Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: aortic dissection

123 Validation of a Fluid-Structure Interaction Model of an Aortic Dissection versus a Bench Top Model

Authors: K. Khanafer

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation was to validate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of type B aortic dissection with our experimental results from a bench-top-model. Another objective was to study the relationship between the size of a septectomy that increases the outflow of the false lumen and its effect on the values of the differential of pressure between true lumen and false lumen. FSI analysis based on Galerkin’s formulation was used in this investigation to study flow pattern and hemodynamics within a flexible type B aortic dissection model using boundary conditions from our experimental data. The numerical results of our model were verified against the experimental data for various tear size and location. Thus, CFD tools have a potential role in evaluating different scenarios and aortic dissection configurations.

Keywords: aortic dissection, fluid-structure interaction, in vitro model, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
122 Finite Element Modeling of Aortic Intramural Haematoma Shows Size Matters

Authors: Aihong Zhao, Priya Sastry, Mark L Field, Mohamad Bashir, Arvind Singh, David Richens

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Objectives: Intramural haematoma (IMH) is one of the pathologies, along with acute aortic dissection, that present as Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS). Evidence suggests that unlike aortic dissection, some intramural haematomas may regress with medical management. However, intramural haematomas have been traditionally managed like acute aortic dissections. Given that some of these pathologies may regress with conservative management, it would be useful to be able to identify which of these may not need high risk emergency intervention. A computational aortic model was used in this study to try and identify intramural haematomas with risk of progression to aortic dissection. Methods: We created a computational model of the aorta with luminal blood flow. Reports in the literature have identified 11 mm as the radial clot thickness that is associated with heightened risk of progression of intramural haematoma. Accordingly, haematomas of varying sizes were implanted in the modeled aortic wall to test this hypothesis. The model was exposed to physiological blood flows and the stresses and strains in each layer of the aortic wall were recorded. Results: Size and shape of clot were seen to affect the magnitude of aortic stresses. The greatest stresses and strains were recorded in the intima of the model. When the haematoma exceeded 10 mm in all dimensions, the stress on the intima reached breaking point. Conclusion: Intramural clot size appears to be a contributory factor affecting aortic wall stress. Our computer simulation corroborates clinical evidence in the literature proposing that IMH diameter greater than 11 mm may be predictive of progression. This preliminary report suggests finite element modelling of the aortic wall may be a useful process by which to examine putative variables important in predicting progression or regression of intramural haematoma.

Keywords: intramural haematoma, acute aortic syndrome, finite element analysis,

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
121 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim

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Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
120 The Combination Of Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score (ADD-RS) With D-dimer As A Diagnostic Tool To Exclude The Diagnosis Of Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS)

Authors: Mohamed Hamada Abdelkader Fayed

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Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a screening test to exclude AAS. Methods: We conducted research for the studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD- RS)+ D-dimer to exclude the diagnosis of AAS, We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane of Trials up to 31 December 2020. Results: We identified 3 studies using (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a diagnostic tool for AAS, involving 3261 patients were AAS was diagnosed in 559(17.14%) patients. Overall results showed that the pooled sensitivities were 97.6 (95% CI 0.95.6, 99.6) at (ADD-RS)≤1(low risk group) with D-dimer and 97.4(95% CI 0.95.4,, 99.4) at (ADD-RS)>1(High risk group) with D-dimer., the failure rate was 0.48% at low risk group and 4.3% at high risk group respectively. Conclusions: (ADD-RS) with D-dimer was a useful screening test with high sensitivity to exclude Acute Aortic Syndrome.

Keywords: aortic dissection detection risk score, D-dimer, acute aortic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
119 Expression of uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 in Calcified Aortic Valves

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

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Our physiopathological assumption is that u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 are released by calcified aortic valves and play a role in the calcification of these valves. Sixty-five calcified aortic valves were collected from patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Each valve was incubated for 24 hours in culture medium. The supernatants were used to measure u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 concentrations; the valve calcification was evaluated using biphotonic absorptiometry. Aortic stenosis valves expressed normal plasminogen activators concentrations and overexpressed PAI-1 (u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 mean concentrations were, resp., 1.69 ng/mL ± 0.80, 2.76 ng/mL ± 1.33, and 53.27 ng/mL ± 36.39). There was no correlation between u-PA and PAI-1 (r = 0.3) but t-PA and PAI-1 were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.6). Over expression of PAI-1 was proportional to the calcium content of theAS valves. Our results demonstrate a consistent increase of PAI-1 proportional to the calcification. The over expression of PAI-1 may be useful as a predictive indicator in patients with aortic stenosis.

Keywords: aortic valve, PAI-1, tPA gene, uPA gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
118 A Case of Prosthetic Vascular-Graft Infection Due to Mycobacterium fortuitum

