Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 764

Search results for: Sun Rock Choi

764 Rituals in Rock Art: Case Study of Bronze Age Rock Art of Gobustan

Authors: Rahman Abdullayev

Abstract:

Rituals took place during the rock art production or in the rock art sites can be found reflection in contemporary culture. But the form of rituals was conducted in association with rock art production still uncertain. The main purpose of this research is to define the form of ritual activities that took place in the rock art sites, by the example of Bronze Age rock art of Gobustan. For ritual activity location of the rocks which were selected for making petroglyphs has important significance. Thus, not all the rocks which were suitable for rock art were used for this purpose. If in Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic periods Gobustan inhabitants executed petroglyphs on the wall of rock shelters, but in Bronze Age they made it on rocks which are in front of the large, open spaces. A recent study of the location of Bronze Age rock art of Gobustan and involving ethnographic information to the interpretation of drawings allows defining the form of rituals which took place in Gobustan at Bronze Age.

Keywords: Bronze Age, Gobustan, ritual, rock art

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
763 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan

Abstract:

Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.

Keywords: In situ, packer, permeability, rock, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
762 An Approach for Determination of Shotcrete Thickness in Underground Structures

Authors: Mohammad Mohammadi, Mojtaba Askari, Mohammad Farouq Hossaini

Abstract:

An intrinsic property of rock mass known as rock bolt supporting factor (RSF) or rock bolting capability of rock mass was developed and used for explanation of the mechanism of rock bolting practice. Based on the theory of RSF, numeral values can be assigned to each given rock mass to show the capability of that rock mass to be reinforced by rock bolting. For determination of shotcrete thickness, both safety and cost must be taken into account. The present paper introduces a scientific approach for determination of the necessary shotcrete thickness in underground structures for support purposes using the concept of rock bolt supporting factor (RSF). The proposed approach makes the outcome of shotcrete design one step more accurate than before. The actual dataset of 500 meters of Alborz Tunnel length is used as an example of the application of the approach.

Keywords: rock bolt supporting factor (RSF), shotcrete design, underground excavation, Alborz Tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
761 Valorization and Conservation of Rock Painting and Engravings of Kabylia Region (Algeria)

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

Abstract:

In Algeria, the most impressive and most known prehistoric art is the painted or engraved rock art which is present with abundance in several regions. The existence of rock art in Great Kabylia region has been known for over sixty years. The main purpose of this research is to show the dangers facing these rock paintings and engravings and what are the arrangements for their protection and recovery. As every vestige destroyed is a part of the world's memory which disappears, some steps have to be taken in order to protect these historical and archaeological heritages.

Keywords: rock paintings and engravings, preservation, valorization, Kabylia

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
760 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: SHPB test, energy absorption, rock fragments, impact loading, box dimension

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
759 Description of Geotechnical Properties of Jabal Omar

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Osama Abdelgadir El-Bushra

Abstract:

Geological and engineering characteristics of intact rock and the discontinuity surfaces was used to describe and classify rock mass into zones based on mechanical and physical properties. Many conditions terms that affect the rock mas; such as Rock strength, Rock Quality Designation (RQD) value, joint spacing, and condition of joint, water condition with block size, joint roughness, separation, joint hardness, friction angle and weathering were used to classify the rock mass into: Good quality (class II) (RMR values range between 75% and 56%), Good to fair quality (class II to III) (RMR values range between 70% and 55%), Fair quality (class III) (RMR values range between 60% and 50%) and Fair to poor quality (Class III to IV) (RMR values, range between (50% and 35%).

Keywords: rock strength, RQD, joints, weathering

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
758 Mechanistic Studies of Compacted and Sintered Rock Salt

Authors: Claudia H. Swanson, Jens Günster

Abstract:

This research addresses the densification via compaction and sintering of naturally occurring rock salt which was motivated by the fact that in a saline environment rock salt is thermodynamically stable and does show a mechanical behavior compatible to the surrounding host material. The sintering of rock salt powder compacts was systematically investigated using temperature and pressure as variables for the sinter process. The behavior of rock salt showed segregations of anhydrite, CaSO4 - the major impurity found in rock salt, to the grain boundaries between individual sodium chloride crystals. Powder compacts treated with lower pressures lost those anhydrite segregates over time while high pressure treated compacts remained with anhydrite segregates. The density reached in this study is 2.008 g cm-3 corresponding to a density of 92.5 % of the theoretical value. This high density is making the sintering a promising technique for rock salt as applications in underground appropriate environment.

