Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Prasannakumar Palaniappan

6 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song


The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

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5 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu


In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound , unfocused transducer

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4 Identification and Characterization of Enterobacter cloacae, New Soft Rot Causing Pathogen of Radish in India

Authors: B. S. Chandrashekar, M. K. Prasannakumar, P. Buela Parivallal, Sahana N. Banakar, Swathi S. Patil, H. B. Mahesh, D. Pramesh


Bacterial soft rot is one of the most often seen diseases in many plant species globally, resulting in considerable yield loss. Radish roots with dark water-soaked lesions, maceration of tissue, and a foul odour were collected in the Kolar region, India. Two isolates were obtained from rotted samples that demonstrated morphologically unpigmented, white mucoid convex colonies on nutrient agar medium. The isolated bacteria (RDH1 and RDH3) were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with biochemically distinct characteristics similar to the type culture of Enterobacter cloacae ATCC13047 and Bergy's handbook of determinative bacteriology. The 16s rRNA gene was used to identify Enterobacter species. On carrot, potato, tomato, chilli, bell pepper, knolkhol, cauliflower, cabbage, and cucumber slices, the Koch′s postulates were fulfilled, and the pathogen was also pathogenic on radish, cauliflower, and cabbage seedlings were grown in a glasshouse. After 36 hours, both isolates exhibited a hypersensitive sensitivity to Nicotianatabacum. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) such as pectin lyase, polygalacturonase, and cellulase (p=1.4e09) contributed to pathogenicity, whereas isolates produced biofilms (p=4.3e-11) that help in host adhesion. This is the first report in India of radish soft rot caused by E. cloacae.

Keywords: soft rot, enterobacter cloacae, 16S rRNA, nicotiana tabacum, and pathogenicity

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3 Detection of Fuel Theft and Vehicle Position Using Third Party Monitoring Software

Authors: P. Senthilraja, C. Rukumani Khandhan, M. Palaniappan, S. L. Rama, P. Sai Sushimitha, R. Madhan, J. Vinumathi, N. Vijayarangan


Nowadays, the logistics achieve a vast improvement in efficient delivery of goods. The technology improvement also helps to improve its development, but still the owners of transport vehicles face problems, i.e., fuel theft in vehicles by the drivers or by an unknown person. There is no proper solution to overcome the problems. This scheme is to determine the amount of fuel that has been stolen and also to determine the position of the vehicle at a particular time using the technologies like GPS, GSM, ultrasonic fuel level sensor and numeric lock system. The ultrasonic sensor uses the ultrasonic waves to calculate the height of the tank up to which the fuel is available. Based on height it is possible to calculate the amount of fuel. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system. The scientific community uses GPS for its precision timing capability and position information. The GSM provides the periodic information about the fuel level. A numeric lock system has been provided for fuel tank opening lever. A password is provided to access the fuel tank lever and this is authenticated only by the driver and the owner. Once the fuel tank is opened an alert is sent to owner through a SMS including the timing details. Third party monitoring software is a user interface that updates the information automatically into the database which helps to retrieve the data as and when required. Third party monitoring software provides vehicle’s information to the owner and also shows the status of the vehicle. The techniques that are to be proposed will provide an efficient output. This project helps to overcome the theft and hence to put forth fuel economy.

Keywords: fuel theft, third party monitoring software, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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2 The Four-Way Interactions among Host Plant-Whitefly-Virus-Endosymbionts in Insect and Disease Development

