Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: headache

100 Prevalence of Headache among Adult Population in Urban Varanasi, India

Authors: Hari Shankar, Kshitij Raj, Priya Keshari, Pragya Singh


Headache is one of the most ubiquitous and frequent neurological disorders interfering with everyday life in all countries. India appears to be no exception. Objectives are to assess the prevalence of headache among adult population in urban area of Varanasi and to find out factors influencing the occurrence of headache. A community based cross sectional study was conducted among adult population in urban area of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Total 151 eligible respondents were interviewed by simple random sampling technique. Proportion percentage and Chisquare test were applied for data analysis. Out of 151 respondents, majority (58.3%) were females. In this study, 92.8% respondents belonged to age group 18-60 years while 7.2% was either 60 year of age or above. The overall prevalence of headache was found to be 51.1%. Highest and lowest prevalence of headache was recorded in age groups 18-29 year & 40-49 year respectively. Headache was 62.1% in illiterate and was 40.0% among graduate & above. Unskilled workers had more headache 73.1% than other type of occupation. Headache was more prevalent among unemployed (35.9%) than employed (6.4%). Females had higher family history of headache (48.9%) as compared to males (41.3%). Study subjects having peaceful relation with family members, relatives and neighbors had more headache than those having no peaceful relation.  

Keywords: family relationship, headache, neighbors, ration cards

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99 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan


The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, HAM-A, HAM

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98 Osteochondroma of Clivus: An Unusual Cause of Headache

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Rana Shoaib Hamid, Asim Qureshi


A fifty years old female presented in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of migraine type headache for the last few months. Her last episode of headache was severe, increasing in intensity, associated with nausea but no fever, lasting more than 24 hours and not resolving with analgesics. On examination there was no neurological deficit. CT scan of brain showed a large Pedunculated, non-expansible, non-aggressive bony lesion in the clivus with its sharp fragment impinging into the pons. Findings were further confirmed with MRI brain. Trans-sphenoidal excision biopsy was done and histopathology proved the lesion to be osteochondroma of clivus.

Keywords: osteochondroma, clivus, headache, CT scan

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97 Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients

Authors: Wael Salah Shendy, Moataz Mohamed EL Semary, Hosam Salah Murad, Adham A. Mohamed


Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.

Keywords: cervicogenic headache, cervical headache snag, cervical snag half rotation, cervical dizziness

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96 Headache Masquerading as Common Psychiatric Disorders in Patients of Low Economic Class in a Tertiary Care Setting

Authors: Seema Singh Parmar, Shweta Chauhan


Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the presence of various psychiatric disorders in patients reporting with a headache as the only symptom. Methodology: 200 patients with the chief complain of a headache who visited the psychiatric OPD of a tertiary care were investigated. Out of them 50 who had pure psychiatric illness without any other neurological disease were investigated, and their diagnosis was made. Independent sample t-tests were applied to generate results. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis seen in the sample was Depression (64%) out of which 47% showed features of Depression with anxious distress. Other psychiatric disorders seen were Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Attacks, Somatic Symptom Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For pure psychiatry, headache related illnesses female to male ratio was 1.64. Conclusion: The increasing frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients who only visit the doctor seeking treat a headache shows the need for better identification of psychiatric disorders because proper diagnosis and target of psychiatric treatment shall give complete relief to the patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, depression, headache, panic attacks

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95 Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome at Emergency Department

Authors: Taerim Kim, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Won Young Kim


Object: Reversible cerebral vasospasm syndrome (RCVS) remains an underrated cause of thunderclap headache which shares similar history of the ‘worst-ever’ headache with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to the emergency physicians. This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, radiological features, and outcomes of patients with RCVS so that the physicians could raise the high index of suspicion to detect RCVS in more patients with thunderclap headache before having life-threatening complications. Methods: The electric medical records of 18 patients with diagnostic criteria of RCVS at the emergency department (ED) between January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospective reviewed. Results: The mean age was 50.7 years, and 80% were women. Patients with RCVS visit an average of 4.7 physicians before receiving an accurate diagnosis and mean duration of symptom until diagnosis is 9.3 days. All patients except one experienced severe headache, from 8 to 10 pain intensity on a numerical rating scale (NRS). 44% of patients had nausea as an associated symptom, 66% of patients experienced worsening of headache while gagging, leaning forward, defecating, urinating or having sex. The most frequently affected vessels are middle cerebral arteries demonstrating the characteristic diffuse “string of beads” appearance. Four patients had SAH as a complication. Conclusion: Patients with RCVS have a unique set of clinical and imaging features. Emergency physicians should raise the high index of suspicion to detect RCVS in more patients with thunderclap headache before life-threatening complications.

Keywords: headache, thunderclap, subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke

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94 Effectiveness of Dry Needling on Pain and Pressure Point Threshold in Cervicogenic Headache

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Patra, Ajay P. Gautam, Patitapaban Mohanty


Headache disorders are one of the 10 most disabling conditions for men and women. Headache that originated from upper cervical spine and refereed to the one side of the head and/or face is known as cervicogenic headache (CH) which constitute15% to 20% among all the headaches. In our best knowledge manual therapy is often advocated for managing CH, but very little focus given on muscle system although it is a musculoskeletal disorder. In this study, 75 patients with CH were selected and divided into two groups Group A: Manual therapy and Group B: dry needling along with manual therapy group. Assessment was done using NPRS (0-10) for pain, wide spread pressure pain threshold using an algometer at the beginning and end of the study. There is a consistent reduction in pain and tenderness in both the group but significant improvement was shown in combined group. Outcome of the study has explored that the effectiveness of dry needling along with Mulligan is more beneficial in patients with cervicogenic headaches.