Authors: Takaaki Nemoto

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Case presentation: A 69-year-old Japanese man presented with a low-grade fever and fatigue that had persisted for one month. The patient had an aortic dissection on the aortic arch 13 years prior, an abdominal aortic aneurysm seven years prior, and an aortic dissection on the distal aortic arch one year prior, which were all treated with artificial blood-vessel replacement surgery. Laboratory tests revealed an inflammatory response (CRP 7.61 mg/dl), high serum creatinine (Cr 1.4 mg/dL), and elevated transaminase (AST 47 IU/L, ALT 45 IU/L). The patient was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Following further workups on the inflammatory response, an enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) and a non-enhanced chest DWI (MRI) were performed. The patient was diagnosed with a pulmonary fistula and a prosthetic vascular graft infection on the distal aortic arch. After admission, the patient was administered Ceftriaxion and Vancomycine for 10 days, but his fever and inflammatory response did not improve. On day 13 of hospitalization, a lung fistula repair surgery and an omental filling operation were performed, and Meropenem and Vancomycine were administered. The fever and inflammatory response continued, and therefore we took repeated blood cultures. M. fortuitum was detected in a blood culture on day 16 of hospitalization. As a result, we changed the treatment regimen to Amikacin (400 mg/day), Meropenem (2 g/day), and Cefmetazole (4 g/day), and the fever and inflammatory response began to decrease gradually. We performed a test of sensitivity for Mycobacterium fortuitum, and found that the MIC was low for fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The clinical course was good, and the patient was discharged after a total of 8 weeks of intravenous drug administration. At discharge, we changed the treatment regimen to Levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and Clarithromycin (800 mg/day), and prescribed these two drugs as a long life suppressive therapy. Discussion: There are few cases of prosthetic vascular graft infection caused by mycobacteria, and a standard therapy remains to be established. For prosthetic vascular graft infections, it is ideal to provide surgical and medical treatment in parallel, but in this case, surgical treatment was difficult and, therefore, a conservative treatment was chosen. We attempted to increase the treatment success rate of this refractory disease by conducting a susceptibility test for mycobacteria and treating with different combinations of antimicrobial agents, which was ultimately effective. With our treatment approach, a good clinical course was obtained and continues at the present stage. Conclusion: Although prosthetic vascular graft infection resulting from mycobacteria is a refractory infectious disease, it may be curative to administer appropriate antibiotics based on the susceptibility test in addition to surgical treatment.

Keywords: prosthetic vascular graft infection, lung fistula, Mycobacterium fortuitum, conservative treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
117 An Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Aortic Enlargement by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani

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Aortic enlargement, also known as an aortic aneurysm, can occur when the walls of the aorta become weak. This disease can become deadly if overlooked and undiagnosed. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system was introduced to accurately diagnose Aortic enlargement from chest x-ray images. A novel approach by using an optimized Convolutional Neural Networks - CNN was employed. Three main areas, including the left lung, heart, and right lung were extracted from the original images. These three areas were then fed to a CNN. The accuracy of the system was evaluated on 1000 sample images by using 4-fold cross-validation. A promising accuracy of 84% was achieved in terms of the F-measure indicator. This encouraged the author to evaluate this method on a larger dataset and even on different CAD systems for further enhancement of this methodology.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, aortic enlargement, chest X-ray, image processing, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
116 Type A Quadricuspid Aortic Valve; Rarer than a Four-Leaf Clover, an Example of Availability Heuristic

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Rohen Skiba, Pankaj Saxena

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The natural history of the QAV is poorly understood due to the exceeding rarity of the condition. Incidence rates vary between 0.00028-1%. Classically patients present with Aortic Regurgitation (AR) between 40-60 years of age experiencing palpitations, chest pain, or heart failure. (1, 2) Echocardiography is the mainstay of diagnosis for this condition; however, given the rarity of this condition, it can easily be overlooked, as demonstrated here. The case report that follows serves as a reminder of the condition to reduce the innate cognitive bias to overlook the diagnosis due to the availability heuristic. Intraoperative photography, echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging from this case for reference to demonstrate that while the diagnosis of Aortic regurgitation was recognized early, the valve morphology was underappreciated.

Keywords: quadricuspid aortic valve, cardiac surgery, echocardiography, congenital

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
115 Warning about the Risk of Blood Flow Stagnation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely

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In this work, the hemodynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is numerically examined. We focus on the physical results in the two-dimensional case. We use a finite element methodology based on a Lagrange multiplier technique that enables to couple the dynamics of blood flow and the leaflets’ movement. A massively parallel implementation of a monolithic and fully implicit solver allows more accuracy and significant computational savings. The elastic properties of the aortic valve are disregarded, and the numerical computations are performed under physiologically correct pressure loads. Computational results depict that blood flow may be subject to stagnation in the lower domain of the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Keywords: hemodynamics, simulations, stagnation, valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
114 Computational Simulations and Assessment of the Application of Non-Circular TAVI Devices