Keywords: rock salt, sinter, anhydrite, nuclear safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
757 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
756 Evolution Mechanism of the Formation of Rock Heap under Seismic Action and Analysis on Engineering Geological Structure

Authors: Jian-Xiu Wan, Yao Yin

Abstract:

In complex terrain and poor geological conditions areas, Railway, highway and other transportation constructions are still strongly developing. However, various geological disasters happened such as landslide, rock heap and so on. According to the results of geological investigation, the form of skirt (trapezoidal), semicircle and triangle rock heaps are mainly due to complex internal force and external force, in a certain extent, which is related to the terrain, the nature of the rock mass, the supply area and the surface shape of rock heap. Combined with the above factors, discrete element numerical simulation of rock mass is established under different terrain conditions based on 3DEC, and accelerated formation process of rock heap under seismic action is simulated. The fragmentation structure supply area is calculated, in which the most dangerous area is located. At the same time, the formation mechanism and development process are studied in different terrain conditions, and the structure of rock heap is judged by section, which can provide a strong theoretical and technical support for the prevention and control of geological disasters.

Keywords: 3DEC, fragmentation structure, rock heap, slope, seismic action

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
755 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

Abstract:

The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
754 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop

Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma

Abstract:

A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.

Keywords: bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, rock deformation, elasto-plastic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
753 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie

Abstract:

Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, rock mechanics, THM effects on rock, constitutive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
752 Assessment of Rock Masses Performance as a Support of Lined Rock Cavern for Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage

Authors: Vathna Suy, Ki-Il Song

Abstract:

In order to store highly pressurized gas such as an isothermal compressed air energy storage, Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) are constructed underground and supported by layers of concrete, steel and rock masses. This study aims to numerically investigate the performance of rock masses which serve as a support of Lined Rock Cavern subjected to high cyclic pressure loadings. FLAC3D finite different software is used for the simulation since the software can effectively model the behavior of concrete lining and steel plate with its built-in structural elements. Cyclic pressure loadings are applied onto the inner surface of the cavern which then transmitted to concrete, steel and eventually to the surrounding rock masses. Changes of stress and strain are constantly monitored throughout all the process of loading operations. The results at various monitoring locations are then extracted and analyzed to assess the response of the rock masses, specifically on its ability to absorb energy during loadings induced by the changes of cyclic pressure loadings inside the cavern. By analyzing the obtained data of stress-strain relation and taking into account the behavior of materials under the effect of strain-dependency, conclusions on the performance of rock masses subjected to high cyclic loading conditions are drawn.

Keywords: cyclic loading, FLAC3D, lined rock cavern (LRC), strain-dependency

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
751 A Preliminary Study of Economic Dimension of Underground Rock Caverns for Water Storage at Singapore

Authors: Junlong Shang, Zhengxian Chua, Hoongping Peh, Zhiye Zhao

Abstract:

Due to scarce land resources in Singapore, it is imperative to increase water storage capacities to meet the increasing demand of water to secure a sustainable development, which can be achieved in the underground by rock caverns. In this paper, a preliminary study on the effects of cavern span, height and radius on the cavern stability is presented to provide a guidance on the cavern construction in the context of Singapore. It is found that the radius of caverns should be around half of the span width (i.e., B/R=2) to reduce vertical displacement at the crown of cavern. The smaller the rock cover, the smaller displacement. The minimum rock thickness should be at least the same as the cavern span to eliminate excessive yielded element. Finally, rock support system is introduced to maintain the profile of caverns.