Keywords: cervicogenic headaches, dry needling, NPRS, pressure point threshold

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93 How Acupuncture Improve Migraine: A Literature Review

Authors: Hsiang-Chun Lai, Hsien-Yin Liao, Yi-Wen Lin


Migraine is a primary headache disorder which presented as recurrent and moderate to severe headaches and affects nearly fifteen percent of people’s daily life. In East Asia, acupuncture is a common treatment for migraine prevention. Acupuncture can modulate migraine through both peripheral and central mechanism and decrease the allodynia process. Molecular pathway suggests that acupuncture relief migraine by regulating neurotransmitters/neuromodulators. This process was also proven by neural imaging. Acupuncture decrease the headache frequency and intensity compared to routine care. We also review the most common chosen acupoints to treat migraine and its treatment protocol. As a result, we suggested that acupuncture can serve as an option to migraine treatment and prevention. However, more studies are needed to establish the mechanism and therapeutic roles of acupuncture in treating migraine.

Keywords: acupuncture, allodynia, headache, migraine

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92 Rule-Based Expert System for Headache Diagnosis and Medication Recommendation

Authors: Noura Al-Ajmi, Mohammed A. Almulla


With the increased utilization of technology devices around the world, healthcare and medical diagnosis are critical issues that people worry about these days. Doctors are doing their best to avoid any medical errors while diagnosing diseases and prescribing the wrong medication. Subsequently, artificial intelligence applications that can be installed on mobile devices such as rule-based expert systems facilitate the task of assisting doctors in several ways. Due to their many advantages, the usage of expert systems has increased recently in health sciences. This work presents a backward rule-based expert system that can be used for a headache diagnosis and medication recommendation system. The structure of the system consists of three main modules, namely the input unit, the processing unit, and the output unit.

Keywords: headache diagnosis system, prescription recommender system, expert system, backward rule-based system

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
91 Subdural Hematoma: A Rare Complication of ITP

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Rana Shoaib Hamid


Subdural hematoma (SDH) is an extremely rare complication of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We present a case of a 34 years old female who presented to the Emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of headache, on and off gums bleeding and upper respiratory tract symptoms for the last two weeks. Examination was unremarkable except some purpura over limbs. Investigations revealed zero platelets and peripheral film suggestive of ITP. Computerized tomography (CT) brain revealed bilateral SDH in the frontal areas extending into Falx cerebri. Impression of ITP with SDH was made. Patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), methyl prednisolone and initial Platelets transfusion. Patient recovered uneventfully with platelets reaching normal levels within a few days and resolution of SDH without surgery.

Keywords: headache, immune thrombocytopenia, purpura, subdural hematoma

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90 Acupuncture and Topiramat in Treatment of Migraine

Authors: Lazgeen Mohammed


The greatest advantage of acupuncture over western medicine is that it is safe . Unlike synthetic drugs, acupuncture has virtually no side effects, and the procedures for treating headaches are much less invasive. Migraine headaches are usually one-sided, pulsating or throbbing, and moderate or severe in intensity.. Some patients also experience auras, a neurological symptom that develops gradually over 5-20 minutes. The patient may see brief flashes or waves of light, or changes in their vision. Other common features of auras include vertigo, imbalance, confusion and numbness.Acupuncture had been used to treat 50 patients suffering from migraine ,topiramat (topamax) given to prevent the attacks, duration of treatment is 10 weeks , the patients were fallowed up for one year .Topiramat is called an anticonvulsant.Topiramat is also used to prevent migraine headaches in adults and teenagers who are at least 12 years old. This medicine will only prevent migraine headaches or reduce the number of attacks. It will not treat a headache that has already begun.

Keywords: acpuncture, migraine, topiramat, headache

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89 Catered Lunch Suspected Outbreak in a Garment Factory, Sleman District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2017

Authors: Rieski Prihastuti, Meliana Depo, Trisno A. Wibowo, Misinem


On October 19, 2017, Yogyakarta Islamic Hospital reported 38 garment employees with nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea after they had lunch on October 18, 2017, to Sleman District Health Office. Objectives of this study were to ensure the outbreak and identify source and route of transmission. Case-control study was conducted to analyze food items that caused the outbreak. A case was defined as a person who got symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea with/without vomiting, fever, and headache after they had lunch on October 18, 2017. Samples included leftover lunch box, vomit, tap water and drinking water had been sent to the laboratory. Data were analyzed descriptively as frequency table and analyzed by using chi-square in bivariate analysis. All of 196 garment employee was included in this study. The common symptoms of this outbreak were abdominal pain (84.4%), diarrhea (72.8%), nausea (61.6%), headache (52.8%), vomiting (12.8%), and fever (6.4%) with median incubation period 13 hours (range 1-34 hours). Highest attack rate and odds ratio was found in grilled chicken (Attack Rate 58,49%) with Odds Ratio 11,023 (Confidence Interval 95% 1.383 - 87.859; p value 0,005). Almost all samples showed mold, except drinking water. Based on its sign and symptoms, also incubation period, diarrheal Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens were suspected to be the causative agent of the outbreak. Limitation of this study was improper sample handling and no sample of food handler and stools in the food caterer. Outbreak investigation training needed to be given to the hospital worker, and monitoring should be done to the food caterer to prevent another outbreak.