Authors: Jonathon Bailey, Neil Bressloff, Nick Curzen

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Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) devices are stent-like frames with prosthetic leaflets on the inside, which are percutaneously implanted. The device in a crimped state is fed through the arteries to the aortic root, where the device frame is opened through either self-expansion or balloon expansion, which reveals the prosthetic valve within. The frequency at which TAVI is being used to treat aortic stenosis is rapidly increasing. In time, TAVI is likely to become the favoured treatment over Surgical Valve Replacement (SVR). Mortality after TAVI has been associated with severe Paravalvular Aortic Regurgitation (PAR). PAR occurs when the frame of the TAVI device does not make an effective seal against the internal surface of the aortic root, allowing blood to flow backwards about the valve. PAR is common in patients and has been reported to some degree in as much as 76% of cases. Severe PAR (grade 3 or 4) has been reported in approximately 17% of TAVI patients resulting in post-procedural mortality increases from 6.7% to 16.5%. TAVI devices, like SVR devices, are circular in cross-section as the aortic root is often considered to be approximately circular in shape. In reality, however, the aortic root is often non-circular. The ascending aorta, aortic sino tubular junction, aortic annulus and left ventricular outflow tract have an average ellipticity ratio of 1.07, 1.09, 1.29, and 1.49 respectively. An elliptical aortic root does not severely affect SVR, as the leaflets are completely removed during the surgical procedure. However, an elliptical aortic root can inhibit the ability of the circular Balloon-Expandable (BE) TAVI devices to conform to the interior of the aortic root wall, which increases the risk of PAR. Self-Expanding (SE) TAVI devices are considered better at conforming to elliptical aortic roots, however the valve leaflets were not designed for elliptical function, furthermore the incidence of PAR is greater in SE devices than BE devices (19.8% vs. 12.2% respectively). If a patient’s aortic root is too severely elliptical, they will not be suitable for TAVI, narrowing the treatment options to SVR. It therefore follows that in order to increase the population who can undergo TAVI, and reduce the risk associated with TAVI, non-circular devices should be developed. Computational simulations were employed to further advance our understanding of non-circular TAVI devices. Radial stiffness of the TAVI devices in multiple directions, frame bending stiffness and resistance to balloon induced expansion are all computationally simulated. Finally, a simulation has been developed that demonstrates the expansion of TAVI devices into a non-circular patient specific aortic root model in order to assess the alterations in deployment dynamics, PAR and the stresses induced in the aortic root.

Keywords: tavi, tavr, fea, par, fem

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
113 Relationship between Matrix Metalloproteases and Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels and Elastic Moduli of Ascending Aneurysms

Authors: Khalil Khanafer

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The objective of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between the biological levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) and the elastic moduli of the ascending aortic wall in patients with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA). Methods: Circumferential specimens from twelve patients with ATAA were obtained from the greater curvature, and their tensile properties (maximum elastic modulus) were tested uniaxially. The levels of MMP2, 3, and 9, as well as TIMP1, were determined in these aortic wall specimens using MMP/TIMP antibodies array. Direct relations were found between MMP2 and the elastic modulus of the ascending aorta wall and between MMP9 and TIMP1.

Keywords: elastic modulus, MMPs/TIMPs levels, Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
112 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
111 Determining the Threshold for Protective Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Aortic Structure in a Mouse Model of Marfan Syndrome Associated Aortic Aneurysm

Authors: Christine P. Gibson, Ramona Alex, Michael Farney, Johana Vallejo-Elias, Mitra Esfandiarei

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Aortic aneurysm is the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). MFS aneurysm is characterized by weakening of the aortic wall due to elastin fibers fragmentation and disorganization. The above-average height and distinct physical features make young adults with MFS desirable candidates for competitive sports; but little is known about the exercise limit at which they will be at risk for aortic rupture. On the other hand, aerobic cardiovascular exercise has been shown to have protective effects on the heart and aorta. We have previously reported that mild aerobic exercise can delay the formation of aortic aneurysm in a mouse model of MFS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of various levels of exercise intensity on the progression of aortic aneurysm in the mouse model. Starting at 4 weeks of age, we subjected control and MFS mice to different levels of exercise intensity (8m/min, 10m/min, 15m/min, and 20m/min, corresponding to 55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% of VO2 max, respectively) on a treadmill for 30 minutes per day, five days a week for the duration of the study. At 24 weeks of age, aortic tissue were isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies using histology and wire myography in order to evaluate the effects of different exercise routines on elastin fragmentation and organization and aortic wall elasticity/stiffness. Our data shows that exercise training at the intensity levels between 55%-75% significantly reduces elastin fragmentation and disorganization, with less recovery observed in 85% MFS group. The reversibility of elasticity was also significantly restored in MFS mice subjected to 55%-75% intensity; however, the recovery was less pronounced in MFS mice subjected to 85% intensity. Furthermore, our data shows that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contractilion in response to vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine (100nM) is significantly reduced in MFS aorta (54.84 ± 1.63 mN/mm2) as compared to control (95.85 ± 3.04 mN/mm2). At 55% of intensity, exercise did not rescue SMCs contraction (63.45 ± 1.70 mN/mm2), while at higher intensity levels, SMCs contraction in response to phenylephrine was restored to levels similar to control aorta [65% (81.88 ± 4.57 mN/mm2), 75% (86.22 ± 3.84 mN/mm2), and 85% (83.91 ± 5.42 mN/mm2)]. This study provides the first time evidence that high intensity exercise (e.g. 85%) may not provide the most beneficial effects on aortic function (vasoconstriction) and structure (elastin fragmentation, aortic wall elasticity) during the progression of aortic aneurysm in MFS mice. On the other hand, based on our observations, medium intensity exercise (e.g. 65%) seems to provide the utmost protective effects on aortic structure and function in MFS mice. These findings provide new insights into the potential capacity, in which MFS patients could participate in various aerobic exercise routines, especially in young adults affected by cardiovascular complications particularly aortic aneurysm. This work was funded by Midwestern University Research Fund.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, aortic aneurysm, aortic wall elasticity, elastin fragmentation, Marfan syndrome

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110 M-Number of Aortic Cannulas Applied During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim

