innovative OSH improvement measures, teamwork, staff engagement and management support. Staff and supervisors’ feedback were very encouraging that 90% respondents rated very satisfactory in program evaluation. This program exemplified good work sharing among departments to support staff in need.

Keywords: disability management, occupational health, return to work, occupational medicine

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3 [Keynote Speech]: Evidence-Based Outcome Effectiveness Longitudinal Study on Three Approaches to Reduce Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Schoolchildren: Group CBT, Moral Education, Bioneurological Intervention

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung

Abstract:

While aggression had high stability throughout developmental stages and across generations, it should be the top priority of researchers and frontline helping professionals to develop prevention and intervention programme for aggressive children and children at risk of developing aggressive behaviours. Although there is a substantial amount of anti-bullying programmes, they gave disappointingly small effect sizes. The neglectful practical significance could be attributed to the overly simplistic categorisation of individuals involved as bullies or victims. In the past three decades, the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression has been well-proved. As children displaying reactively aggressive behaviours have distinct social-information processing pattern with those showing proactively aggressive behaviours, it is critical to identify the unique needs of the two subtypes accordingly when designing an intervention. The onset of reactive aggression and proactive aggression was observed at earliest in 4.4 and 6.8 years old respectively. Such findings called for a differential early intervention targeting these high-risk children. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the author was the first to establish an evidence-based intervention programme against reactive and proactive aggression. With the largest samples in the world, the author, in the past 10 years, explored three different approaches and their effectiveness against aggression quantitatively and qualitatively with longitudinal design. The three approaches presented are (a) cognitive-behavioral approach, (b) moral education, with Chinese marital arts and ethics as the medium, and (c) bioneurological measures (omega-3 supplementation). The studies adopted a multi-informant approach with repeated measures before and after the intervention, and follow-up assessment. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. In the cognitive-behavioral approach, 66 reactive aggressors and 63 proactive aggressors, aged from 11 to 17, were identified from 10,096 secondary-school children with questionnaire and subsequent structured interview. Participants underwent 10 group sessions specifically designed for each subtype of aggressor. Results revealed significant declines in aggression levels from the baseline to the follow-up assessment after 1 year. In moral education through the Chinese martial arts, 315 high-risk aggressive children, aged 6 to 12 years, were selected from 3,511 primary-school children and randomly assigned into four types of 10-session intervention group, namely martial-skills-only, martial-ethics-only, both martial-skills-and-ethics, and physical fitness (placebo). Results showed only the martial-skills-and-ethics group had a significant reduction in aggression after treatment and 6 months after treatment comparing with the placebo group. In the bioneurological approach, 218 children, aged from 8 to 17, were randomly assigned to the omega-3 supplement group and the placebo group. Results revealed that compared with the placebo group, the omega-3 supplement group had significant declines in aggression levels at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All three approaches were effective in reducing proactive and reactive aggression. Traditionally, intervention programmes against aggressive behaviour often adapted the cognitive and/or behavioural approach. However, cognitive-behavioural approach for children was recently challenged by its demanding requirement of cognitive ability. Traditional cognitive interventions may not be as beneficial to an older population as in young children. The present study offered an insightful perspective in aggression reduction measures.

Keywords: intervention, outcome effectiveness, proactive aggression, reactive aggression

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2 Socio-Sensorial Assessment of Nursing Homes in Singapore: Towards Integrated Enabling Design

Authors: Zdravko Trivic, John Chye Fung, Ruzica Bozovic-Stamenovic

Abstract:

Within the context of rapidly ageing population in Singapore and the pressing demands on both caregivers and care providers, an integrated approach to ageing-friendly and ability-sensitive enabling environment becomes an imperative. This particularly applies to nursing home environments and their immediate surroundings, as they are becoming one of the main available options of long-term care for many senior adults who are unable to age at home. Yet, despite the considerable efforts to break the still predominant clinical approach to eldercare and to introduce more home-like design and person-centric care model, nursing homes keep being stigmatised and perceived as not so desirable environments to grow old in. The challenges are further emphasised by the associated physical, sensorial, psychological and cognitive declines that are the common consequences of ageing. Such declines have an immense impact on almost all aspects of older adults’ daily functioning, including problems with mobility and spatial orientation, difficulties in communication, withdrawal from social interaction, higher level of depression and decreased sense of independence and autonomy. However, typical nursing home designs tend to neglect the full capacities of balanced and carefully integrated multisensory stimuli as active component of care and ability building. This paper outlines part of a larger multi-disciplinary study of six nursing homes in Singapore, with overarching objectives to create new models of supportive nursing home environments that go beyond the clinical care model and encourage community integration with the nursing home settings. The paper focuses on the largely neglected aspects of sensorial comfort and multi-sensorial properties of nursing homes, including both indoor and immediate outdoor spaces (boundaries). The objective was to investigate the sensory rhythms and explore their role in nursing home users’ daily routine and therapeutic capacities. Socio-sensory rhythms were captured and analysed through a combination of on-site sensory recordings of “objective” quantitative sensory data (air temperature and humidity, sound level and luminance) using multi-function environment meter, perceived experienced data, spatial mapping, first-person observations of nursing home users’ activity patterns, and interviews. This was done in addition to employment of available assessment tools, such as Wisconsin Person Directed Care assessment tool, Dementia Quality of Life [DQoL] instrument, and Resident Environment Impact Scale [REIS], as these tools address the issues of sensorial experience insufficiently and selectively. Key findings indicate varied levels of sensory comfort, as well as diversity, intensity, and customisation of multi-sensory conditions within different nursing home spaces. Sensory stimulation is typically concentrated in communal living areas of the nursing homes or in the areas that often provide controlled or limited access, including specifically designed sensory rooms and outdoor green spaces (gardens and terraces). Opportunities for sensory stimulation are particularly limited for bed-bound senior residents and within more functional areas, such as corridors. This suggests that the capacities of nursing home designs to provide more diverse and better integrated pleasant sensory conditions as integrated “therapeutic devices” to build nursing home residents’ physical and mental abilities, encourage activity and improve wellbeing are far from exhausted.

Keywords: ageing-supportive environment, enabling design, multi-sensory assessment, nursing home environment

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1 Assessing the Utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Hyperspectral Image and Photogrammetry Derived 3D Data for Wetland Species Distribution Quick Mapping

Authors: Qiaosi Li, Frankie Kwan Kit Wong, Tung Fung

Abstract:

Lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) loading with novel sensors offers a low cost approach for data acquisition in complex environment. This study established a framework for applying UAV system in complex environment quick mapping and assessed the performance of UAV-based hyperspectral image and digital surface model (DSM) derived from photogrammetric point clouds for 13 species classification in wetland area Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site, Hong Kong. The study area was part of shallow bay with flat terrain and the major species including reedbed and four mangroves: Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acrostichum auerum and Acanthus ilicifolius. Other species involved in various graminaceous plants, tarbor, shrub and invasive species Mikania micrantha. In particular, invasive species climbed up to the mangrove canopy caused damage and morphology change which might increase species distinguishing difficulty. Hyperspectral images were acquired by Headwall Nano sensor with spectral range from 400nm to 1000nm and 0.06m spatial resolution image. A sequence of multi-view RGB images was captured with 0.02m spatial resolution and 75% overlap. Hyperspectral image was corrected for radiative and geometric distortion while high resolution RGB images were matched to generate maximum dense point clouds. Furtherly, a 5 cm grid digital surface model (DSM) was derived from dense point clouds. Multiple feature reduction methods were compared to identify the efficient method and to explore the significant spectral bands in distinguishing different species. Examined methods including stepwise discriminant analysis (DA), support vector machine (SVM) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation. Subsequently, spectral subsets composed of the first 20 most importance bands extracted by SVM, DA and MNF, and multi-source subsets adding extra DSM to 20 spectrum bands were served as input in maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and SVM classifier to compare the classification result. Classification results showed that feature reduction methods from best to worst are MNF transformation, DA and SVM. MNF transformation accuracy was even higher than all bands input result. Selected bands frequently laid along the green peak, red edge and near infrared. Additionally, DA found that chlorophyll absorption red band and yellow band were also important for species classification. In terms of 3D data, DSM enhanced the discriminant capacity among low plants, arbor and mangrove. Meanwhile, DSM largely reduced misclassification due to the shadow effect and morphological variation of inter-species. In respect to classifier, nonparametric SVM outperformed than MLC for high dimension and multi-source data in this study. SVM classifier tended to produce higher overall accuracy and reduce scattered patches although it costs more time than MLC. The best result was obtained by combining MNF components and DSM in SVM classifier. This study offered a precision species distribution survey solution for inaccessible wetland area with low cost of time and labour. In addition, findings relevant to the positive effect of DSM as well as spectral feature identification indicated that the utility of UAV-borne hyperspectral and photogrammetry deriving 3D data is promising in further research on wetland species such as bio-parameters modelling and biological invasion monitoring.

Keywords: digital surface model (DSM), feature reduction, hyperspectral, photogrammetric point cloud, species mapping, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

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