Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 850

Search results for: Southern Vietnam

850 Management Practices and Economic Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

Although dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity, milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize husbandry practices, educational experiences, decision-making practices, constraints, income and expenses of smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. A total of 200 farms, located in the regions Ho Chi Minh (HCM, N=80 farms), Lam Dong (N=40 farms), Binh Duong (N=40 farms) and Long An (N=40 farms) were included. Between October 2013 and December 2014 farmers were interviewed twice. On average, farms owned 3.200m2, 2.000m2, and 193m2 of pasture, cropping and housing area, respectively. The number of total, milking and dry cows, heifers, and calves were 20.4, 11.6, 4.7, 3.3, and 2.9 head. The number of lactating dairy cows was higher (p<0.001) in HCM (15.5) and Lam Dong (14.7) than in Binh Duong (6.7) and Long An (10.7). Animals were mainly crossbred Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with at least 75% HF origin (84%), whereas a higher (P<0.001) percentage of purebred HF was found in HCM and Lam Dong and crossbreds in Binh Duong and Long An. Animals were mainly raised in tie-stalls (94%) and machine-milked (80%). Farmers used their own replacement animals (76%), and both genetic and phenotypic information (67%) for selecting sires. Farmers were predominantly educated at primary school level (53%). Major constraints for dairy farming were the lack of capital (43%), diseases (17%), marketing (22%), lack of knowledge (8%) and feed (7%). Monthly profit per lactating cow was superior in Lam Dong (2,817 thousand VND) and HCM (2,798 thousand VND) compared to other regions in Long An (2,597 thousand VND), and Binh Duong (1,775 thousand VND). Regional differences may be mainly attributed to environmental factors, urbanization, and particularly governmental support and the availability of extension and financial institutions. Results from this study provide important information on farming practices of smallholders in Southern Vietnam that are useful in determining regions that need to be addressed by authorities in order to improve dairy production.

Keywords: dairy farms, milk yield, Southern Vietnam, socio-economics

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849 Factors Influencing Milk Yield, Quality, and Revenue of Dairy Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

Dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity and milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing milk yield and quality (milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count) and revenue of dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. The collection of data was at the farm level; individual animal records were unavailable. The 539 studied farms were located in the provinces Lam Dong (N=111 farms), Binh Duong (N=69 farms), Long An (N=174 farms), and Ho Chi Minh city (N=185 farms). The dataset included 9221 monthly test-day records of the farms from January 2013 to May 2015. Seasons were defined as rainy and dry. Farms sizes were classified as small (< 10 milking cows), medium (10 to 19 milking cows) and large (≥ 20 milking cows). The model for each trait contained year-season and farm region-farm size as subclass fixed effects, and individual farm and residual as random effects. Results showed that year-season, region, and farm size were determining sources of variation affecting all studied traits. Milk yield was higher in dry than in rainy seasons (P < 0.05), while it tended to increase from years 2013 to 2015. Large farms had higher yields (445.6 kg/cow) than small (396.7 kg/cow) and medium (428.0 kg/cow) farms (P < 0.05). Small farms, in contrast, were superior to large farms in terms of milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count than large farms (P < 0.05). Revenue per cow was higher in large compared with medium and small farms. In conclusion, large farms achieved higher milk yields and revenues per cow, while small farms were superior in milk quality. Overall, milk yields were low and better training, financial support and marketing opportunities for farmers are needed to improve dairy production and increase farm revenues in Southern Vietnam.

Keywords: farm size, milk yield and quality, season, Southern Vietnam

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848 Lycopene and β-Carotene Variation among Genetically Diverse Momordica cochinchinensis

Authors: Dilani Wimalasiri, Robert Brkljaca, Sylvia Urban, Terrence Piva, Tien Huynh

Abstract:

Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) is used as food and traditional medicine in South East Asia and is commonly known as Red Gac. The fruit aril consists 70 times higher lycopene and 10 times higher β-carotene than all known fruits and vegetables. Despite its nutritional value there is little information available on its genetic variation and its influence on nutritional value. In this study; genetic and nutritional variation (lycopene and β-carotene) was investigated among 47 M. cochinchinensis samples collected from Australia, Thailand and Vietnam using molecular markers (RAPD and ISSR) and HPLC, respectively. UPGMA based cluster analysis of genetic data grouped Northern and Central Vietnam samples together but were separated from Australia, Thailand and Southern Vietnam samples. The concentration of lycopene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Central Vietnam (p<0.05) and the concentration of β-carotene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Northern Vietnam (p<0.05) indicating the existence of best varieties. This study provides vital information in genetic diversity and facilitates the selection and breeding for nutritious M. cochinchinensis varieties.