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A standardized system to describe the pressure-flow characteristics of a given cannula has recently been proposed and has been termed ‘the M-number’. Using three different sizes of aortic cannulas in 50 pediatric cardiac patients on hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, we analyzed the correlation between experimentally and clinically derived M-numbers, and found this was positive. Clinical M-numbers were typically 0.35 to 0.55 greater than experimental M-numbers, and correlated inversely with a patient's temperature change; this was most probably due to increased blood viscosity, arising from hypothermia. This inverse relationship was more marked in higher M-number cannulas. The clinical data obtained in this study suggest that experimentally derived M-numbers correlate strongly with clinical performance of the cannula, and that the influence of temperature is significant.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass, M-number, aortic cannula, pressure-flow characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
109 The Relationship of the Dentate Nucleus with the Pyramid of Vermis: A Microneurosurgical Anatomical Study

Authors: Santhosh K. S. Annayappa, Nupur Pruthi

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The region of dentate nucleus is a common site for various pathologies like hematomas, tumours, etc. We aimed to study in detail the relationship of this region with the vermis, especially the pyramid using microscopic fibre dissection technique. To achieve this aim, 20 cerebellar hemispheres were studied from the 11 cerebellums. Dissection was performed using wooden spatulas and micro dissectors under a microscope following Klingler’s preservation technique. The relationship between the pyramid of vermis and the dentate nucleus was studied in detail. A similar relationship was studied on the MRI of randomly selected trigeminal neuralgia patients and correlated with anatomical findings. Results show the mean distance of the lateral margin of the dentate nucleus from the midline on anatomic specimens was 21.4 ± 1.8 mm (19-25 mm) and 23.4 ± 3.4 mm (15-29 mm) on right and left side, respectively. Similar measurements made on the MRI were 22.97 ± 2.0 mm (20.03-26.15 mm) on the right side and 23.98 ± 2.1 mm (21.47-27.67 mm) on the left side. The amount of white matter dissection required to reach the dentate nucleus at the pyramidal attachment area was 7.3 ± 1.0 mm (6-9 mm) on the right side and 6.8 ± 1.4 mm (5-10 mm) on the left side. It was concluded that the pyramid of vermis has a constant relationship with the dentate nucleus and can be used as an excellent landmark during surgery to localise the dentate nucleus on the suboccipital surface.

Keywords: fiber dissection, micro neurosurgery, the dentate nucleus of cerebellum, the pyramid of vermis

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
108 The Effect of Primary Treatment on Histopathological Patterns and Choice of Neck Dissection in Regional Failure of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

Authors: Ralene Sim, Stefan Mueller, N. Gopalakrishna Iyer, Ngian Chye Tan, Khee Chee Soo, R. Shetty Mahalakshmi, Hiang Khoon Tan

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Background: Regional failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is managed by salvage treatment in the form of neck dissection. Radical neck dissection (RND) is preferred over modified radical neck dissection (MRND) since it is traditionally believed to offer better long-term disease control. However, with the advent of more advanced imaging modalities like high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography-CT scans, earlier detection is achieved. Additionally, concurrent chemotherapy also contributes to reduced tumour burden. Hence, there may be a lesser need for an RND and a greater role for MRND. With this retrospective study, the primary aim is to ascertain whether MRND, as opposed to RND, has similar outcomes and hence, whether there would be more grounds to offer a less aggressive procedure to achieve lower patient morbidity. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 66 NPC patients treated at Singapore General Hospital between 1994 to 2016 for histologically proven regional recurrence, of which 41 patients underwent RND and 25 who underwent MRND, based on surgeon preference. The type of ND performed, primary treatment mode, adjuvant treatment, and pattern of recurrence were reviewed. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimate and compared. Results: Overall, the disease parameters such as nodal involvement and extranodal extension were comparable between the two groups. Comparing MRND and RND, the median (IQR) OS is 1.76 (0.58 to 3.49) and 2.41 (0.78 to 4.11) respectively. However, the p-value found is 0.5301 and hence not statistically significant. Conclusion: RND is more aggressive and has been associated with greater morbidity. Hence, with similar outcomes, MRND could be an alternative salvage procedure for regional failure in selected NPC patients, allowing similar salvage rates with lesser mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neck dissection, modified neck dissection, radical neck dissection

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
107 COVID-19: The Cause or the Confounder

Authors: Praveenkumar Natarajan

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A 59-year-old male with no known co-morbidities was admitted to a private hospital for complaints of fever and cough and was diagnosed to haveCOVID-19. CT of the thorax revealed the involvement of 50% of the lungs. Screening ECG and ECHO were normal. The patient was treated with oxygen therapy and drugs and was discharged after 12 days of admission. Post-discharge, the patient remained symptom-free and continued his work. After one month, the patient developed a fever for three days, for which he took antipyretics. Subsequently, the patient developed sudden onset breathlessness, which rapidly progressed to grade 4 NYHA, and developed a cough as well. Suspecting COVID-19 reinfection, the patient visited a nearby hospital, where COVID–19 rt-PCR swabs turned out to be positive, and was referred to our hospital. On receiving, the patient had diffuse lung crepitations and a diastolic murmur in the neo-aortic area. CT thorax revealed pulmonary edema with areas of consolidation. ECHO revealed vegetation on the aortic valve with severe aortic regurgitation. Blood cultures were taken, which revealed the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made, and the patient was started on appropriate treatment. COVID–19 has effects on various systems, including the cardiovascular system. Even though infective endocarditis is common in the elderly with valvular heart disease, this patient had developed infective endocarditis in an apparently normal aortic valve. Infective endocarditis and COVID–19 can have similar presentations leading to diagnostic difficulties. COVID–19, affecting the heart valves causing valvulitis and predisposing them to the development of infective endocarditis, is also an area to be explored.