Keywords: disease outbreak, foodborne disease, food poisoning, outbreak

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88 Harmful Algal Poisoning Symptoms in Coastal Areas of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri


Nigeria has an extensive coastline of 853 km long between latitude 4°10′ to 6°20′ N and longitude 2°45′ to 8°35′ E and situated in the Gulf of Guinea within the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem. There is a substantial coastal community relying on this region for their livelihood of fishing, aquaculture, mariculture for various sea foods either for consumption or economic sustenance or both. Socio-economic study was conducted, using questionnaires and interview, to investigate the health symptoms of harmful algae experienced by these communities on consumption of sea foods. Eighteen symptoms were recorded. Of the respondents who experienced symptoms after consumption of sea foods, overall, more people (33.5%) experienced vomiting as a symptom, followed by nausea (14.03%) and then diarrhea (13.57%). Others were headache (9.95%), mouth tingling (8.6%) and tiredness (7.24%).The least were muscle pain, rashes, confusion, chills, burning sensation, breathing difficulty and balance difficulty which represented 0.45% each and the rest (dizziness, digestive tract tumors, itching, memory loss, & stomach pain) were less than 3% each. In terms of frequency, the most frequent symptom was diarrhea with 87.5% occurrence, closely followed by vomiting with 81.3%. Tiredness was 75% while nausea was 62.5% and headache 50%. Others such as dizziness, itching, memory loss, mouth tingling and stomach pain had about 40% occurrence or less. The least occurring symptoms were muscle pain, rashes, confusion, chills and balance difficulty and burning sensation occurring only once i.e 6.3%. Breathing difficulty was last but one with 12.5%. Visible symptom from seafood and the particular seafood consumed that prompted the visible symptoms, shows that 3.5% of the entire respondents who ate crab experienced various symptoms ranging from vomiting (2.4%), itching (0.5%) and headache (0.4%). For periwinkle, vomiting had 1.7%, while 1.2% represented diarrhea and nausea symptom comprised 0.8% of all the respondents who ate periwinkle. Some respondents who consumed fish shows that 0.4% of the respondents had Itching. From the respondents who preferred to consume shrimps/crayfish and crab, shrimps/crayfish, crab and periwinkle, the most common illness was tiredness (1.2%), while 0.5% had experienced diarrhea and many others. However, for most respondents who claimed to have no preference for any seafood, with 55.7% affirming this with vomiting being the highest (6.1%), followed closely by mouth tingling/ burning sensation (5.8%). Examining the seasonal influence on visible symptoms revealed that vomiting occurred more in the month of January with 5.5%, while headache and itching were predominant in October with (2.8%). Nausea has 3.1% in January than any season of the year, 2.6% of the entire respondents opined to have experience diarrhea in October than in any other season of the year. Regular evaluation of harmful algal poisoning symptoms is recommended for coastal communities.

Keywords: coastal, harmful algae, human poisoning symptoms, Nigeria, phycotoxins

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87 The Dual Catastrophe of Behçet’s Disease Visual Loss Followed by Acute Spinal Shock After Lumbar Drain Removal

Authors: Naim Izet Kajtazi


Context: Increased intracranial pressure and associated symptoms such as headache, papilledema, motor or sensory deficits, seizures, and conscious disturbance are well-known in acute CVT. However, visual loss is not commonly associated with this disease, except in the case of secondary IIH associated with it. Process: We report a case of a 40-year-old male with Behçet’s disease and cerebral venous thrombosis, and other multiple comorbidities admitted with a four-day history of increasing headache and rapidly progressive visual loss bilaterally. The neurological examination was positive for bilateral papilledema of grade 3 with light perception on the left eye and counting fingers on the right eye. Brain imaging showed old findings of cerebral venous thrombosis without any intraparenchymal lesions to suggest a flare-up of Behçet’s disease. The lumbar puncture, followed by the lumbar drain insertion, gave no benefit in headache or vision. However, he completely lost sight. The right optic nerve sheath fenestration did not result in vision improvement. The acute spinal shock complicated the lumbar drain removal due to epidural hematoma. An urgent lumbar laminectomy with hematoma evacuation undertook. Intra-operatively, the neurosurgeon noted suspicious abnormal vessels at conus medullaris with the possibility of an arteriovenous malformation. Outcome: In a few days following the spinal surgery, the patient vision started to improve. Further improvement was achieved after plasma exchange sessions followed by cyclophosphamide. In the recent follow-up in the clinic, he reported better vision, drove, and completed his Ph.D. studies. Relevance: Visual loss in patients with Behçet’s disease should always be anticipated and taken reasonable care of, ensuring that they receive well-combined immunosuppression with anticoagulation and agents to reduce intracranial pressure. This patient’s story is significant for a high disease burden and complicated hospital course by acute spinal shock due to spinal lumbar drain removal with a possible underlying spinal arteriovenous malformation.

Keywords: Behcet disease, optic neuritis, IIH, CVT

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86 Local Remedies to Hangover in Iligan City, Philippines: An Alcohol Consumer Welfare-Concerned Study

Authors: Lindsay Crystabelle A. Gillamac, Lemuel Roy Amarillo, Al Leonard Joseph B. Aca-Ac, Felipe V. Lula Jr.


Hangover is the unpleasant psychological and physiologic effects after heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. In awareness of the need to have a remedy for hangover occurrence in Iligan City, the authors aimed to determine the most preferred and effective local remedy to the hangover and inform people, bars and food establishments that there are available remedies to the hangover in the locality. The study utilizes qualitative data gathered through an interview on four different age groups with 50 random individuals each group as to what symptom determines they are experiencing the hangover. Then, quantitative data gathered through an online and written survey was done as to what local hangover remedy do they intake after drinking to ameliorate the most experienced symptom provided from the first assessment. After data tabulation of hangover symptoms on different age groups, we have found out that the most common determinant that you have a hangover has a headache. Thus, we queried the respondents again to what was effective the most in relieving them of a headache and their other felt symptoms depending on their varying age groups. The results of the evaluations showed that most respondents from different age groups preferred Halang-halang Soup, a spicy beef soup in the locality. As part of the hospitality industry concerned with welfare of customers, Bars in Iligan City should include on their menu these hang-over remedies in anticipation of guest needs given the fact that there are no more stores open at late hours in Iligan City. Placards should also be posted within the bar area to orient the guests about hang-over cures available inside the bar. Bartenders and other staff being directly in-contact with guests should take part in orienting guests about these aforementioned remedies. Added to that, we would like to promote Halang-halang Soup as a Health beneficial cuisine in the Philippines and help in the growth of the Tourism Industry of Iligan City by making the Halang-halang place a tourist destination.