Keywords: cavern dimension, numerical modelling, sustainable development, underground rock cavern

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
750 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi

Abstract:

Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
749 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: Janusz Kwaśniewski, Ireneusz Dominik, Krzysztof Lalik

Abstract:

The knowledge about rock layers thickness, especially above drilled mining pavements are crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-Excited Acoustical System is presented in the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rock layer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system, which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: auto-oscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement, geotechnic

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
748 Q Slope Rock Mass Classification and Slope Stability Assessment Methodology Application in Steep Interbedded Sedimentary Rock Slopes for a Motorway Constructed North of Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Azariah Sosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez

Abstract:

The development of a new motorway north of Auckland (New Zealand) includes steep rock cuts, from 63 up to 85 degrees, in an interbedded sandstone and siltstone rock mass of the geological unit Waitemata Group (Pakiri Formation), which shows sub-horizontal bedding planes, various sub-vertical joint sets, and a diverse weathering profile. In this kind of rock mass -that can be classified as a weak rock- the definition of the stable maximum geometry is not only governed by discontinuities and defects evident in the rock but is important to also consider the global stability of the rock slope, including (in the analysis) the rock mass characterisation, influence of the groundwater, the geological evolution, and the weathering processes. Depending on the weakness of the rock and the processes suffered, the global stability could, in fact, be a more restricting element than the potential instability of individual blocks through discontinuities. This paper discusses those elements that govern the stability of the rock slopes constructed in a rock formation with favourable bedding and distribution of discontinuities (horizontal and vertical) but with a weak behaviour in terms of global rock mass characterisation. In this context, classifications as Q-Slope and slope stability assessment methodology (SSAM) have been demonstrated as important tools which complement the assessment of the global stability together with the analytical tools related to the wedge-type failures and limit equilibrium methods. The paper focuses on the applicability of these two new empirical classifications to evaluate the slope stability in 18 already excavated rock slopes in the Pakiri formation through comparison between the predicted and observed stability issues and by reviewing the outcome of analytical methods (Rocscience slope stability software suite) compared against the expected stability determined from these rock classifications. This exercise will help validate such findings and correlations arising from the two empirical methods in order to adjust the methods to the nature of this specific kind of rock mass and provide a better understanding of the long-term stability of the slopes studied.

Keywords: Pakiri formation, Q-slope, rock slope stability, SSAM, weak rock

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
747 Rock Property Calculation for Determine Hydrocarbon Zone Based on Petrophysical Principal and Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation in Blok M

Authors: Muhammad Tarmidzi, Reza M. G. Gani, Andri Luthfi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify rock zone containing hydrocarbons with calculating rock property includes volume shale, total porosity, effective porosity and water saturation. Identification method rock property based on GR log, resistivity log, neutron log and density rock. Zoning is based on sequence stratigraphic markers that are sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and flooding surface (FS) which correlating ten well log in blok “M”. The results of sequence stratigraphic correlation consist of eight zone that are two LST zone, three TST zone and three HST zone. The result of rock property calculation in each zone is showing two LST zone containing hydrocarbons. LST-1 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 25%, average total porosity (PHIT) 14%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 11% and average water saturation 0,83. LST-2 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 19%, average total porosity (PHIT) 21%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 17% and average water saturation 0,82.

Keywords: hydrocarbons zone, petrophysic, rock property, sequence stratigraphic

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
746 Analysis of Slope in an Excavated Gneiss Rock Using Geological Strength Index (GSI) in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Agbalajobi, W. A. Bello

Abstract:

The study carried out analysis on slope stability in an excavated gneiss rock using geological strength index (GSI) in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. A kinematic analysis of planar discontinuity sets in a gneiss deposit was carried out to ascertain the degree of slope stability. Discontinuity orientations in the rock mass were mapped using compass clinometers. The average result of physical and mechanical properties such as specific gravity, unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, point load index, and Schmidt rebound value are 2.64 g/m3, 25.95 kN/m3, 156 MPa, 6.5 MPa, and 53.12 respectively. Also, a statistical model equation relating the rock strength was developed. The analyses states that the rock face is susceptible to wedge failures having all the geometrical conditions associated with the occurrence of such failures were noticeable. It can be concluded that analyses of discontinuity orientation in relation to cut face direction in rock excavation is essential for mine planning to forestall mine accidents. Assessment of excavated slope methods was evident that one excavation method (blasting and/or use of hydraulic hammer) is applicable for the given rock strength, the ease of excavation decreases as the rock mass quality increases, thus blasting most suitable for such operation.