Keywords: aortic regurgitation, COVID-19, infective endocarditis, valvulitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
106 Central Vascular Function and Relaxibility in Beta-thalassemia Major Patients vs. Sickle Cell Anemia Patients by Abdominal Aorta and Aortic Root Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

Authors: Gehan Hussein, Hala Agha, Rasha Abdelraof, Marina George, Antoine Fakhri

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Background: β-Thalassemia major (TM) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are inherited hemoglobin disorders resulting in chronic hemolytic anemia. Cardiovascular involvement is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these groups of patients. The narrow border is between overt myocardial dysfunction and clinically silent left ventricular (LV) and / or right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in those patients. 3 D Speckle tracking echocardiography (3D STE) is a novel method for the detection of subclinical myocardial involvement. We aimed to study myocardial affection in SCD and TM using 3D STE, comparing it with conventional echocardiography, correlate it with serum ferritin level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Methodology: Thirty SCD and thirty β TM patients, age range 4-18 years, were compared to 30 healthy age and sex matched control group. Cases were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory measurement of hemoglobin level, serum ferritin, and LDH. Transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography, 3D STE, tissue Doppler echocardiography, and aortic speckle tracking were performed. Results: significant reduction in global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global area strain (GAS) in SCD and TM than control (P value <0.001) there was significantly lower aortic speckle tracking in patients with TM and SCD than control (P value< 0.001). LDH was significantly higher in SCD than both TM and control and it correlated significantly positive mitral inflow E, (p value:0.022 and 0.072. r: 0.416 and -0.333 respectively) lateral E/E’ (p value.<0.001and 0.818. r. 0.618 and -0. 044.respectively) and septal E/E’ (p value 0.007 and 0.753& r value 0.485 and -0.060 respectively) in SCD but not TM and significant negative correlation between LDH and aortic root speckle tracking (value 0.681& r. -0.078.). The potential diagnostic accuracy of LDH in predicting vascular dysfunction as represented by aortic root GCS with a sensitivity 74% and aortic root GCS was predictive of LV dysfunction in SCD patients with sensitivity 100% Conclusion: 3D STE LV and RV systolic dysfunction in spite of their normal values by conventional echocardiography. SCD showed significantly lower right ventricular dysfunction and aortic root GCS than TM and control. LDH can be used to screen patients for cardiac dysfunction in SCD, not in TM

Keywords: thalassemia major, sickle cell disease, 3d speckle tracking echocardiography, LDH

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
105 Cadaveric Dissection versus Systems-Based Anatomy: Testing Final Year Student Surface Anatomy Knowledge to Compare the Long-Term Effectiveness of Different Course Structures

Authors: L. Sun, T. Hargreaves, Z. Ahmad

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Newly-qualified Foundation Year 1 doctors in the United Kingdom are frequently expected to perform practical skills involving the upper limb in clinical practice (for example, venipuncture, cannulation, and blood gas sampling). However, a move towards systems-based undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom often precludes or limits dedicated time to anatomy teaching with cadavers or prosections, favouring only applied anatomy in the context of pathology. The authors hypothesised that detailed anatomical knowledge may consequently be adversely affected, particularly with respect to long-term retention. A simple picture quiz and accompanying questionnaire testing the identification of 7 upper limb surface landmarks was distributed to a total of 98 final year medical students from two universities - one with a systems-based curriculum, and one with a dedicated longitudinal dissection-based anatomy module in the first year of study. Students with access to dissection and prosection-based anatomy teaching performed more strongly, with a significantly higher rate of correct identification of all but one of the landmarks. Furthermore, it was notable that none of the students who had previously undertaken a systems-based course scored full marks, compared with 20% of those who had participated in the more dedicated anatomy course. This data suggests that a traditional, dissection-based approach to undergraduate anatomy teaching is superior to modern system-based curricula, in terms of aiding long-term retention of anatomical knowledge pertinent to newly-qualified doctors. The authors express concern that this deficit in proficiency could be detrimental to patient care in clinical practice, and propose that, where dissection-led anatomy teaching is not available, further anatomy revision modules are implemented throughout undergraduate education to aid knowledge retention and support clinical excellence.

Keywords: dissection, education, surface anatomy, upper limb

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
104 The Optimization Process of Aortic Heart Valve Stent Geometry

Authors: Arkadiusz Mezyk, Wojciech Klein, Mariusz Pawlak, Jacek Gnilka

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The aortic heart valve stents should fulfill many criterions. These criteria have a strong impact on the geometrical shape of the stent. Usually, the final construction of stent is a result of many year experience and knowledge. Depending on patents claims, different stent shapes are produced by different companies. This causes difficulties for biomechanics engineers narrowing the domain of feasible solutions. The paper present optimization method for stent geometry defining by a specific analytical equation based on various mathematical functions. This formula was implemented as APDL script language in ANSYS finite element environment. For the purpose of simulation tests, a few parameters were separated from developed equation. The application of the genetic algorithms allows finding the best solution due to selected objective function. Obtained solution takes into account parameters such as radial force, compression ratio and coefficient of expansion on the transverse axial.