Keywords: alcohol, alcohol consumption, alcohol hangover, anticipation of needs, bar, cure, hangover, headache, hospitality industry, local remedy, menu, menu development, menu improvement, remedy, Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
85 Are There Any Positive Effects of Motivational Interviewing on Motion Sickness?

Authors: Unal Demirtas, Mehmet Ergin Dipcin, Mehmet Cetin


Background: Applied to student candidates prior to entering the air force academy, under the name of Cadet selection flights and executed as 7-8 sorties under the surveillance of flight instructors, this training is mainly towards appraising students’ characteristics of flying ability. All pilot cadets are gone through physical examination before cadet selection flight in a military hospital. Some cadets may show motion sickness symptoms during this flights. The most common symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, headache, anxiety, paresthaesia, asthenia, muscle contraction and excitement. These cadets are examined by flight surgeon, after this flight surgeon and psychologist have an motivational interviewing with these cadets. Method: In this study, we have applied a survey that we question the severity of the symptom to the candidates that have motion sickness after the first sortie. We have questioned the candidate who had a motivational interviewing by the psychologist after the treatment of the flight surgeon that whether the candidate relived the complaints that he has at the previous sortie after the second sortie and whether there is decrease or increase in the severity of the complaints compared to the previous flight. Findings: 15 candidates have applied for the flight surgeon with at least one of the motion sickness symptoms. 11 of the 15 candidates showing motion sickness symptoms after the first flight expressed that their complaints are decreased after the motivational interviewing and 4 of the candidates stated that there are no changes in their complaints. The frequently expressed complaints are nausea, vertigo, headache, exhaustion and vomiting respectively. 7 out of 15 candidates expressed that they have same kind of complains in bus, ship etc. Conclusion: It is observed in our study that only conducting motivational interviewing with the candidates without any organic disorders without giving any drugs has a positive effect on the candidates in terms of motion sickness.

Keywords: aeromedicine, candidate, motion sickness, motivational interviewing, pilot

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84 Cerebral Venous Thrombosis at High Altitude: A Rare Presentation by Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage

Authors: Eman G. Alayad, Mazen G. Aleyad, Mohammed Alshahrani, Ibrahim Alnaami


Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of cerebrovascular disease that can occur at any age. Patients with CVT commonly present with headache, focal neurological deficit, decreased level of consciousness and seizures. Many etiologic risk factors have been reported for CVT, high altitude and oral contraceptive pill some of them. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old woman living in Abha city in the southeastern area of Saudi Arabia. (about 10,000 feet-3000 m) over the sea. complaining acute onset of severe diffuse headache and generalized tonic clonic convulsions. Followed by loss of consciousness. She was on contraceptive pills for the last 3 years. No significant Medical or surgical history. Brain CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, with MRI findings showing thrombosis in transvers sinus. There was no vascular malformations such as aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or dural arteriovenous fistula. A CVT with subarachnoid hemorrhage was our final diagnosis based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. Discussion: Patients with CVT had evidence of cortical SAH by 10 of 233, others found 3% of SAH was caused by CVT, indicating that the presence of cortical SAH without involvement of the basal cisterns may provide an early sign of underlying CVT. However, what is more interesting in this case, is the relationship of high altitude with CVT and SAH, which previously undescribed. Conclusion: High-altitude climbing per se was described as a risk factor for the development of CVT, though its occurrence was probably rare. Whether it is primary in etiology due to high altitude induced hypercoagulable state of unknown origin or due to cerebrovascular disturbances there is a need for further investigation especially at this unusual presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Keywords: cerebral venous thrombosis, high-altitude, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke

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83 Malignant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Revealed a Hidden Primary Spinal Leptomeningeal Medulloblastoma

Authors: Naim Izet Kajtazi


Context: Frequently, the cause of raised intracranial pressure remains unresolved and rarely is related to spinal tumors, moreover less to spinal medulloblastoma without primary brain focus. Process: An 18-year-old woman had a 3-month history of headaches and impaired vision. Neurological examination revealed bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies with bilateral papilloedema of grade III. No focal brain or spine lesion was found on imaging. Consecutive lumbar punctures showed high opening pressure and subsequent increasing protein level. The meningeal biopsy was negative. At one point, she developed an increasing headache, vomiting and back pain. Spine MRI showed diffuse nodular leptomeningeal enhancement with the largest nodule at T6–T7. Malignant cells were detected in cerebrospinal fluid. She underwent laminectomy with excisional biopsy, and pathology showed medulloblastoma WHO grade IV. Outcome: She was treated with chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation and made a good recovery. Relevance: Primary spinal leptomeningeal medulloblastoma is extremely rare, especially without primary brain focus, but may cause increased intracranial pressure, even in the early microscopic phases, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis if conventional and aggressive treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension fails. We assume that arachnoiditis from tumor seeding caused increased intracranial pressure. Appropriate neurosurgical intervention and surgical biopsy are mandated if a suspicious lesion is detected. Consider proper rescreening of the whole neuroaxis in refractory cases of intracranial hypertension.

