Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11722

Search results for: optimal design

11722 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha


This paper presents the effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e. absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and it is very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.

Keywords: acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, interference of waves, operating pressure, optimal operating frequency, stack performance, standing wave, thermoacoustic refrigerator

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11721 An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN

Authors: M. P. Nanda Kumar, K. Dheeraj


The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.

Keywords: inverse optimal control, radial basis function, neural network, controller design

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11720 Multi-Objective Optimal Design of a Cascade Control System for a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems

Authors: Yuekun Chen, Yousef Sardahi, Salam Hajjar, Christopher Greer


This paper presents a multi-objective optimal design of a cascade control system for an underactuated mechanical system. Cascade control structures usually include two control algorithms (inner and outer). To design such a control system properly, the following conflicting objectives should be considered at the same time: 1) the inner closed-loop control must be faster than the outer one, 2) the inner loop should fast reject any disturbance and prevent it from propagating to the outer loop, 3) the controlled system should be insensitive to measurement noise, and 4) the controlled system should be driven by optimal energy. Such a control problem can be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem such that the optimal trade-offs among these design goals are found. To authors best knowledge, such a problem has not been studied in multi-objective settings so far. In this work, an underactuated mechanical system consisting of a rotary servo motor and a ball and beam is used for the computer simulations, the setup parameters of the inner and outer control systems are tuned by NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm), and the dominancy concept is used to find the optimal design points. The solution of this problem is not a single optimal cascade control, but rather a set of optimal cascade controllers (called Pareto set) which represent the optimal trade-offs among the selected design criteria. The function evaluation of the Pareto set is called the Pareto front. The solution set is introduced to the decision-maker who can choose any point to implement. The simulation results in terms of Pareto front and time responses to external signals show the competing nature among the design objectives. The presented study may become the basis for multi-objective optimal design of multi-loop control systems.

Keywords: cascade control, multi-Loop control systems, multiobjective optimization, optimal control

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11719 Convergence Analysis of a Gibbs Sampling Based Mix Design Optimization Approach for High Compressive Strength Pervious Concrete

Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Lu Jin


Pervious concrete features with high water permeability rate. However, due to the lack of fine aggregates, the compressive strength is usually lower than other conventional concrete products. Optimization of pervious concrete mix design has long been recognized as an effective mechanism to achieve high compressive strength while maintaining desired permeability rate. In this paper, a Gibbs Sampling based algorithm is proposed to approximate the optimal mix design to achieve a high compressive strength of pervious concrete. We prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently converges to the set of global optimal solutions. The convergence rate and accuracy depend on a control parameter employed in the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that, by using the proposed approach, the system converges to the optimal solution quickly and the derived optimal mix design achieves the maximum compressive strength while maintaining the desired permeability rate.

Keywords: convergence, Gibbs Sampling, high compressive strength, optimal mix design, pervious concrete

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11718 Investigation of Optimal Parameter Settings in Super Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Welding

Authors: R. M. Chandima Ratnayake, Daniel Dyakov


Super steel materials play vital role in construction and fabrication of structural, piping and pipeline components. They enable to minimize the life cycle costs in assuring the integrity of onshore and offshore operating systems. In this context, Duplex stainless steel (DSS) material related welding on constructions and fabrications play a significant role in maintaining and assuring integrity at an optimal expenditure over the life cycle of production and process systems as well as associated structures. In DSS welding, the factors such as gap geometry, shielding gas supply rate, welding current, and type of the welding process play a vital role on the final joint performance. Hence, an experimental investigation has been performed using engineering robust design approach (ERDA) to investigate the optimal settings that generate optimal super DSS (i.e. UNS S32750) joint performance. This manuscript illustrates the mathematical approach and experimental design, optimal parameter settings and results of verification experiment.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel welding, engineering robust design, mathematical framework, optimal parameter settings

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11717 Optimal Rotor Design of an 150kW-Class IPMSM through the 3D Voltage-Inductance Map Analysis Method

Authors: Eung-Seok Park, Tae-Chul Jeong, Hyun-Jong Park, Hyun-Woo Jun, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee


This presents a methodology to determine detail design directions of an 150kW-class IPMSM (interior permanent magnet synchronous motor) and its detail design. The basic design of the stator and rotor was conducted. After dividing the designed models into the best cases and the worst cases based on rotor shape parameters, Sensitivity analysis and 3D Voltage-Inductance Map (3D EL-Map) parameters were analyzed. Then, the design direction for the final model was predicted. Based on the prediction, the final model was extracted with Trend analysis. Lastly, the final model was validated with experiments.