Keywords: momordica cochinchinensis, lycopene, beta carotene, genetic diversity

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847 Educational Experience, Record Keeping, Genetic Selection and Herd Management Effects on Monthly Milk Yield and Revenues of Dairy Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

Abstract:

A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience, and farm management effect on monthly milk yield per farm, average milk yield per cow, monthly milk revenue per farm, and monthly milk revenue per cow of dairy farms in the Southern region of Vietnam. The dataset contained 5448 monthly record collected from January 2013 to May 2015. Results showed that longer experience increased (P < 0.001) monthly milk yields and revenues. Better educated farmers produced more monthly milk per farm and monthly milk per cow and revenues (P < 0.001) than lower educated farmers. Farm that kept records on individual animals had higher (P < 0.001) for monthly milk yields and revenues than farms that did not. Farms that used hired people produced the highest (p < 0.05) monthly milk yield per farm, milk yield per cow and revenues, followed by farms that used both hire and family members, and lowest values were for farms that used family members only. Farms that used crosses Holstein in herd were higher performance (p < 0.001) for all traits than farms that used purebred Holstein and other breeds. Farms that used genetic information and phenotypes when selecting sires were higher (p < 0.05) for all traits than farms that used only phenotypes and personal option. Farms that received help from Vet, organization staff, or government officials had higher monthly milk yield and revenues than those that decided by owner. These findings suggest that dairy farmers should be training in systematic, must be considered and continuous support to improve farm milk production and revenues, to increase the likelihood of adoption on a sustainable way.

Keywords: dairy farming, education, milk yield, Southern Vietnam

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846 History, Challenges and Solutions for Social Work Education and Recognition in Vietnam

Authors: Thuy Bui Anh, Ngan Nguyen Thi Thanh

Abstract:

Currently, social work in Vietnam is entering the first step in the development process to become a true profession with a strong position in society. However, Spirit of helping and sharing of social work has already existed in the daily life of Vietnamese people for a very long time, becoming a precious heritage passed down from ancestors to the next generations while expanding the territory, building and defending for the country. Following the stream of history, charity work in Vietnam has gradually transformed itself towards a more professional work, especially in the last 2 decades. Accordingly, more than 50 universities and educational institutions in Vietnam have been licensed to train social work, ensuring a stronger foundation on human resources working in this field. Despite the strong growth, social work profession, social work education and the recognition of the role of the social workers still need to be fueled to develop, responded to the increasing demand of Vietnam society.

Keywords: education, history, recognition, social work, Vietnam

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845 Observed Changes in Constructed Precipitation at High Resolution in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Tien Thanh, Günter Meon

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Precipitation plays a key role in water cycle, defining the local climatic conditions and in ecosystem. It is also an important input parameter for water resources management and hydrologic models. With spatial continuous data, a certainty of discharge predictions or other environmental factors is unquestionably better than without. This is, however, not always willingly available to acquire for a small basin, especially for coastal region in Vietnam due to a low network of meteorological stations (30 stations) on long coast of 3260 km2. Furthermore, available gridded precipitation datasets are not fine enough when applying to hydrologic models. Under conditions of global warming, an application of spatial interpolation methods is a crucial for the climate change impact studies to obtain the spatial continuous data. In recent research projects, although some methods can perform better than others do, no methods draw the best results for all cases. The objective of this paper therefore, is to investigate different spatial interpolation methods for daily precipitation over a small basin (approximately 400 km2) located in coastal region, Southern Vietnam and find out the most efficient interpolation method on this catchment. The five different interpolation methods consisting of cressman, ordinary kriging, regression kriging, dual kriging and inverse distance weighting have been applied to identify the best method for the area of study on the spatio-temporal scale (daily, 10 km x 10 km). A 30-year precipitation database was created and merged into available gridded datasets. Finally, observed changes in constructed precipitation were performed. The results demonstrate that the method of ordinary kriging interpolation is an effective approach to analyze the daily precipitation. The mixed trends of increasing and decreasing monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation have documented at significant levels.