Keywords: slope stability, wedge failure, geological strength index (GSI), discontinuities and excavated slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
745 Modeling of the Effect of Explosives, Geological and Geotechnical Parameters on the Stability of Rock Masses Case of Marrakech: Agadir Highway, Morocco

Authors: Taoufik Benchelha, Toufik Remmal, Rachid El Hamdouni, Hamou Mansouri, Houssein Ejjaouani, Halima Jounaid, Said Benchelha

Abstract:

During the earthworks for the construction of Marrakech-Agadir highway in southern Morocco, which crosses mountainous areas of the High Western Atlas, the main problem faced is the stability of the slopes. Indeed, the use of explosives as a means of excavation associated with the geological structure of the terrain encountered can trigger major ruptures and cause damage which depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the rock mass. The study consists of a geological and geotechnical analysis of several unstable zones located along the route, mobilizing millions of cubic meters of rock, with deduction of the parameters influencing slope stability. From this analysis, a predictive model for rock mass stability is carried out, based on a statistic method of logistic regression, in order to predict the geomechanical behavior of the rock slopes constrained by earthworks.

Keywords: explosive, logistic regression, rock mass, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
744 Evaluation of Drilling Performance through Bit-Rock Interaction Using Passive Vibration Assisted Rotation Drilling (PVARD) Tool

Authors: Md. Shaheen Shah, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Dipesh Maharjan, Syed Imtiaz, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Drilling performance is an essential goal in petroleum and mining industry. Drilling rate of penetration (ROP), which is inversely proportional to the mechanical specific energy (MSE) is influenced by numerous factors among which are the applied parameter: torque (T), weight on bit (WOB), fluid flow rate, revolution per minute (rpm), rock related parameters: rock type, rock homogeneousness, rock anisotropy orientation, and mechanical parameters: bit type, configuration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA). This paper is focused on studying the drilling performance by implementing a passive vibration assisted rotary drilling tool (pVARD) as part of the BHA through using different bit types: coring bit, roller cone bit, and PDC bit and various rock types: rock-like material, granite, sandstone, etc. The results of this study aim to produce a pVARD index for optimal drilling performance considering the recommendations of the pVARD’s spring compression tests and stress-strain analysis of rock samples conducted prior to drilling experiments, analyzing the cutting size distribution, and evaluating the applied drilling parameters as a function of WOB. These results are compared with those obtained from drilling without pVARD, which represents the typical rigid BHA of the conventional drilling.

Keywords: BHA, drilling performance, MSE, pVARD, rate of penetration, ROP, tensile and shear fractures, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
743 Stability of Pump Station Cavern in Chagrin Shale with Time

Authors: Mohammad Moridzadeh, Mohammad Djavid, Barry Doyle

Abstract:

An assessment of the long-term stability of a cavern in Chagrin shale excavated by the sequential excavation method was performed during and after construction. During the excavation of the cavern, deformations of rock mass were measured at the surface of excavation and within the rock mass by surface and deep measurement instruments. Rock deformations were measured during construction which appeared to result from the as-built excavation sequence that had potentially disturbed the rock and its behavior. Also some additional time dependent rock deformations were observed during and post excavation. Several opinions have been expressed to explain this time dependent deformation including stress changes induced by excavation, strain softening (or creep) in the beddings with and without clay and creep of the shaley rock under compressive stresses. In order to analyze and replicate rock behavior observed during excavation, including current and post excavation elastic, plastic, and time dependent deformation, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. The analysis was also intended to estimate long term deformation of the rock mass around the excavation. Rock mass behavior including time dependent deformation was measured by means of rock surface convergence points, MPBXs, extended creep testing on the long anchors, and load history data from load cells attached to several long anchors. Direct creep testing of Chagrin Shale was performed on core samples from the wall of the Pump Room. Results of these measurements were used to calibrate the FEA of the excavation. These analyses incorporate time dependent constitutive modeling for the rock to evaluate the potential long term movement in the roof, walls, and invert of the cavern. The modeling was performed due to the concerns regarding the unanticipated behavior of the rock mass as well as the forecast of long term deformation and stability of rock around the excavation.

Keywords: Cavern, Chagrin shale, creep, finite element.

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
742 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar

Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat

Abstract:

Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.