Keywords: aortic stent, optimization process, geometry, finite element method

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103 Mechanical Environment of the Aortic Valve and Mechanobiology

Authors: Rania Abdulkareem Aboubakr Mahdaly Ammar

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The aortic valve (AV) is a complex mechanical environment that includes flexure, tension, pressure and shear stress forces to blood flow during cardiac cycle. This mechanical environment regulates AV tissue structure by constantly renewing and remodeling the phenotype. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies have explained that pathological states such as hypertension and congenital defects like bicuspid AV ( BAV ) can potentially alter the AV’s mechanical environment, triggering a cascade of remodeling, inflammation and calcification activities in AV tissue. Changes in mechanical environments are first sent by the endothelium that induces changes in the extracellular matrix, and triggers cell differentiation and activation. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is not very well understood. Understanding these mechanisms is critical for the development of effective medical based therapies. Recently, there have been some interesting studies on characterizing the hemodynamics associated with AV, especially in pathologies like BAV, using different experimental and numerical methods. Here, we review the current knowledge of the local AV mechanical environment and its effect on valve biology, focusing on in vitro and ex vivo approaches.

Keywords: aortic valve mechanobiology, bicuspid calcification, pressure stretch, shear stress

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102 Morphology and Risk Factors for Blunt Aortic Trauma in Car Accidents: An Autopsy Study

Authors: Ticijana Prijon, Branko Ermenc

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Background: Blunt aortic trauma (BAT) includes various morphological changes that occur during deceleration, acceleration and/or body compression in traffic accidents. The various forms of BAT, from limited laceration of the intima to complete transection of the aorta, depends on the force acting on the vessel wall and the tolerance of the aorta to injury. The force depends on the change in velocity, the dynamics of the accident and of the seating position in the car. Tolerance to aortic injury depends on the anatomy, histological structure and pathomorphological alterations due to aging or disease of the aortic wall.An overview of the literature and medical documentation reveals that different terms are used to describe certain forms of BAT, which can lead to misinterpretation of findings or diagnoses. We therefore, propose a classification that would enable uniform systematic screening of all forms of BAT. We have classified BAT into three morphologycal types: TYPE I (intramural), TYPE II (transmural) and TYPE III (multiple) aortic ruptures with appropriate subtypes. Methods: All car accident casualties examined at the Institute of Forensic Medicine from 2001 to 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Autopsy reports were used to determine the occurrence of each morphological type of BAT in deceased drivers, front seat passengers and other passengers in cars and to define the morphology of BAT in relation to the accident dynamics and the age of the fatalities. Results: A total of 391 fatalities in car accidents were included in the study. TYPE I, TYPE II and TYPE III BAT were observed in 10,9%, 55,6% and 33,5%, respectively. The incidence of BAT in drivers, front seat and other passengers was 36,7%, 43,1% and 28,6%, respectively. In frontal collisions, the incidence of BAT was 32,7%, in lateral collisions 54,2%, and in other traffic accidents 29,3%. The average age of fatalities with BAT was 42,8 years and of those without BAT 39,1 years. Conclusion: Identification and early recognition of the risk factors of BAT following a traffic accident is crucial for successful treatment of patients with BAT. Front seat passengers over 50 years of age who have been injured in a lateral collision are the most at risk of BAT.

Keywords: aorta, blunt trauma, car accidents, morphology, risk factors

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101 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker

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Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

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100 Extending ACOSOG Z0011 to Encompass Mastectomy Patients: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Ruqayya Naheed Khan, Awais Amjad Malik, Awais Naeem, Amina Khan, Asad Parvaiz

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Introduction: Axillary nodal status in breast cancer patients is a paramount prognosticator, next to primary tumor size and grade. It has been well established that patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy can safely avoid axillary lymph node dissection. A positive sentinel lymph node has traditionally required subsequent axillary dissection. According to ACOSOG Z11 trial, patients who underwent axillary dissection with 3 or more positive sentinel nodes or opted for observation in case of negative sentinel lymph node, did not find any difference in Overall Survival (OS) and Disease Free Survival (DFS). The Z11 trial included patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and excluded patients with mastectomies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Z0011 can be applied to mastectomy patients as well in 1-3 positive sentinel lymph nodes and avoid unnecessary ALND. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted at Shaukat Khanam Memorial Cancer Hospital Pakistan from Jan 2015 to Dec 2017 including patients who were treated for invasive breast cancer and required upfront mastectomy. They were clinically node negative, so sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Patients underwent ALND with positive sentinel lymph node. A total of 156 breast cancer patients with mastectomies were reviewed. Results: 95% of the patients were female while 3% were male. Average age was 44 years. There was no difference in race, comorbidities, histology, T stage, N stage, and overall stage, use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 64 patients underwent ALND for positive lymph node while 92 patients were spared of axillary dissection due to negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Out of 64 patients, 38 patients (59%) had only 1 lymph node positive which was the sentinel node. 18 patients (28%) had 2 lymph nodes positive including the sentinel node while only 8 patients (13%) had 3 or more positive nodes. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the complications related to ALND, above results clearly show that ALND could have been avoided in 87% of patients in the setting of adjuvant radiation, possibly avoiding the morbidity associated with axillary lymphadenectomy although a prospective randomized trial needs to confirm these results.

Keywords: mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection, breast cancer

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99 The Distributed Pattern of the Neurovascular Structures under Clavicle to Minimize Structural Injury in Clinical Field: Anatomical Study

Authors: Anna Jeon, Seung-Ho Han, Je-Hun Lee

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The aim of this study was to determine the location and distribution pattern of neurovascular structures superior and inferior to the clavicle by detailed dissection. Fifteen adult non-embalmed cadavers with a mean age of 71.5 years were studied. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified before dissection. A line connecting the SEC and AEC was used as a reference line. The surrounding neurovascular structures were investigated. The supraclavicular nerve was densely distributed at 71.73% on the reference line. Branches of the thoracoacromial artery were located at 76.92%. Branches of subclavian vein were evenly distributed at all sections. The subclavian vein and artery and brachial plexus were located from 31.3% to 57.5%. That area needs caution because major neurovascular structures run underneath the clavicle.