Keywords: interpolation, precipitation, trend, vietnam

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844 Integration and Translation: The Comparison of Religious Rituals of Caodaism in Vietnam and Yi-Kuan-Tao

Authors: Lim Pey Huan

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In the second half of the 19th century, Vietnam has long been influenced by Han culture, so there are many similarities in religion and folk beliefs. Even after the acceptance process of the Catholic Church introduced from Europe is quite similar. Therefore, in the spiritual life of Vietnamese civil society, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, and folk beliefs can be said to be the main trend, but in the twentieth century, two indigenous new religions were born: Caodai and He Hao Jiao, both of which are produced and developed in the south, each of which has millions of believers and become important Vietnamese religions. Their political participation has a major impact on the development of the Republic of Vietnam, and their fate is also in the north and south. Significant changes have taken place after reunification. Caodai was later approved by the colonial authorities and became the third largest religion in Vietnam. The teachings of Caodai teach the ideas of the major religions of the world. The classics used in the teachings also contain important theories of various religions, with particular emphasis on the comprehensiveness of the three sects of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. The obvious manifestation lies in the interpretation of the important proposition of 'opening the three religions and returning to the five branches.' The full name of Caodaism is 'Da Dao San Qi Pu Du Gao Tai Jiao'. This name coincides with the 'Longhua Club' and the 'San Qi Mo Jie' idea and the consistent central idea. The emerging road of Caodai advocates to lead the sentient beings back to their original missions; the sentient beings will be centered on people, and the nature of the talks is nothing more than the original mission and standard. There are many opinions about the introduction of Caodaism into southern Vietnam. Caodai believers believe that Caodaism is an emerging new religion in Vietnam. If we further explore the teachings and religious rituals of Caodai, it is not difficult to find that many Chinese sects have been introduced to Vietnam. Some of the colors can be discussed from the spread and influence of Congenital Road in Vietnam. This article will present the author's analysis of the actual process of tutoring in Vietnam's Caodai, and then compare it with the consistent religious experience, trying to explore the Yi-Kuan-Tao and consistent Yi-Kuan-Tao rituals, religious organization, religious teachings, religious life care, and Funeral rituals and other comparative studies.

Keywords: Vietnam, Caodaism, Yi-Kuan-Tao, religious rituals

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843 Building Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Beginning of a Startup Nation: Case of Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc T. B. Hoang

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With a young population showing a greatly entrepreneurial spirit, Vietnam has become a potential land for a growing knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem (KBEE). KBEE is the key to new job formation, and well solution for the crisis of unemployment of higher education graduates and powerful engine for knowledge-based development and building the knowledge based economy in Vietnam. Consequently, Vietnam is attempting to build a healthy KBEE, giving local entrepreneurs more opportunities to develop their businesses. The purpose of the research article is to sketch up a general map to show the current situation of Vietnam's startup ecosystem in the beginning of a startup nation and take into consideration the influence of socio-cultural norms, institutional landscape and socio-economic factors on motivation to develop a KBEE. This paper also proposes a qualitative approach to explore the relationship between these and other elements of Vietnamese entrepreneurial ecosystems. Eventually, viable recommendations are drawn for Vietnamese entrepreneurs and policymakers to improve the quality of the knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem in Vietnam.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem, startup ecosystem, Vietnam

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842 Developments in Corporate Governance: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Lien T. H. Tran, David A. Holloway

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Corporate governance practices have changed significantly across the world in the past three decades. Spectacular corporate failures during this period have acted as a catalyst for the development of codes and guidelines that have resulted in the global acceptance of a ‘best practice’ model. This study assesses the relevance of such a ‘one size fits all model’ for the developing nation state of Vietnam. The findings of this analytical paper is that there are three key elements (government, international institutions and the nature of business) that are pertinent and central to corporate governance developments in the country. We also find that the quality of corporate governance in Vietnam is at a medium level when compared to international practices. Vietnam still has a long way to go to construct and embed effective corporate governance policies and practices and promote ethical business behaviours and sound decision making at board level.