Keywords: PMSM, optimal design, rotor design, voltage-inductance map

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11716 Optimal Design of Linear Generator to Recharge the Smartphone Battery

Authors: Jin Ho Kim, Yujeong Shin, Seong-Jin Cho, Dong-Jin Kim, U-Syn Ha


Due to the development of the information industry and technologies, cellular phones have must not only function to communicate, but also have functions such as the Internet, e-banking, entertainment, etc. These phones are called smartphones. The performance of smartphones has improved, because of the various functions of smartphones, and the capacity of the battery has been increased gradually. Recently, linear generators have been embedded in smartphones in order to recharge the smartphone's battery. In this study, optimization is performed and an array change of permanent magnets is examined in order to increase efficiency. We propose an optimal design using design of experiments (DOE) to maximize the generated induced voltage. The thickness of the poleshoe and permanent magnet (PM), the height of the poleshoe and PM, and the thickness of the coil are determined to be design variables. We made 25 sampling points using an orthogonal array according to four design variables. We performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the generated induced voltage using the commercial electromagnetic analysis software ANSYS Maxwell. Then, we made an approximate model using the Kriging algorithm, and derived optimal values of the design variables using an evolutionary algorithm. The commercial optimization software PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation, and Optimization) was used with these algorithms. The result of the optimization shows that the generated induced voltage is improved.

Keywords: smartphone, linear generator, design of experiment, approximate model, optimal design

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11715 Development of an Interactive Display-Control Layout Design System for Trains Based on Train Drivers’ Mental Models

Authors: Hyeonkyeong Yang, Minseok Son, Taekbeom Yoo, Woojin Park


Human error is the most salient contributing factor to railway accidents. To reduce the frequency of human errors, many researchers and train designers have adopted ergonomic design principles for designing display-control layout in rail cab. There exist a number of approaches for designing the display control layout based on optimization methods. However, the ergonomically optimized layout design may not be the best design for train drivers, since the drivers have their own mental models based on their experiences. Consequently, the drivers may prefer the existing display-control layout design over the optimal design, and even show better driving performance using the existing design compared to that using the optimal design. Thus, in addition to ergonomic design principles, train drivers’ mental models also need to be considered for designing display-control layout in rail cab. This paper developed an ergonomic assessment system of display-control layout design, and an interactive layout design system that can generate design alternatives and calculate ergonomic assessment score in real-time. The design alternatives generated from the interactive layout design system may not include the optimal design from the ergonomics point of view. However, the system’s strength is that it considers train drivers’ mental models, which can help generate alternatives that are more friendly and easier to use for train drivers. Also, with the developed system, non-experts in ergonomics, such as train drivers, can refine the design alternatives and improve ergonomic assessment score in real-time.

Keywords: display-control layout design, interactive layout design system, mental model, train drivers

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11714 Designing Directed Network with Optimal Controllability

Authors: Liang Bai, Yandong Xiao, Haorang Wang, Songyang Lao


The directedness of links is crucial to determine the controllability in complex networks. Even the edge directions can determine the controllability of complex networks. Obviously, for a given network, we wish to design its edge directions that make this network approach the optimal controllability. In this work, we firstly introduce two methods to enhance network by assigning edge directions. However, these two methods could not completely mitigate the negative effects of inaccessibility and dilations. Thus, to approach the optimal network controllability, the edge directions must mitigate the negative effects of inaccessibility and dilations as much as possible. Finally, we propose the edge direction for optimal controllability. The optimal method has been found to be successfully useful on real-world and synthetic networks.