Keywords: CNS infection, IIH, headache, primary spinal leptomeningeal medulloblastoma

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82 Intracranial Hypertension without CVST in Apla Syndrome: An Unique Association

Authors: Camelia Porey, Binaya Kumar Jaiswal


BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) syndrome is an autoimmune disorder predisposing to thrombotic complications affecting CNS either by arterial vasooclusion or venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) secondarily causes raised intracranial pressure (ICP). However, intracranial hypertension without evidence of CVST is a rare entity. Here we present two cases of elevated ICP with absence of identifiable CVST. CASE SUMMARY: Case 1, 28-year female had a 2 months history of holocranial headache followed by bilateral painless vision loss reaching lack of light perception over 20 days. CSF opening pressure was elevated. Fundoscopy showed bilateral grade 4 papilledema. MRI revealed a partially empty sella with bilateral optic nerve tortuosity. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) was diagnosed. With acetazolamide, there was complete resolution of the clinical and radiological abnormalities. 5 months later she presented with acute onset right-sided hemiparesis. MRI was suggestive of acute left MCA infarct.MR venogram was normal. APLA came positive with high titres of Anticardiolipin and Beta 2 glycoprotein both IgG and IgM. Case 2, 23-year female, presented with headache and diplopia of 2 months duration. CSF pressure was elevated and Grade 3 papilledema was seen. MRI showed bilateral optic nerve hyperintensities with nerve head protrusion with normal MRV. APLA profile showed elevated beta 2 glycoprotein IgG and IgA. CONCLUSION: This is an important non thrombotic complication of APLA syndrome and requires further large-scale study for insight into the pathogenesis and early recognition to avoid future complications.

Keywords: APLA syndrome, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, MR venogram, papilledema

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81 Calcitonin gene-related peptide Receptor Antagonists for Chronic Migraine – Real World Outcomes

Authors: B. J. Mahen, N. E. Lloyd-Gale, S. Johnson, W. P. Rakowicz, M. J. Harris, A. D. Miller


Background: Migraine is a leading cause of disability in the world. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists offer an approach to migraine prophylaxis by inhibiting the inflammatory and vasodilatory effects of CGRP. In recent years, NICE licensed the use of three CGRP-receptor antagonists: Fremanezumab, Galcanezumab, and Erenumab. Here, we present the outcomes of CGRP-antagonist treatment in a cohort of patients who suffer from episodic or chronic migraine and have failed at least three oral prophylactic therapies. Methods: We offered CGRP antagonists to 86 patients who met the NICE criteria to start therapy. We recorded the number of headache days per month (HDPM) at 0 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months. Of those, 26 patients were switched to an alternative treatment due to poor response or side effects. Of the 112 total cases, 9 cases did not sufficiently maintain their headache diary, and 5 cases were not followed up at 3 months. We have therefore included 98 sets of data in our analysis. Results: Fremanezumab achieved a reduction in HDPM by 51.7% at 3 months (p<0.0001), with 63.7% of patients meeting NICE criteria to continue therapy. Patients trialed on Galcanezumab attained a reduction in HDPM by 47.0% (p=0.0019), with 51.6% of patients meeting NICE criteria to continue therapy. Erenumab, however, only achieved a reduction in HDPM by 17.0% (p=0.29), and this was not statistically significant. Furthermore, 34.4%, 9.7%, and 4.9% of patients taking Fremanezumab, Galcanezumab, and Erenumab, respectively, continued therapy beyond 12 months. Of those who attempted drug holidays following 12 months of treatment, migraine symptoms relapsed in 100% of cases. Conclusion: We observed a significant improvement in HDPM amongst episodic and chronic migraine patients following treatment with Fremanezumab or Galcanezumab.

Keywords: migraine, CGRP, fremanezumab, galcanezumab, erenumab

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80 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile in Patients with Preeclampsia in a Private Institution in Medellin, Colombia 2015

Authors: Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Evert Armando Jiménez Cotes, Natalia Perilla Hernández, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Duque Restrepo, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero Moreno, Juan José Builes Gómez, Camilo Ruiz Mejía, Ana Lucia Arango Gómez


Preeclampsia is a clinical complication during pregnancy with high incidence in Colombia; therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of external conditions and medical interventions, in order to promote measures that encourage improvements in the quality of life. Objective: Determine clinical and sociodemographic variables in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 50 patients with the diagnosis of preeclampsia, from a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. We used the software SPSS ver.20 for statistical analysis. For the qualitative variables, we calculated the mean and standard deviation, while, for ordinal and nominal levels of quantitative variables, ratios were estimated. Results: The average age was 26.8±5.9 years. The predominant characteristics were socioeconomic stratum 2 (48%), students (55%), mixed race (46%) and middle school as level of education (38%). As for clinical features, 72% of the cases were mild preeclampsia, and 22% were severe forms. The most common clinical manifestations were edema (46%), headache (62%), and proteinuria (55%). As for the Gyneco-obstetric history, 8% reported previous episodes of this disease and it was the first pregnancy for 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Preeclampsia is a frequent condition in young women; on the other hand, headache and edema were the most common reasons for consultation, therefore, doctors need to be aware of these symptoms in pregnant women.