Keywords: corporate governance, government, international institutions, public companies, Vietnam

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841 Transfer of Business Anti-Corruption Norms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Vietnam

Authors: Candice Lemaitre

Abstract:

During the 1990s, an alliance of international intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations proposed a set of regulatory norms designed to reduce corruption. Many governments in developing countries, such as Vietnam, enacted these global anti-corruption norms into their domestic law. This article draws on empirical research to understand why these anti-corruption norms have failed to reduce corruption in Vietnam and many other developing countries. Rather than investigating state compliance with global anti-corruption provisions, a topic that has already attracted considerable attention, this article aims to explore the comparatively under-researched area of business compliance. Based on data collected from semi-structured interviews with business managers in Vietnam and archival research, this article examines how businesses in Vietnam interpret and comply with global anti-corruption norms. It investigates why different types of companies in Vietnam engage with and respond to these norms in different ways. This article suggests that global anti-corruption norms have not been effective in reducing corruption in Vietnam because there is fragmentation in the way companies in Vietnam interpret and respond to these norms. This fragmentation results from differences in the epistemic (or interpretive) communities that companies draw upon to interpret global anti-corruption norms. This article uses discourse analysis to understand how the communities interpret global anti-corruption norms. This investigation aims to generate some predictive insights into how companies are likely to respond to anti-corruption regimes based on global anti-corruption norms.

Keywords: anti-corruption, business law, legal transfer, Vietnam

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840 Rice Blessing Ceremony of Thailand and Vietnam: The Relation of Southeast Asia

Authors: Patthida Bunchavalit, Saharot Kittimahacharoen

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The objective of this article is to compare rice blessing ceremony between Thailand and Vietnam. Both countries are located in Southeast Asia where agriculture is the main occupation. As a result of the study, it is found that the rice blessing ceremony of Thai and Vietnamese societies have differences and similarities. A person leading the ceremony is a person who has the highest position in the country. For Thailand, it is the king or royal family member while for Vietnam, it is the president. In Thailand, the ceremony began in Ayutthaya period which derived from Buddhism and Brahmanism ideology. It is annually organized in the beginning of raining season. In Vietnam, it is annually organized in the beginning of spring. The first time it occurred was in Tien Le Monarchy period of Thien Phuc era deriving from Chinese ideology. The differences are ideas, believes, objectives and details of the ceremony. It is, in Thailand, to boost farmer’s morale and to predict the fertility of crops in each year. Additionally, there is a prediction using royal cows. Meanwhile, in Vietnam the purpose is to worship god of weather for seasonal rain and productive harvesting. Therefore, it is presumed that the rice blessing ceremony of Thailand and Vietnam somewhat have similarities in spite of having different origin but are on the same basis of belief.

Keywords: agriculture, ceremony, culture, Thailand, Vietnam

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839 Political will in Fighting Corruption in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Dao Vu, Bill Ryan

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The Vietnamese government struggles to grapple with the problem of rampant corruption, one of the most challenging difficulties the country faces. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2014, Vietnam ranks 119 out of 175 countries. The CPI gives Vietnam a score of 31 on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 indicates ‘highly corrupt’ and 100 represents ‘very clean’. Corruption eats into the national GDP of Vietnam, causing a loss of 3% to 4% of GDP per annum. In general, the Vietnamese people’s trust in their government to wage an effective fight against corruption, especially in the public sector, has been greatly eroded in recent years. Some substantial public demonstrations persuaded the government to implement strong anti-corruption measures. However, so far those measures have not been particularly successful. One of the main reasons for this shortcoming is that neither the Communist Party of Vietnam nor the government has demonstrated sufficiently strong ‘political will’ in fighting corruption. There remains a large gap between rhetoric and reality. This paper will examine the reasons why insufficient ‘political will’ is displayed in the ostensible fight against public sector corruption, and how certain anti-corruption strategies will both strengthen levels of political commitment to the fight against corruption while enhancing the effectiveness of that essential national endeavor.

Keywords: corruption, political will, Vietnam, anti-corruption

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838 Directional Ground Improvement Technique for Urban Tunnel Projects in Vietnam

Authors: Le Quang Hanh

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Almost all big cities in Vietnam are often located in the river deltas. Therefore the ground condition on these cities is mostly soft soil. As a result, the soil strengthen works are mandatory in order to prevent the harmful to the third parties and tunnel structure itself in urban tunnel projects in Vietnam. This paper will particularly introduce the large diameter jet-grouted column technique that is recently being successfully applied in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. The success application of this technique for protecting the historical sensitive building and for water cutoff objective of launching and arriving shafts in the urban tunnel project, will be analyzed from construction process, quality control and lessons learnt. From this situation, the large diameter jet-grouted column technique can extend to another urban tunnel projects in Vietnam and other countries which have similar soft soil conditions.