Keywords: clavicle, ORIF, neurovascular structure, anatomical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
98 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo

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In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

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97 Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Authors: N. Reza Pour, S. Chuah, T. Vo

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Background: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It can occur spontaneously or following a traumatic event. The pathogenesis is unclear. Predisposing factors include chronic hypertension, Marfan’s syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis and cystic medial necrosis. Physiological changes of pregnancy have also been proposed as potential mechanisms of injury to the vessel wall. The clinical presentation varies and it can present as a headache, neck pain, diplopia, transient ischaemic attack, or an ischemic stroke. Isolated cases of VAD in pregnancy and puerperium have been reported in the literature. One case was found to have posterior circulation stroke as a result of bilateral VAD and labour was induced at 37 weeks gestation for preeclampsia. Another patient at 38 weeks with severe neck pain that persisted after induction for elevated blood pressure and arteriography showed right VAD postpartum. A single case of lethal VAD in pregnancy with subsequent massive subarachnoid haemorrhage has been reported which was confirmed by the autopsy. Case Presentation: We report two cases of vertebral artery dissection in pregnancy. The first patient was a 32-year-old primigravida presented at the 38th week of pregnancy with the onset of early labour and blood pressure (BP) of 130/70 on arrival. After 2 hours, the patient developed a severe headache with blurry vision and BP was 238/120. Despite treatment with an intravenous antihypertensive, she had eclamptic fit. Magnesium solfate was started and Emergency Caesarean Section was performed under the general anaesthesia. On the second day after the operation, she developed left-sided neck pain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) angiography confirmed a short segment left vertebral artery dissection at the level of C3. The patient was treated with aspirin and remained stable without any neurological deficit. The second patient was a 33-year-old primigavida who was admitted to the hospital at 36 weeks gestation with BP of 155/105, constant headache and visual disturbances. She was medicated with an oral antihypertensive agent. On day 4, she complained of right-sided neck pain. MRI angiogram revealed a short segment dissection of the right vertebral artery at the C2-3 level. Pregnancy was terminated on the same day with emergency Caesarean Section and anticoagulation was started subsequently. Post-operative recovery was complicated by rectus sheath haematoma requiring evacuation. She was discharged home on Aspirin without any neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Because of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognized and may be more common than suspected. The outcome for most patients is benign, reflecting the adequacy of the collateral circulation in young patients. Spontaneous VAD is usually treated with anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy for a minimum of 3-6 months to prevent future ischaemic events, allowing the dissection to heal on its own. We had two cases of VAD in the context of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with an acceptable outcome. A high level of vigilance is required particularly with preeclamptic patients presenting with head/neck pain to allow an early diagnosis. This is as we hypothesize, early and aggressive management of vertebral artery dissection may potentially prevent further complications.

Keywords: eclampsia, preeclampsia, pregnancy, Vertebral Artery Dissection

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96 A Rare Case of Dissection of Cervical Portion of Internal Carotid Artery, Diagnosed Postpartum

Authors: Bidisha Chatterjee, Sonal Grover, Rekha Gurung

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Postpartum dissection of the internal carotid artery is a relatively rare condition and is considered as an underlying aetiology in 5% to 25% of strokes under the age of 30 to 45 years. However, 86% of these cases recover completely and 14% have mild focal neurological symptoms. Prognosis is generally good with early intervention. The risk quoted for a repeat carotid artery dissection in subsequent pregnancies is less than 2%. 36-year Caucasian primipara presented on postnatal day one of forceps delivery with tachycardia. In the intrapartum period she had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and developed intrapartum sepsis and was treated with antibiotics. Postpartum ECG showed septal inferior T wave inversion and a troponin level of 19. Subsequently Echocardiogram ruled out post-partum cardiomyopathy. Repeat ECG showed improvement of the previous changes and in the absence of symptoms no intervention was warranted. On day 4 post-delivery, she had developed symptoms of droopy right eyelid, pain around the right eye and itching in the right ear. On examination, she had developed right sided ptosis, unequal pupils (Rt miotic pupil). Cranial nerve examination, reflexes, sensory examination and muscle power was normal. Apart from migraine, there was no medical or family history of note. In view of Horner’s on the right, she had a CT Angiogram and subsequently MR/MRA and was diagnosed with dissection of the cervical portion of the right internal carotid artery. She was discharged on a course of Aspirin 75mg. By 6 week post-natal follow up patient had recovered significantly with occasional episodes of unequal pupils and tingling of right toes which resolved spontaneously. Cervical artery dissection, including VAD and carotid artery dissection, are rare complications of pregnancy with an estimated annual incidence of 2.6–3 per 100,000 pregnancy hospitalizations. Aetiology remains unclear though trauma during straining at labour, underlying arterial disease and preeclampsia have been implicated. Hypercoagulable state during pregnancy and puerperium could also be an important factor. 60-90% cases present with severe headache and neck pain and generally precede neurological symptoms like ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome, retroorbital pain, tinnitus and cranial nerve palsy. Although rare, the consequences of delayed diagnosis and management can lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits. Patients with a strong index of suspicion should undergo an MRI or MRA of head and neck. Antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy forms the mainstay of therapy with selected cases needing endovascular stenting. Long term prognosis is favourable with either complete resolution or minimal deficit if treatment is prompt. Patients should be counselled about the recurrence risk and possibility of stroke in future pregnancy. Coronary artery dissection is rare and treatable but needs early diagnosis and treatment. Post-partum headache and neck pain with neurological symptoms should prompt urgent imaging followed by antithrombotic and /or antiplatelet therapy. Most cases resolve completely or with minimal sequelae.