Keywords: pre-eclampsia, hypertension, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, abdominal, edema

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79 Experimental Investigation of Visual Comfort Requirement in Garment Factories and Identify the Cost Saving Opportunities

Authors: M. A. Wijewardane, S. A. N. C. Sudasinghe, H. K. G. Punchihewa, W. K. D. L. Wickramasinghe, S. A. Philip, M. R. S. U. Kumara


Visual comfort is one of the major parameters that can be taken to measure the human comfort in any environment. If the provided illuminance level in a working environment does not meet the workers visual comfort, it will lead to eye-strain, fatigue, headache, stress, accidents and finally, poor productivity. However, improvements in lighting do not necessarily mean that the workplace requires more light. Unnecessarily higher illuminance levels will also cause poor visual comfort and health risks. In addition, more power consumption on lighting will also result in higher energy costs. So, during this study, visual comfort and the illuminance requirement for the workers in textile/apparel industry were studied to perform different tasks (i.e. cutting, sewing and knitting) at their workplace. Experimental studies were designed to identify the optimum illuminance requirement depending upon the varied fabric colour and type and finally, energy saving potentials due to controlled illuminance level depending on the workforce requirement were analysed. Visual performance of workers during the sewing operation was studied using the ‘landolt ring experiment’. It was revealed that around 36.3% of the workers would like to work if the illuminance level varies from 601 lux to 850 lux illuminance level and 45.9% of the workers are not happy to work if the illuminance level reduces less than 600 lux and greater than 850 lux. Moreover, more than 65% of the workers who do not satisfy with the existing illuminance levels of the production floors suggested that they have headache, eye diseases, or both diseases due to poor visual comfort. In addition, findings of the energy analysis revealed that the energy-saving potential of 5%, 10%, 24%, 8% and 16% can be anticipated for fabric colours, red, blue, yellow, black and white respectively, when the 800 lux is the prevailing illuminance level for sewing operation.

Keywords: Landolt Ring experiment, lighting energy consumption, illuminance, textile and apparel industry, visual comfort

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78 A Systematic Review of Herbal Remedies for Respiratory Infections and COVID-19 Allied Symptoms from Melghat Region of Maharashtra State, India

Authors: Khedkar Dd, Atre NM


The year 2020 arrived with an unexpected world health crisis. Almost the entire world is currently at threat of Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Corona Virus (COVID-19) infection. Infected patients worldwide experienced various symptoms like fever or chills, cough, cold, sore throat, headache, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, chest pain, vomiting or diarrhea, loss of taste or smell, fatigue, muscle or body aches, and malaise, among others. The current review, focus on herbal remedies from the Melghat region on respiratory ailments with unique references to COVID-19 symptoms. A total of 372 medicinal plant species distributed among 280 genera and 94 families have complied for chest pain (21), cold (101), cough (220), fever (278), headache (107), shortness of breath (02), and sore throat (43). Most frequently reported plant families were Fabaceae (30) followed by Asteraceae (21), Lamiaceae (18), Poaceae (16), Malvaceae (15), Acanthaceae (14), Solanaceae (11), Apocynaceae (10), Convolvulaceae (10), Cucurbitaceae (10), Rubiaceae (10) etc. in this study. Out of 372 species reviewed, Herbs represented 39% of species, followed by Trees (24%), Shrubs (23%), Climbers (8%), Grasses (4%), Orchid (1%), Bamboo (1%) and rest is Aquatic. The most commonly used plant part in ailments was Leaves (30%), followed by Roots (16%), Whole plant (13%), Bark (9%), Fruits (9%), Seeds (6%), Flowers (5%), etc. Curated data presented as plant's botanical name, plant's family, category, ailments, the part used with relevant traditional, folk, ethnobotanical uses patterns withcross citations. So offers scope for researchers engaged in herbal drug discovery and development.

Keywords: Melghat, Maharashtra, respiratory infections, fever, cold, cough, COVID-19, herbal remedies

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77 Clinical Profile, Evaluation, Management and Visual Outcome of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a Neuro-Ophthalmology Clinic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rahaf Mandura


Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) more than 250 mm H₂O, without evidence of meningeal inflammation, space-occupying lesion, or venous thrombosis. The aim of this research is to study the clinical profile, evaluation, management, and visual outcome in a hospital-based population of IIH cases in Jeddah. Methodology: This is a retrospective observational study that included the medical records of all patients referred to neuro-ophthalmology service for evaluation of papilledema. The medical records have been reviewed from October 2018 to February 2020 at Jeddah Eye Hospital (JEH), Saudi Arabia. A total of fifty-one patients presented with papilledema in the studied period. Forty-seven patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Results: Most of the patients were females (43, 91.5%) with a mean age of presentation of 30.83±11.40 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache (40 patients, 85.1%), followed by transient visual obscuration (20 patients, 42.6%), and reduced visual acuity (15 patients, 31.9%). All 47 patients were started on medical treatment with oral acetazolamide with four patients (8.5%) shifted to topiramate because of the lack of response or intolerance to acetazolamide while four patients (8.5%) underwent lumbar-peritoneal shunt because of inadequate control of the disease despite the treatment with medical therapy. For both eyes, the change in visual acuity across all assessment points was statistically significant. Nevertheless, there were no significant changes in the visual field findings among all of the compared assessment points. Conclusion: The present study has shown that IIH-related papilledema is common in young female patients with headaches, transient visual obscurations and reduced visual acuity. Those are the commonest symptoms in our IIH population. Medical treatment of IIH is significantly efficacious and should be considered in order to enhance the prognosis of IIH-related complications. Therefore, the visual status should be frequently monitored for these patients.