Keywords: large diameter, jet grouting, ground improvement, urban tunnel

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837 Phylogenetic Relationships of Common Reef Fish Species in Vietnam

Authors: Dang Thuy Binh, Truong Thi Oanh, Le Phan Khanh Hung, Luong thi Tuong Vy

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One of the greatest environmental challenges facing Asia is the management and conservation of the marine biodiversity threaten by fisheries overexploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. To date, a few molecular taxonomical studies has been conducted on marine fauna in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to clarify the phylogeny of economic and ecological reef fish species in Vietnam Reef fish species covering Labridae, Scaridae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae, Acanthuridae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Mullidae, Balistidae, Pseudochromidae, Pinguipedidae, Fistulariidae, Holocentridae, Synodontidae, and Pomacentridae representing 28 genera were collected from South and Center, Vietnam. Combine with Genbank sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 16S gene of mitochondrial DNA using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The phylogram showed the well-resolved clades at genus and family level. Perciformes is the major order of reef fish species in Vietnam. The monophyly of Perciformes is not strongly supported as it was clustered in the same clade with Tetraodontiformes syngnathiformes and Beryciformes. Continue sampling of commercial fish species and classification based on morphology and genetics to build DNA barcoding of fish species in Vietnam is really necessary.

Keywords: reef fish, 16s rDNA, Vietnam, phylogeny

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836 Genetic Characteristics of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Northern Vietnam

Authors: Hieu Van Dong, Giang Thi Huong Tran, Giap Van Nguyen, Tung Duy Dao, Vuong Nghia Bui, Le Thi My Huynh, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai

Abstract:

Chicken anemia virus (CAV) has a ubiquitous and worldwide distribution in chicken production. Our group previously reported high seroprevalence of CAV in chickens in northern Vietnam. In the present study, 330 tissue samples collected from commercial and breeder chicken farms in eleven provinces in northern Vietnam were tested for the CAV infection. We found that 157 out of 330 (47.58%) chickens were positive with CAV genes by real-time PCR method. Nine CAV strains obtained from the different location and time were forwarded to the full-length sequence of CAV VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the Vietnamese CAV vp1 gene indicated that the CAVs circulating in northern Vietnam were divided into three distinct genotypes, II, III, and V, but not clustered with the vaccine strains. Among the three genotypes, genotype III was the major one widely spread in Vietnam, and that included three sub-genotypes, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc. The Vietnamese CAV strains were closely related to the Chinese, Taiwanese, and USA strains. All the CAV isolates had glutamine at amino acid position 394 in the VP1 gene, suggesting that they might be highly pathogenic strains. One strain was defined to be genotype V, which had not been reported for Vietnamese CAVs. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the pathogenicity of CAV strains circulating in Vietnam.

Keywords: chicken anemia virus, genotype, genetic characteristics, Vietnam

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835 E-Book Market In Vietnam: Great Potential, Many Barriers

Authors: Zakir Hossain

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Nowadays reading e-books on laptops, smartphones, and tablets have become a new leisure activity for Vietnamese youth. Since 2011 the copyrighted e-book market began to develop in Vietnam with the participation of five local enterprises. Over the last five years, thousands of e-books were published including the first online early education book series for children from 0 to 6 years old. Research shows that 61% Vietnamese find reading e-books is comfortable, and 45% feel convenient buying books online. More than half of the Vietnamese consider reading online far better than buying printed books, and surprisingly people over age 30 desire reading online while those under 18 prefer reading printed books. Hence with a market of more than 40 million regular internet users including 22 million smartphone users, Vietnam has ample opportunities to develop the e-book market and contribute a great deal to the diversity of the local reading culture which is essential for Building a Lifelong Learning Society, a state ambition of Vietnam by 2020. However, the e-book market in Vietnam is still in its infancy and is growing far too slowly than e-book producers had expected. All five e-book enterprises are facing numerous challenges. While the big profit that e-book technology can bring has been clearly recognised in other countries, e-books in Vietnam only make up less than 1% share of the book market. The objective of the study is to identify the difficulties and barriers to the development of the e-book market in Vietnam through an extensive literature review available in English. The study revealed that illegal e-books due to copyright infringement and an inconvenient payment system to purchase e-books are the major obstacles. The great potential of e-books in Vietnam is a reality but requires government enforcement of copyright protection laws, a new area of focus for the e-book market. Furthermore, Vietnamese readers should change their habits from using free and illegal e-books to develop the e-publishing industry in Vietnam.