Keywords: postpartum, dissection of internal carotid artery, magnetic resonance angiogram, magnetic resonance imaging, antiplatelet, antithrombotic

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95 Oat βeta Glucan Attenuates the Development of Atherosclerosis and Improves the Intestinal Barrier Function by Reducing Bacterial Endotoxin Translocation in APOE-/- MICE

Authors: Dalal Alghawas, Jetty Lee, Kaisa Poutanen, Hani El-Nezami

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Oat β-glucan a water soluble non starch linear polysaccharide has been approved as a cholesterol lowering agent by various food safety administrations and is commonly used to reduce the risk of heart disease. The molecular weight of oat β-glucan can vary depending on the extraction and fractionation methods. It is not clear whether the molecular weight has a significant impact at reducing the acceleration of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate three different oat β-glucan fractionations on the development of atherosclerosis in vivo. With special focus on plaque stability and the intestinal barrier function. To test this, ApoE-/- female mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with oat bran, high molecular weight (HMW) oat β-glucan fractionate and low molecular weight (LMW) oat β-glucan fractionate for 16 weeks. Atherosclerosis risk markers were measured in the plasma, heart and aortic tree. Plaque size was measured in the aortic root and aortic tree. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin, protein levels were assessed from the aortic tree to determine plaque stability at 16 weeks. The expression of p22phox at the aortic root was evaluated to study the NADPH oxidase complex involved in nitric oxide bioavailability and vascular elasticity. The tight junction proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin from western blot analyses were analysed as an intestinal barrier function test. Plasma LPS, intestinal D-lactate levels and hepatic FMO gene expression were carried out to confirm whether the compromised intestinal barrier lead to endotoxemia. The oat bran and HMW oat β-glucan diet groups were more effective than the LMW β-glucan diet group at reducing the plaque size and showed marked improvements in plaque stability. The intestinal barrier was compromised for all the experimental groups however the endotoxemia levels were higher in the LMW β-glucan diet group. The oat bran and HMW oat β-glucan diet groups were more effective at attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. Reasons for this could be due to the LMW oat β-glucan diet group’s low viscosity in the gut and the inability to block the reabsorption of cholesterol. Furthermore the low viscosity may allow more bacterial endotoxin translocation through the impaired intestinal barrier. In future food technologists should carefully consider how to incorporate LMW oat β-glucan as a health promoting food.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, beta glucan, endotoxemia, intestinal barrier function

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
94 Chronic Hypertension, Aquaporin and Hydraulic Conductivity: A Perspective on Pathological Connections

Authors: Chirag Raval, Jimmy Toussaint, Tieuvi Nguyen, Hadi Fadaifard, George Wolberg, Steven Quarfordt, Kung-ming Jan, David S. Rumschitzki

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Numerous studies examine aquaporins’ role in osmotic water transport in various systems but virtually none focus on aquaporins’ role in hydrostatically-driven water transport involving mammalian cells save for our laboratory’s recent study of aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigate aquaporin-1 expression and function in the aortic endothelium in two high-renin rat models of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive genomically altered Wystar-Kyoto rat variant and Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by two kidney, one clip Goldblatt surgery. We measured aquaporin-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells from whole rat aortas by quantitative immunohistochemistry, and function by measuring the pressure driven hydraulic conductivities of excised rat aortas with both intact and denuded endothelia on the same vessel. We use them to calculate the effective intimal hydraulic conductivity, which is a combination of endothelial and subendothelial components. We observed well-correlated enhancements in aquaporin-1 expression and function in both hypertensive rat models as well as in aortas from normotensive rats whose expression was upregulated by 2h forskolin treatment. Upregulated aquaporin-1 expression and function may be a response to hypertension that critically determines conduit artery vessel wall viability and long-term susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Numerous studies examine aquaporins’ role in osmotic water transport in various systems but virtually none focus on aquaporins’ role in hydrostatically-driven water transport involving mammalian cells save for our laboratory’s recent study of aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigate aquaporin-1 expression and function in the aortic endothelium in two high-renin rat models of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive genomically altered Wystar-Kyoto rat variant and Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by two kidney, one clip Goldblatt surgery. We measured aquaporin-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells from whole rat aortas by quantitative immunohistochemistry, and function by measuring the pressure driven hydraulic conductivities of excised rat aortas with both intact and denuded endothelia on the same vessel. We use them to calculate the effective intimal hydraulic conductivity, which is a combination of endothelial and subendothelial components. We observed well-correlated enhancements in aquaporin-1 expression and function in both hypertensive rat models as well as in aortas from normotensive rats whose expression was upregulated by 2h forskolin treatment. Upregulated aquaporin-1 expression and function may be a response to hypertension that critically determines conduit artery vessel wall viability and long-term susceptibility to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: acute hypertension, aquaporin-1, hydraulic conductivity, hydrostatic pressure, aortic endothelial cells, transcellular flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 146