Keywords: idiopathic intracranial hypertension, intracranial hypertension, papilledema, headache

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76 Rare Diagnosis in Emergency Room: Moyamoya Disease

Authors: Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu


Moyamoya disease is a unique chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis with prominent arterial collateral circulation. The occurrence of Moyamoya disease is related to immune, genetic and other factors. There is no curative treatment for Moyamoya disease. Secondary prevention for patients with symptomatic Moyamoya disease is largely centered on surgical revascularization techniques. We present here a 62-year old male presented with headache and vision loss for 2 days. He was previously diagnosed with hypertension and glaucoma. On physical examination, left eye movements were restricted medially, both eyes were hyperemic and their movements were painful. Other neurological and physical examination were normal. His vital signs and laboratory results were within normal limits. Computed tomography (CT) showed dilated vascular structures around both lateral ventricles and atherosclerotic changes inside the walls of internal carotid artery (ICA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) revealed dilated venous vascular structures around lateral ventricles and hyper-intense gliosis in periventricular white matter. Ischemic gliosis around the lateral ventricles were present in the Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA). After the neurology, ophthalmology and neurosurgery consultation, the patient was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease, pulse steroid therapy was started for vision loss, and super-selective DSA was planned for further investigation. Moyamoya disease is a rare condition, but it can be an important cause of stroke in both children and adults. It generally affects anterior circulation, but posterior cerebral circulation may also be affected, as well. In the differential diagnosis of acute vision loss, occipital stroke related to Moyamoya disease should be considered. Direct and indirect surgical revascularization surgeries may be used to effectively revascularize affected brain areas, and have been shown to reduce risk of stroke.

Keywords: headache, Moyamoya disease, stroke, visual loss

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75 Chikungunya Virus Infection among Patients with Febrile Illness Attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Authors: Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Saka Saheed Baba, Tawa Monilade Adisa, Mustapha Bala Abubakar


Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) virus, a previously anecdotally described arbovirus, is now assuming a worldwide public health burden. The CHIK virus infection is characterized by potentially life threatening and debilitating arthritis in addition to the high fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and rash. Method: Three hundred and seventy (370) serum samples were collected from outpatients with febrile illness attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, and was used to detect for Chikungunya (CHIK) virus IgG and IgM antibodies using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Result: Out of the 370 sera tested, 39 (10.5%) were positive for presence of CHIK virus antibodies. A total of 24 (6.5%) tested positive for CHIK virus IgM only while none (0.0%) was positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG only and 15 (4.1%) of the serum samples were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. A significant difference (p<0.0001) was observed in the distribution of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to gender. The males had prevalence of 8.5% IgM antibodies as against 4.6% observed in females. On the other hand 4.6% of the females were positive for concurrent CHIK virus IgG and IgM antibodies when compared to a prevalence of 3.4% observed in males. Only the age groups ≤ 60 years and the undisclosed age group were positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG and/or IgM antibodies. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies among the study subjects Analysis of the prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to clinical presentation (as observed by Clinicians) of the patients revealed that headache and fever were the most frequently encountered ailments. Conclusion: The CHIK virus IgM and concurrent IgM and IgG antibody prevalence rates of 6.5% and 4.1% observed in this study indicates a current infection and the lack of IgG antibody alone observed shows that the infection is not endemic but sporadic. Recommendation: Further studies should be carried to establish the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus infection vis-à-vis vector dynamics in the study area. A comprehensive study need to be carried out on the molecular characterization of the CHIK virus circulating in Nigeria with a view to developing CHIK virus vaccine.

Keywords: Chikungunya virus, IgM and IgG antibodies, febrile patients, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

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74 Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Authors: N. Reza Pour, S. Chuah, T. Vo


Background: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It can occur spontaneously or following a traumatic event. The pathogenesis is unclear. Predisposing factors include chronic hypertension, Marfan’s syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis and cystic medial necrosis. Physiological changes of pregnancy have also been proposed as potential mechanisms of injury to the vessel wall. The clinical presentation varies and it can present as a headache, neck pain, diplopia, transient ischaemic attack, or an ischemic stroke. Isolated cases of VAD in pregnancy and puerperium have been reported in the literature. One case was found to have posterior circulation stroke as a result of bilateral VAD and labour was induced at 37 weeks gestation for preeclampsia. Another patient at 38 weeks with severe neck pain that persisted after induction for elevated blood pressure and arteriography showed right VAD postpartum. A single case of lethal VAD in pregnancy with subsequent massive subarachnoid haemorrhage has been reported which was confirmed by the autopsy. Case Presentation: We report two cases of vertebral artery dissection in pregnancy. The first patient was a 32-year-old primigravida presented at the 38th week of pregnancy with the onset of early labour and blood pressure (BP) of 130/70 on arrival. After 2 hours, the patient developed a severe headache with blurry vision and BP was 238/120. Despite treatment with an intravenous antihypertensive, she had eclamptic fit. Magnesium solfate was started and Emergency Caesarean Section was performed under the general anaesthesia. On the second day after the operation, she developed left-sided neck pain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) angiography confirmed a short segment left vertebral artery dissection at the level of C3. The patient was treated with aspirin and remained stable without any neurological deficit. The second patient was a 33-year-old primigavida who was admitted to the hospital at 36 weeks gestation with BP of 155/105, constant headache and visual disturbances. She was medicated with an oral antihypertensive agent. On day 4, she complained of right-sided neck pain. MRI angiogram revealed a short segment dissection of the right vertebral artery at the C2-3 level. Pregnancy was terminated on the same day with emergency Caesarean Section and anticoagulation was started subsequently. Post-operative recovery was complicated by rectus sheath haematoma requiring evacuation. She was discharged home on Aspirin without any neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Because of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognized and may be more common than suspected. The outcome for most patients is benign, reflecting the adequacy of the collateral circulation in young patients. Spontaneous VAD is usually treated with anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy for a minimum of 3-6 months to prevent future ischaemic events, allowing the dissection to heal on its own. We had two cases of VAD in the context of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with an acceptable outcome. A high level of vigilance is required particularly with preeclamptic patients presenting with head/neck pain to allow an early diagnosis. This is as we hypothesize, early and aggressive management of vertebral artery dissection may potentially prevent further complications.