Keywords: copyright, e-book, e-book reading, e-publishing, Vietnam

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834 Culture as an Intervening Variable While Assessing Japanese Influence on Vietnam: 1991-2018

Authors: Teresa Mili

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The significance of political and economic factors have barely been neglected while assessing bilateral relations, but the significance of culture as a soft power in Japan-Vietnam relations has largely been understated. While the close ties had their birth ever since the 14th century, this paper sets out with an inductive lens to analyze the role of culture as a variable in bilateral relations. Vietnam, which then had a history of war devastation had taken refuge in Japan and later sought inspiration from Japan’s economy with the simultaneous influence of culture since Japan was a developed nation, and Vietnam a third world country. Evidencing facts with illustrations, the paper shows how the twenty-first century has brought a growing bond as well as the onset of stronger ties between the two states based, primarily, on an emerging convergence of interests and culture. The cultural influence of Japan may be seen much in the Vietnamese cities, through evidences like the growing numbers of Japanese items on sale. The variety in cultural influence may be seen through the acceptance of Japanese fashion trends, mange comic, pop music, cuisine, tourism, Japanese studies and language, the translations of Japanese literature which are very much popular at Vietnam. Using secondary sources as well as assessing travel accounts and official websites, this research work will try to find out how much Japanese culture has influenced Vietnam and whether such influences will be strong enough to qualify culture as an intervening variable in the bilateral relations.

Keywords: influence, culture, language, cold war

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833 University Lecturers' Attitudes towards Learner Autonomy in the EFL Context in Vietnam

Authors: Nhung T. Bui

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Part of the dilemma facing educational reforms in Vietnam as in other Asian contexts is how to encourage more independence in students’ learning approaches. Since 2005, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam has included the students’ ability to learn independently in its national education objectives. While learner autonomy has been viewed as a goal in the teaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and there has been a considerable literature on strategies to stimulate autonomy in learners, teachers’ voices have rarely been heard. Given that teachers play a central role in helping their students to be more autonomous, especially in an inherent Confucian heritage culture like Vietnam, their attitudes towards learner autonomy should be investigated before any practical implementations could be undertaken. This paper reports significant findings of a survey questionnaire with 262 lecturers of English from 5 universities in Hanoi, Vietnam giving opinions regarding the practices and prospects of learner autonomy in their classrooms. The study reveals that lecturers perceive they should be more responsible than their students in all class-related activities; they most appreciate their students’ ability to learn cooperatively and that they consider stimulating students’ interest as the most important teaching strategy to promote learner autonomy. Lecturers, then, are strongly suggested to gradually ‘empower’ their students through the application of out-of-classroom activities; of learning activities which requires collaboration and team spirit; and of activities which could boost students’ interest in learning English.

Keywords: English as a foreign language, higher education, learner autonomy, Vietnam

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832 Thai Tourists’ Satisfaction and Tourist’s Decision Making Process in Southern of Thailand

Authors: Rewadee Waiyawassana

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The objectives of the research on Thai tourists’ satisfaction of visiting Southern of Thailand are i) to study the Thai tourists’ satisfaction who select southern of Thailand as their destinations ii) to study their tourist’s decision making process in Southern of Thailand. The samples of the study are 619 Thai visitors at Southern of Thailand by accidental sampling technic and focus group interview for 12 key informant by purposive sampling. The data analysis includes Percentage, Frequency and One-way ANOVA. The findings from the research are the satisfaction of Thai visitors on southern of Thailand ranks from the resources of the destination, transportation, convenience, security, and promotion and public relations; with the high level of satisfaction on all the factors the government or responsible agencies should also modernize the marketing and public relation with increasing public relations, the potential visitors shall be updated with new information and alternative tourist destination also.