Keywords: piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
741 Numerical Investigation of Embankments for Protecting Rock Fall

Authors: Gökhan Altay, Cafer Kayadelen

Abstract:

Rock fall is a movement of huge rock blocks from dip slopes due to physical effects. It generally occurs where loose tuffs lying under basalt flow or stringcourse is being constituted by limestone layers which stand on clay. By corrosion of some parts, big cracks occur on layers and these cracks continue to grow with the effect of freezing-thawing. In this way, the breaking rocks fall down from these dip slopes. Earthquakes which can induce lots of rock movements is another reason for rock fall events. In Turkey, we have a large number of regions prone to the earthquake as in the World so this increases the possibility of rock fall events. A great number of rock fall events take place in Turkey as in the World every year. The rock fall events occurring in urban areas cause serious damages in houses, roads and workplaces. Sometimes it also hinders transportation and furthermore it maybe kills people. In Turkey, rock fall events happen mostly in Spring and Winter because of freezing- thawing of water in rock cracks frequently. In mountain and inclined areas, rock fall is risky for engineering construction and environment. Some countries can invest significant money for these risky areas. For instance, in Switzerland, approximately 6.7 million dollars is spent annually for a distance of 4 km, to the systems to prevent rock fall events. In Turkey, we have lots of urban areas and engineering structure that have the rock fall risk. The embankments are preferable for rock fall events because of its low maintenance and repair costs. Also, embankments are able to absorb much more energy according to other protection systems. The current design method of embankments is only depended on field tests results so there are inadequate studies about this design method. In this paper, the field test modeled in three dimensions and analysis are carried out with the help of ANSYS programme. By the help of field test from literature the numerical model validated. After the validity of numerical models additional parametric studies performed. Changes in deformation of embankments are investigated by the changes in, geometry, velocity and impact height of falling rocks.

Keywords: ANSYS, embankment, impact height, numerical analysis, rock fall

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
740 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films on the Storability of Endive and Pak Choi by Baby Vegetables in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

As the consumption trends of vegetables become different from the past, it is increased using vegetable more convenience such as fresh-cut vegetables, sprouts, baby vegetables rather than an existing hole piece of vegetables. Selected baby vegetables have various functional materials but they have short shelf life. This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation OTR (oxygen transmission rate) films. Baby vegetable of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis) for this research, around 10 cm height, cultivated in glass greenhouse during 3 weeks. Harvested endive and pak choi were stored at 8 ℃ for 5 days and were packed by PP (Polypropylene) container and covered different types of laser ablation OTR film (DaeRyung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 10,000 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc /m2•day•atm, and control (perforated film) with heat sealing machine (SC200-IP, Kumkang, Korea). All the samples conducted 5 times replication. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Microsoft Excel 2010 program and results were expressed as standard deviations. The fresh weight loss rate of both baby vegetables were less than 0.3 % in treated films as maximum weight loss rate. On the other hands, control in the final storage day had around 3.0 % weight loss rate and it followed decreasing quantity. Endive had less 2.0 % carbon dioxide contents as maximum contents in 20,000 cc and 40,000 cc. Oxygen contents was maintained between 17 and 20 % in endive, 19 and 20 % in pak choi. Ethylene concentration of both vegetables maintained little lower contents in 20,000 cc treatments than others at final storage day without statistical significance. In the case of hardness, 40,000 cc film was shown little higher value at both baby vegetables without statistical significance. Visual quality was good at 10,000 cc and 20,000 cc in endive and pak choi, and off-flavor was not appeard any off-flavor in both vegetables. Chlorophyll (SPAD-502, Minolta, Japan) value of endive was shown as similar result with initial in all treatments except 20,000 cc as little lower. And chlorophyll value of pak choi decreased in all treatments compared with initial value but was not shown significantly difference each other. Color of leaves (CR-400, Minolta, Japan) changed significantly in 40,000 cc at endive. In an event of pak choi, all the treatments started yellowing by increasing hunter b value, among them control increased substantially. As above the result, 10,000 cc film was most reasonable packaging film for storing at endive and 20,000 cc at pak choi with good quality.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, shelf-life, visual quality, pak choi

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739 Investigating the Nail Walls Performance in Jointed Rock Medium

Authors: Ibrahim Naeimifar, Omid Naeemifar

Abstract:

Evaluation of the excavation-induced ground movements is an important design aspect of support systems in urban areas. Geological and geotechnical conditions of an excavation area have significant effects on excavation-induced ground movements and the related damage. This paper is aimed at studying the performance of excavation walls supported by nails in jointed rock medium. The performance of nailed walls is investigated based on evaluating the excavation-induced ground movements. For this purpose, a set of calibrated 2D finite element models is developed by taking into account the nail-rock-structure interactions, the anisotropic properties of jointed rock, and the staged construction process. The results of this paper highlight effects of different parameters such as joint inclinations, the anisotropy of rocks and nail inclinations on deformation parameters of excavation wall supported by nails.