Keywords: complex network, dynamics, network control, optimization

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11713 Optimal Bayesian Chart for Controlling Expected Number of Defects in Production Processes

Authors: V. Makis, L. Jafari


In this paper, we develop an optimal Bayesian chart to control the expected number of defects per inspection unit in production processes with long production runs. We formulate this control problem in the optimal stopping framework. The objective is to determine the optimal stopping rule minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time considering partial information obtained from the process sampling at regular epochs. We prove the optimality of the control limit policy, i.e., the process is stopped and the search for assignable causes is initiated when the posterior probability that the process is out of control exceeds a control limit. An algorithm in the semi-Markov decision process framework is developed to calculate the optimal control limit and the corresponding average cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the developed optimal control chart and to compare it with the traditional u-chart.

Keywords: Bayesian u-chart, economic design, optimal stopping, semi-Markov decision process, statistical process control

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11712 Developing Integrated Model for Building Design and Evacuation Planning

Authors: Hao-Hsi Tseng, Hsin-Yun Lee


In the process of building design, the designers have to complete the spatial design and consider the evacuation performance at the same time. It is usually difficult to combine the two planning processes and it results in the gap between spatial design and evacuation performance. Then the designers cannot complete an integrated optimal design solution. In addition, the evacuation routing models proposed by previous researchers is different from the practical evacuation decisions in the real field. On the other hand, more and more building design projects are executed by Building Information Modeling (BIM) in which the design content is formed by the object-oriented framework. Thus, the integration of BIM and evacuation simulation can make a significant contribution for designers. Therefore, this research plan will establish a model that integrates spatial design and evacuation planning. The proposed model will provide the support for the spatial design modifications and optimize the evacuation planning. The designers can complete the integrated design solution in BIM. Besides, this research plan improves the evacuation routing method to make the simulation results more practical. The proposed model will be applied in a building design project for evaluation and validation when it will provide the near-optimal design suggestion. By applying the proposed model, the integration and efficiency of the design process are improved and the evacuation plan is more useful. The quality of building spatial design will be better.

Keywords: building information modeling, evacuation, design, floor plan

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11711 A Comparative Study on Sampling Techniques of Polynomial Regression Model Based Stochastic Free Vibration of Composite Plates

Authors: S. Dey, T. Mukhopadhyay, S. Adhikari


This paper presents an exhaustive comparative investigation on sampling techniques of polynomial regression model based stochastic natural frequency of composite plates. Both individual and combined variations of input parameters are considered to map the computational time and accuracy of each modelling techniques. The finite element formulation of composites is capable to deal with both correlated and uncorrelated random input variables such as fibre parameters and material properties. The results obtained by Polynomial regression (PR) using different sampling techniques are compared. Depending on the suitability of sampling techniques such as 2k Factorial designs, Central composite design, A-Optimal design, I-Optimal, D-Optimal, Taguchi’s orthogonal array design, Box-Behnken design, Latin hypercube sampling, sobol sequence are illustrated. Statistical analysis of the first three natural frequencies is presented to compare the results and its performance.

Keywords: composite plate, natural frequency, polynomial regression model, sampling technique, uncertainty quantification

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11710 Design and Optimization of a Customized External Fixation Device for Lower Limb Injuries

Authors: Mohammed S. Alqahtani, Paulo J. Bartolo


External fixation is a common technique for the treatment and stabilization of bone fractures. Different designs have been proposed by companies and research groups, but all of them present limitations such as high weight, not comfortable to use, and not customized to individual patients. This paper proposes a lightweight customized external fixator, overcoming some of these limitations. External fixators are designed using a set of techniques such as medical imaging, CAD modelling, finite element analysis, and full factorial design of experiments. Key design parameters are discussed, and the optimal set of parameters is used to design the final external fixator. Numerical simulations are used to validate design concepts. Results present an optimal external fixation design with weight reduction of 13% without compromising its stiffness and structural integrity. External fixators are also designed to be additively manufactured, allowing to develop a strategy for personalization.

Keywords: computer-aided design modelling, external fixation, finite element analysis, full factorial, personalization

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11709 Optimization of High Flux Density Design for Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Dong-Woo Kang


This paper presents an optimal magnet shape of a spoke-shaped interior permanent magnet synchronous motor by using ferrite magnets. Generally, the permanent magnet motor used the ferrite magnets has lower output power and efficiency than a rare-earth magnet motor, because the ferrite magnet has lower magnetic energy than the rare-earth magnet. Nevertheless, the ferrite magnet motor is used to many industrial products owing to cost effectiveness. In this paper, the authors propose a high power density design of the ferrite permanent magnet synchronous motor. Furthermore, because the motor design has to be taken a manufacturing process into account, the design is simulated by using the finite element method for analyzing the demagnetization, the magnetizing, and the structure stiffness. Especially, the magnet shape and dimensions are decided for satisfying these properties. Finally, the authors design an optimal motor for applying our system. That final design is manufactured and evaluated from experimentations.