Keywords: public relations, Southern of Thailand, Thai Tourists’ satisfaction, Tourist’s decision making process

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831 Reflecting Socio-Political Needs in Education Policy-Making: An Exploratory Study of Vietnam's Key Education Reforms (1945-2017)

Authors: Linh Tong

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This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of key education reforms in Vietnam from 1945 to 2017, which reflects an evolution of socio-political needs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam throughout this period. It explores the contextual conditions, motivations and ambitions influencing the formation of the education reforms in Vietnam. It also looks, from an applied practical perspective, at the influence of politics on education policy-making. The research methodology includes a content analysis of curriculum designs proposed by the Ministry of Education and Training, relevant resolutions and executive orders passed by the National Assembly and the Prime Minister, as well as interviews with experts and key stakeholders. The results point to a particular configuration of factors which have been inspiring the shape and substance of these reforms and which have most certainly influenced their implementation. This configuration evolves from the immediate needs to erase illiteracy and cultivate socialist economic model at the beginning of Vietnam’s independence in 1945-1975, to a renewed urge to adopt market-oriented economy in 1986 and cautiously communicate with the outside world until 2000s, and to currently a demonstrated desire to fully integrate into the global economy and tackle with rising concerns about national security (the South China Sea Dispute), environmental sustainability, construction of a knowledge economy, and a rule-of-law society. Overall, the paper attempts to map Vietnam’s socio-political needs with the changing sets of goals and expected outcomes in teaching and learning methodologies and practices as introduced in Vietnamese key education reforms.

Keywords: curriculum development, knowledge society, national security, politics of education policy-making, Vietnam's education reforms

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830 Vietnamese Trade Ceramics from the 14th Century to the 17th Century through Materials

Authors: Ngo the Bach

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Vietnam is one of not many Asian countries that have a long-standing and famous tradition of pottery production. Vietnam is also one of three countries including China, Vietnam, and Japan developed strongly the export of ceramics to other countries. In recent decades, the studies of Vietnamese and foreign scholars on Vietnamese trade ceramics as well as Vietnamese foreign trade was initially recorded. The aim of this article is to introduce an overview of the findings situation and research results; the development of Vietnam ceramics and the Vietnamese history of maritime trade with Asian ceramics from the 14th century to the 17th century. Given that, the author systematized materials; carried out the synthetic and analysis for research results of Vietnamese and foreign researchers until now on Vietnamese export ceramics on the basis of the historical sources, archaeological findings discovered from relics in the tombs, relics of residence, relics of trading port inland, and the ancient shipwreck sank in the Asian countries.

Keywords: Vietnamese ceramics, trading, maritime, international

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829 Improve the Provisions in the Life Imprisonment Law in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thuy

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The provisions on life imprisonment in the legal system enable to differentiate criminal liability and individualize the penalties for particularly serious crimes. This punishment acts as an intermediary between the determined imprisonment of a maximum of 20 years and the capital punishment, enabling the penalty system to maintain its internal unity. However, the practice of applying the punishment has been posing many problems that need to be studied in order to come up with solutions to improve the provisions related to the penalty and its effectiveness in the fight against crimes. The article summarizes the law on life imprisonment sentence in the current criminal law to highlight its characteristics and role in Vietnam's Penal Code. It also suggests some solutions to improve the law and its effectiveness in preventing and combating crimes.

Keywords: life imprisonment, Vietnam, law, penalty, provisions

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828 From the Lack of Trust Law to a Controversial Judicial Case Law: Implications for Perfecting Vietnam’s Legal System

Authors: Le Bich Thuy

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A trust is an alien notion in Vietnamese law until 2021, which not only dissatisfies the practical demands of the nation’s civilians but also results in some detrimental shortcomings. The Judicial Case Law No 2 to be applied in adjudicating subsequent cases is a typical example of such negative consequences, implying a need for an application of trust law into Vietnam’s legal system. This paper first presents the similarity in nature between parties’ relationship in the mentioned case and a proprietary trust relationship, followed by an analysis of such a case from a trusted perspective. Subsequently, an introduction of potential obstacles hindering the introduction of trust law into the Vietnamese legal framework is presented. Finally, some implications are suggested for perfecting Vietnam’s legal system.