Keywords: finite element, jointed rock, nailing, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
738 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek

Abstract:

Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.

Keywords: distributed optical strain sensing, rock bolt, bedding shear, sandstone tunnel

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737 Development of Tourism Infrastructure and Cultural Heritage: Case of Gobustan Preserve

Authors: Rufat Nuriyev

Abstract:

Located in the eastern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan and on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, Gobustan National Reserve was inscribed as Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape into the World Heritage List in 2007. Gobustan is an outstanding rock art landscape, where over 6000 rock engravings were found and registered, since the end of Upper Paleolithic up to the Middle Ages. Being a rock art center, the Gobustan seeks to stimulate public awareness and disseminate knowledge of prehistoric art to enrich educational, cultural and artistic communities regionally, nationally and internationally. Due to the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the “Action Plan” , planned actions started to realize. Some of them implemented before of stipulated date. For the attraction of visitors and improvement of service quality in the museum-reserve, various activities are organized. The building of a new museum center at the foot of the Beyukdash Mountain has been completed in 2011. Main aims of the new museum building and exhibition was to provide better understanding of the importance of this monument for local community, Azerbaijanian culture and the world. In the Petroglyph Museum at Gobustan, digital and traditional media are closely integrated to reveal the complexity of historical, cultural and artistic meaning of prehistoric rock carvings of Gobustan. Alongside with electronic devices, the visitor gets opportunity of direct contact with artifacts and ancient rock carvings.

Keywords: Azerbaijan, Gobustan, rock art, museum

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
736 Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Numerical Simulation for Waterflooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Peña A. Roland R., Lozano P. Jean P.

Abstract:

The waterflooding process is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method that appears tremendously successful. This paper shows the importance of the role of the numerical modelling of waterflooding and how to provide a better description of the fluid flow during this process. The mathematical model is based on the mass conservation equations for the oil and water phases. Rock compressibility and capillary pressure equations are coupled to the mathematical model. For discretizing and linearizing the partial differential equations, we used the Finite Volume technique and the Newton-Raphson method, respectively. The results of three scenarios for waterflooding in porous media are shown. The first scenario was estimating the water saturation in the media without rock compressibility and without capillary pressure. The second scenario was estimating the front of the water considering the rock compressibility and capillary pressure. The third case is to compare different fronts of water saturation for three fluids viscosity ratios without and with rock compressibility and without and with capillary pressure. Results of the simulation indicate that the rock compressibility and the capillary pressure produce changes in the pressure profile and saturation profile during the displacement of the oil for the water.

Keywords: capillary pressure, numerical simulation, rock compressibility, two-phase flow

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735 Quality Evaluation of Backfill Grout in Tunnel Boring Machine Tail Void Using Impact-Echo (IE): Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) Numerical Analysis

Authors: Ju-Young Choi, Ki-Il Song, Kyoung-Yul Kim

Abstract:

During Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) tunnel excavation, backfill grout should be injected after the installation of segment lining to ensure the stability of the tunnel and to minimize ground deformation. If grouting is not sufficient to fill the gap between the segments and rock mass, hydraulic pressures occur in the void, which can negatively influence the stability of the tunnel. Recently the tendency to use TBM tunnelling method to replace the drill and blast(NATM) method is increasing. However, there are only a few studies of evaluation of backfill grout. This study evaluates the TBM tunnel backfill state using Impact-Echo(IE). 3-layers, segment-grout-rock mass, are simulated by FLAC 2D, FDM-based software. The signals obtained from numerical analysis and IE test are analyzed by Short-Time Fourier Transform(STFT) in time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain. The result of this study can be used to evaluate the quality of backfill grouting in tail void.

Keywords: tunnel boring machine, backfill grout, impact-echo method, time-frequency domain analysis, finite difference method

Procedia PDF Downloads 196