Keywords: demagnetization, design optimization, magnetic analysis, permanent magnet motors

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11708 Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint

Authors: Bongsik Park, Jae Hyun Park, Jae-Yeol Cho


Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.

Keywords: parametric study, optimal design, hybrid bridge, finite element analysis

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11707 An Optimal Matching Design Method of Space-Based Optical Payload for Typical Aerial Target Detection

Authors: Yin Zhang, Kai Qiao, Xiyang Zhi, Jinnan Gong, Jianming Hu


In order to effectively detect aerial targets over long distances, an optimal matching design method of space-based optical payload is proposed. Firstly, main factors affecting optical detectability of small targets under complex environment are analyzed based on the full link of a detection system, including band center, band width and spatial resolution. Then a performance characterization model representing the relationship between image signal-to-noise ratio (SCR) and the above influencing factors is established to describe a detection system. Finally, an optimal matching design example is demonstrated for a typical aerial target by simulating and analyzing its SCR under different scene clutter coupling with multi-scale characteristics, and the optimized detection band and spatial resolution are presented. The method can provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for space-based detection system design, payload specification demonstration and information processing algorithm optimization.

Keywords: space-based detection, aerial targets, optical system design, detectability characterization

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11706 The Optimal Indirect Vector Controller Design via an Adaptive Tabu Search Algorithm

Authors: P. Sawatnatee, S. Udomsuk, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak, A. Srikaew


The paper presents how to design the indirect vector control of three-phase induction motor drive systems using the artificial intelligence technique called the adaptive tabu search. The results from the simulation and the experiment show that the drive system with the controller designed from the proposed method can provide the best output speed response compared with those of the conventional method. The controller design using the proposed technique can be used to create the software package for engineers to achieve the optimal controller design of the induction motor speed control based on the indirect vector concept.

Keywords: indirect vector control, induction motor, adaptive tabu search, control design, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
11705 Study on the Retaining Sleeve Structure for the Reduction of Eddy Current in SPMSM

Authors: Hyun-Woo Jun, In-Gun Kim, Hyun Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee


In high-speed SPMSM design, the rotor-retaining sleeve is inserted into rotor to prevent permanent magnet’s damage. It is quite efficient way considering manufacturability, but the sleeve becomes major source of ohm loss in high-speed operation. In this paper, the high-speed motor for turbo-blower at the rating of 100kW was introduced. To improve its efficiency, the retaining sleeve’s optimal design was needed. Within the range of satisfies the mechanical safety, sleeve’s some design variables have been changed. The effect of changing design variables of the sleeve was studied. This paper presents the optimized sleeve’s advantages in electrical efficiency from the result of electromagnetic FEA (finite element analysis) software. Finally, it suggests the optimal sleeve design to reduce eddy current loss, which is related to motor shape.

Keywords: SPMSM, sleeve, eddy current, high efficiency

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11704 Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System

Authors: Nelson K. Lujara


The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.

Keywords: photovoltaic, water pumping, losses, induction motor

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11703 Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints

Authors: Zongjie Wang, Zhizhong Guo


While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.

Keywords: optimal power flow, time period, security, economy

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11702 Optimal Management of Internal Capital of Company

Authors: S. Sadallah


In this paper, dynamic programming is used to determine the optimal management of financial resources in company. Solution of the problem by consider into simpler substructures is constructed. The optimal management of internal capital of company are simulated. The tools applied in this development are based on graph theory. The software of given problems is built by using greedy algorithm. The obtained model and program maintenance enable us to define the optimal version of management of proper financial flows by using visual diagram on each level of investment.