Authors: N. R. Prasannakumar, M. N. Maruthi


The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae) is a highly polyphagous pest reported to infest over 600 plant hosts globally. About 42 genetic groups/cryptic species of B. tabaci exist in the world on different hosts. The species have variable behaviour with respect to feeding, development and transmission of viral diseases. Feeding on diverse host plants affect both whitefly development and the population of the endosymbionts harboured by the insects. Due to changes in the level of endosymbionts, the virus transmission efficiency by the vector also gets affected. We investigated these interactions on five host plants – egg plant, tomato, beans, okra and cotton - using a single whitefly species Asia 1 infected with three different bacteria Portiera, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. The Asia 1 transmits the Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV) effectively and thus was used in the interaction studies. We found a significant impact of hosts on whitefly growth and development; eggplant was most favourable host, while okra and tomato were least favourable. Among the endosymbiotic bacteria, the titre of Wolbachia was significantly affected by feeding of B. tabaci on different host plants whereas Arsenophonus and Portiera were unaffected. When whitefly fed on ToLCBV-infected tomato plants, the Arsenophonus population was significantly increased, indicating its previously confirmed role in ToLCBV transmission. Further, screening of total proteins of B. tabaci Asia 1 genetic group interacting with ToLCBV coat protein was carried out using Y2H system. Some of the proteins found to be interacting with ToLCBV CP were HSPs 70kDa, GroEL, nucleoproteins, vitellogenins, apolipophorins, lachesins, enolase. The reported protein thus would be the potential targets for novel whitefly control strategies such as RNAi or novel insecticide target sites for sustainable whitefly management after confirmation of genuine proteins.

Keywords: cDNA, whitefly, ToLCBV, endosymbionts, Y2H

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1 Construction of an Assessment Tool for Early Childhood Development in the World of DiscoveryTM Curriculum

Authors: Divya Palaniappan


Early Childhood assessment tools must measure the quality and the appropriateness of a curriculum with respect to culture and age of the children. Preschool assessment tools lack psychometric properties and were developed to measure only few areas of development such as specific skills in music, art and adaptive behavior. Existing preschool assessment tools in India are predominantly informal and are fraught with judgmental bias of observers. The World of Discovery TM curriculum focuses on accelerating the physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional development of pre-schoolers in India through various activities. The curriculum caters to every child irrespective of their dominant intelligence as per Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence which concluded "even students as young as four years old present quite distinctive sets and configurations of intelligences". The curriculum introduces a new theme every week where, concepts are explained through various activities so that children with different dominant intelligences could understand it. For example: The ‘Insects’ theme is explained through rhymes, craft and counting corner, and hence children with one of these dominant intelligences: Musical, bodily-kinesthetic and logical-mathematical could grasp the concept. The child’s progress is evaluated using an assessment tool that measures a cluster of inter-dependent developmental areas: physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional development, which for the first time renders a multi-domain approach. The assessment tool is a 5-point rating scale that measures these Developmental aspects: Cognitive, Language, Physical, Social and Emotional. Each activity strengthens one or more of the developmental aspects. During cognitive corner, the child’s perceptual reasoning, pre-math abilities, hand-eye co-ordination and fine motor skills could be observed and evaluated. The tool differs from traditional assessment methodologies by providing a framework that allows teachers to assess a child’s continuous development with respect to specific activities in real time objectively. A pilot study of the tool was done with a sample data of 100 children in the age group 2.5 to 3.5 years. The data was collected over a period of 3 months across 10 centers in Chennai, India, scored by the class teacher once a week. The teachers were trained by psychologists on age-appropriate developmental milestones to minimize observer’s bias. The norms were calculated from the mean and standard deviation of the observed data. The results indicated high internal consistency among parameters and that cognitive development improved with physical development. A significant positive relationship between physical and cognitive development has been observed among children in a study conducted by Sibley and Etnier. In Children, the ‘Comprehension’ ability was found to be greater than ‘Reasoning’ and pre-math abilities as indicated by the preoperational stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. The average scores of various parameters obtained through the tool corroborates the psychological theories on child development, offering strong face validity. The study provides a comprehensive mechanism to assess a child’s development and differentiate high performers from the rest. Based on the average scores, the difficulty level of activities could be increased or decreased to nurture the development of pre-schoolers and also appropriate teaching methodologies could be devised.

Keywords: child development, early childhood assessment, early childhood curriculum, quantitative assessment of preschool curriculum

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