Keywords: eclampsia, preeclampsia, pregnancy, Vertebral Artery Dissection

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73 Intracranial Hypotension: A Brief Review of the Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Algorithm

Authors: Ana Bermudez de Castro Muela, Xiomara Santos Salas, Silvia Cayon Somacarrera


The aim of this review is to explain what is the intracranial hypotension and its main causes, and also to approach to the diagnostic management in the different clinical situations, understanding radiological findings, and physiopathological substrate. An approach to the diagnostic management is presented: what are the guidelines to follow, the different tests available, and the typical findings. We review the myelo-CT and myelo-RM studies in patients with suspected CSF fistula or hypotension of unknown cause during the last 10 years in three centers. Signs of intracranial hypotension (subdural hygromas/hematomas, pachymeningeal enhancement, venous sinus engorgement, pituitary hyperemia, and lowering of the brain) that are evident in baseline CT and MRI are also sought. The intracranial hypotension is defined as a lower opening pressure of 6 cmH₂O. It is a relatively rare disorder with an annual incidence of 5 per 100.000, with a female to male ratio 2:1. The clinical features it’s an orthostatic headache, which is defined as development or aggravation of headache when patients move from a supine to an upright position and disappear or typically relieve after lay down. The etiology is a decrease in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), usually by loss of it, either spontaneous or secondary (post-traumatic, post-surgical, systemic disease, post-lumbar puncture etc.) and rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea may exist. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hypotension and CSF hypertension are interrelated, as a situation of hypertension may lead to hypotension secondary to spontaneous CSF leakage. The diagnostic management of intracranial hypotension in our center includes, in the case of being spontaneous and without rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea and according to necessity, a range of available tests, which will be performed from less to more complex: cerebral CT, cerebral MRI and spine without contrast and CT/MRI with intrathecal contrast. If we are in a situation of intracranial hypotension with the presence of rhinorrhea/otorrhea, a sample can be obtained for the detection of b2-transferrin, which is found in the CSF physiologically, as well as sinus CT and cerebral MRI including constructive interference steady state (CISS) sequences. If necessary, cisternography studies are performed to locate the exact point of leakage. It is important to emphasize the significance of myelo-CT / MRI to establish the diagnosis and location of CSF leak, which is indispensable for therapeutic planning (whether surgical or not) in patients with more than one lesion or doubts in the baseline tests.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, neuroradiology brain, magnetic resonance imaging, fistula

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72 Pres Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Cases

Authors: Vaibhavi Birle


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinic-radiological syndrome associated with acute changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. It is characterized symptomatically by headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual blurring with radiological changes of white matter (vasogenic oedema) affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain. It is being increasingly recognized due to increased institutional deliveries and advances in imaging particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In spite of the increasing diagnosis the prediction of PRES and patient factors affecting susceptibility is still not clear. Hence, we conducted the retrospective study to analyse the factors associated with PRES at our tertiary centre.

Keywords: pres syndrome, eclampsia, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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71 Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Game Playing, Internet Addiction and Perceived Stress Levels in University Students

Authors: Sevim Ugur, Cemile Kutmec Yilmaz, Omer Us, Sevdenur Koksaldi


Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of digital game playing and Internet addiction on perceived stress levels in university students. Method: The descriptive study was conducted through face-to-face interview method with a total of 364 university students studying at Aksaray University between November 15 and December 30, 2017. The research data were collected using personal information form, a questionnaire to determine the characteristics of playing digital game, the Internet addiction scale and the perceived stress scale. In the evaluation of the data, Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-group comparison of the sample with non-normal distribution, Kruskal-Wallis H-test was used in the comparison of more than two groups, and the Spearman correlation test was used to determine the relationship between Internet addiction and the perceived stress level. Results: It was determined that the mean age of the students participated in the study was 20.13 ± 1.7 years, 67.6% was female, 35.7% was sophomore, and 62.1% had an income 500 TL or less. It was found that 83.5% of the students use the Internet every day and 70.6% uses the Internet for 5 hours or less per day. Of the students, 12.4% prefers digital games instead of spending time outdoors, 8% plays a game as the first activity in leisure time, 12.4% plays all day, 15.7% feels anger when he/she is prevented from playing, 14.8% prefers playing games to get away from his/her problems, 23.4% had his/her school achievement affected negatively because of game playing, and 8% argues with family members due to the time spent for gaming. Students who play games on the computer for a long time were found to feel back pain (30.8%), headache (28.6%), insomnia (26.9%), dryness and pain in the eyes (26.6%), pain in the wrist (21.2%), feeling excessive tension and anger (16.2%), humpback (12.9), vision loss (9.6%) and pain in the wrist and fingers (7.4%). In our study, students' Internet addiction scale mean score was found to be 45.47 ± 16.1 and mean perceived stress scale score was 28.56 ± 2.7. A significant and negative correlation (p=0.037) was found between the total score of the Internet addiction scale and the total score of the perceived stress scale (r=-0.110). Conclusion: It was found in the study that Internet addiction and perceived stress of the students were at a moderate level and that there was a negative correlation between Internet addiction and perceived stress levels. Internet addiction was found to increase with the increasing perceived stress levels of students, and students were found to have health problems such as back pain, dryness in the eyes, pain, insomnia, headache, and humpback. Therefore, it is recommended to inform students about different coping methods other than spending time on the Internet to cope with the stress they perceive.

Keywords: digital game, internet addiction, student, stress level

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