Keywords: management, software, optimal, greedy algorithm, graph-diagram

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11701 Optimal Design of Storm Water Networks Using Simulation-Optimization Technique

Authors: Dibakar Chakrabarty, Mebada Suiting


Rapid urbanization coupled with changes in land use pattern results in increasing peak discharge and shortening of catchment time of concentration. The consequence is floods, which often inundate roads and inhabited areas of cities and towns. Management of storm water resulting from rainfall has, therefore, become an important issue for the municipal bodies. Proper management of storm water obviously includes adequate design of storm water drainage networks. The design of storm water network is a costly exercise. Least cost design of storm water networks assumes significance, particularly when the fund available is limited. Optimal design of a storm water system is a difficult task as it involves the design of various components, like, open or closed conduits, storage units, pumps etc. In this paper, a methodology for least cost design of storm water drainage systems is proposed. The methodology proposed in this study consists of coupling a storm water simulator with an optimization method. The simulator used in this study is EPA’s storm water management model (SWMM), which is linked with Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method. The model proposed here is a mixed integer nonlinear optimization formulation, which takes care of minimizing the sectional areas of the open conduits of storm water networks, while satisfactorily conveying the runoff resulting from rainfall to the network outlet. Performance evaluations of the developed model show that the proposed method can be used for cost effective design of open conduit based storm water networks.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), optimal design, simulation-optimization, storm water network, SWMM

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11700 Combination Approach Using Experiments and Optimal Experimental Design to Optimize Chemical Concentration in Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Process

Authors: H. Tai Pham, Bae Wisup, Sungmin Jung, Ivan Efriza, Ratna Widyaningsih, Byung Un Min


The middle-phase-microemulsion in Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) solution and oil play important roles in the success of an ASP flooding process. The high quality microemulsion phase has ultralow interfacial tensions and it can increase oil recovery. The research used optimal experimental design and response-surface-methodology to predict the optimum concentration of chemicals in ASP solution for maximum microemulsion quality. Secondly, this optimal ASP formulation was implemented in core flooding test to investigate the effective injection volume. As the results, the optimum concentration of surfactants in the ASP solution is 0.57 wt.% and the highest effective injection volume is 19.33% pore volume.

Keywords: optimize, ASP, response surface methodology, solubilization ratio

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11699 Synchronization of Chaotic T-System via Optimal Control as an Adaptive Controller

Authors: Hossein Kheiri, Bashir Naderi, Mohamad Reza Niknam


In this paper we study the optimal synchronization of chaotic T-system with complete uncertain parameter. Optimal control laws and parameter estimation rules are obtained by using Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) technique and Lyapunov stability theorem. The derived control laws are optimal adaptive control and make the states of drive and response systems asymptotically synchronized. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, synchronization, chaos, optimal control, adaptive control

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11698 Effect of Variable Fluxes on Optimal Flux Distribution in a Metabolic Network

Authors: Ehsan Motamedian


Finding all optimal flux distributions of a metabolic model is an important challenge in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to identify all alternate optimal solutions of a large scale metabolic network. The algorithm reduces the model to decrease computations for finding optimal solutions. The algorithm was implemented on the Escherichia coli metabolic model to find all optimal solutions for lactate and acetate production. There were more optimal flux distributions when acetate production was optimized. The model was reduced from 1076 to 80 variable fluxes for lactate while it was reduced to 91 variable fluxes for acetate. These 11 more variable fluxes resulted in about three times more optimal flux distributions. Variable fluxes were from 12 various metabolic pathways and most of them belonged to nucleotide salvage and extra cellular transport pathways.

Keywords: flux variability, metabolic network, mixed-integer linear programming, multiple optimal solutions

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11697 Modeling and Optimal Control of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Wind Disturbance

Authors: Sunsoo Kim, Niladri Das, Raktim Bhattacharya


This paper addresses modeling and control of a six-degree-of-freedom unmanned aerial vehicle capable of vertical take-off and landing in the presence of wind disturbances. We design a hybrid vehicle that combines the benefits of both the fixed-wing and the rotary-wing UAVs. A non-linear model for the hybrid vehicle is rapidly built, combining rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics of wing, and dynamics of the motor and propeller. Further, we design a H₂ optimal controller to make the UAV robust to wind disturbances. We compare its results against that of proportional-integral-derivative and linear-quadratic regulator based control. Our proposed controller results in better performance in terms of root mean squared errors and time responses during two scenarios: hover and level- flight.

Keywords: hybrid UAVs, VTOL, aircraft modeling, H2 optimal control, wind disturbances

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11696 On the Analysis of Strategies of Buechi Games

Authors: Ahmad Termimi Ab Ghani, Kojiro Higuchi


In this paper, we present some results of simultaneous infinite games. We mainly work with generalized reachability games and Buechi games. These games are two-player concurrent games where each player chooses simultaneously their moves at each step. Our goal is to give simple expressions of values for each game. Moreover, we are interested in the question of what type of optimal (ε-optimal) strategy exists for both players depending on the type of games. We first show the determinacy (optimal value) and optimal (ε-optimal) strategies in generalized reachability games. We provide a simple expressions of value of this game and prove the existence of memoryless randomized ε-optimal strategy for Player I in any generalized reachability games. We then observe games with more complex objectives, games with Buechi objectives. We present how to compute an ε-optimal strategies and approximate a value of game in some way. Specifically, the results of generalized reachability games are used to show the value of Buechi games can be approximated as values of some generalized reachability games.

Keywords: optimal Strategies, generalized reachability games, Buechi games

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11695 Operations Research Applications in Audit Planning and Scheduling

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed


This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of the operations research models developed for internal audit planning. Two alternative approaches have been followed in the literature for audit planning: (1) identifying the optimal audit frequency; and (2) determining the optimal audit resource allocation. The first approach identifies the elapsed time between two successive audits, which can be presented as the optimal number of audits in a given planning horizon, or the optimal number of transactions after which an audit should be performed. It also includes the optimal audit schedule. The second approach determines the optimal allocation of audit frequency among all auditable units in the firm. In our review, we discuss both the deterministic and probabilistic models developed for audit planning. In addition, game theory models are reviewed to find the optimal auditing strategy based on the interactions between the auditors and the clients.

Keywords: operations research applications, audit frequency, audit-staff scheduling, audit planning

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11694 Topology Optimization of Structures with Web-Openings

Authors: D. K. Lee, S. M. Shin, J. H. Lee


Topology optimization technique utilizes constant element densities as design parameters. Finally, optimal distribution contours of the material densities between voids (0) and solids (1) in design domain represent the determination of topology. It means that regions with element density values become occupied by solids in design domain, while there are only void phases in regions where no density values exist. Therefore the void regions of topology optimization results provide design information to decide appropriate depositions of web-opening in structure. Contrary to the basic objective of the topology optimization technique which is to obtain optimal topology of structures, this present study proposes a new idea that topology optimization results can be also utilized for decision of proper web-opening’s position. Numerical examples of linear elastostatic structures demonstrate efficiency of methodological design processes using topology optimization in order to determinate the proper deposition of web-openings.

Keywords: topology optimization, web-opening, structure, element density, material

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11693 Optimization Aluminium Design for the Facade Second Skin toward Visual Comfort: Case Studies & Dialux Daylighting Simulation Model

Authors: Yaseri Dahlia Apritasari


Visual comfort is important for the building occupants to need. Visual comfort can be fulfilled through natural lighting (daylighting) and artificial lighting. One strategy to optimize natural lighting can be achieved through the facade second skin design. This strategy can reduce glare, and fulfill visual comfort need. However, the design strategy cannot achieve light intensity for visual comfort. Because the materials, design and opening percentage of the facade of second skin blocked sunlight. This paper discusses aluminum material for the facade second skin design that can fulfill the optimal visual comfort with the case studies Multi Media Tower building. The methodology of the research is combination quantitative and qualitative through field study observed, lighting measurement and visual comfort questionnaire. Then it used too simulation modeling (DIALUX 4.13, 2016) for three facades second skin design model. Through following steps; (1) Measuring visual comfort factor: light intensity indoor and outdoor; (2) Taking visual comfort data from building occupants; (3) Making models with different facade second skin design; (3) Simulating and analyzing the light intensity value for each models that meet occupants visual comfort standard: 350 lux (Indonesia National Standard, 2010). The result shows that optimization of aluminum material for the facade second skin design can meet optimal visual comfort for building occupants. The result can give recommendation aluminum opening percentage of the facade second skin can meet optimal visual comfort for building occupants.

Keywords: aluminium material, Facade, second skin, visual comfort

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