Keywords: Vietnamese case law no 2, trust law, private property management, patrimony

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827 Participation Motivation and Financing Approach of Small and Medium Enterprises in Mergers and Acquisitions in Vietnam from the Viewpoint of Intermediaries

Authors: Nguyen Thi Hoang Hieu

Abstract:

Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) activities have increasingly become popular in both developed and developing countries. It is also an attractive topic for researchers to exploit in various sectors such as business, economies or finance. However, activities of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in M&A activities for a long time have not been sufficiently studied to provide the complete picture of what has been really, particularly in the developing market like Vietnam. The study employs semi-structured in-depth interviews with experts who have worked for years in the M&A sector to explore the participation motivation of both buy side and sell side of M&A activities. In addition, through the interviews, the study attempts to explain how firms finance their M&A deals. The collected data then will be content-analyzed to reflect the study's expectations based on the theories and practices reviews. In addition, limitations and recommendations are given in the hope that the M&A performance in Vietnam can be improved in the future.

Keywords: mergers and acquisitions, Vietnam, small and medium enterprises, content-analysis, semi-structure in-depth interview

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
826 New Insights for Soft Skills Development in Vietnamese Business Schools: Defining Essential Soft Skills for Maximizing Graduates’ Career Success

Authors: Hang T. T. Truong, Ronald S. Laura, Kylie Shaw

Abstract:

Within Vietnam's system of higher education, its schools of business play a vital role in supporting the country’s economic objectives. However, the crucial contribution of soft skills for maximal success within the business sector has to date not been adequately recognized by its business schools. This being so, the development of the business school curriculum in Vietnam has not been able to 'catch up', so to say, with the burgeoning need of students for a comprehensive soft skills program designed to meet the national and global business objectives of their potential employers. The burden of the present paper is first to reveal the results of our survey in Vietnam which make explicit the extent to which major Vietnamese industrial employers’ value the potential role that soft skill competencies can play in maximizing business success. Our final task will be to determine which soft skills employers discern as best serving to maximize the economic interests of Vietnam within the global marketplace. Semi-structured telephone interviews have been conducted with the 15 representative Head Employers of Vietnam's reputedly largest and most successful of the diverse business enterprises across Vietnam. The findings of the study indicate that all respondents highly value the increasing importance of soft skills in business success. Our critical analysis of respondent data reveals that 19 essential soft skills are deemed by employers as integral to business workplace efficacy and should thus be integrated into the formal business curriculum. We are confident that our study represents the first comprehensive and specific survey yet undertaken within the business sector in Vietnam which accesses and analyses the opinions of representative employers from major companies across the country in regard to the growing importance of 19 specific soft skills essential for maximizing overall business success. Our research findings also reveal that the integration into business school curriculums nationwide of the soft skills we have identified is of paramount importance to advance the national and global economic interests of Vietnam.

Keywords: business curriculum, business graduates, employers’ perception, soft skills

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825 Applying EzRAD Method for SNPs Discovery in Population Genetics of Freshwater and Marine Fish in the South of Vietnam

Authors: Quyen Vu Dang Ha, Oanh Truong Thi, Thuoc Tran Linh, Kent Carpenter, Thinh Doan Vu, Binh Dang Thuy

Abstract:

Enzyme restriction site associated DNA (EzRAD) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring fish genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. This is a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms and applied for SNPs discovery in the population genetics of freshwater and marine fish in the South of Vietnam. The observations of regional-scale differentiation of commercial freshwater fish (smallscale croakers Boesemania microlepis) and marine fish (emperor Lethrinus lentjan) are clarified. Samples were collected along Hau River and coastal area in the south and center Vietnam. 52 DNA samples from Tra Vinh, An Giang Province for Boesemania microlepis and 34 DNA samples of Lethrinus lentjan from Phu Quoc, Nha Trang, Da Nang Province were used to prepare EzRAD libraries from genomic DNA digested with MboI and Sau3AI. A pooled sample of regional EzRAD libraries was sequenced using the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform. For Boesemania microlepis, the small scale population different from upstream to downstream of Hau river were detected, An Giang population exhibited less genetic diversity (SNPs per individual from 14 to 926), in comparison to Tra Vinh population (from 11 to 2172). For Lethrinus lentjan, the result showed the minor difference between populations in the Northern and the Southern Mekong River. The numbers of contigs and SNPs vary from 1315 to 2455 and from 7122 to 8594, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). The current preliminary study reveals regional scale population disconnection probably reflecting environmental changing. Additional sampling and EzRad libraries need to be implemented for resource management in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Boesemania microlepis, EzRAD, Lethrinus lentjan, SNPs

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
824 The Role of Serum Fructosamine as a Monitoring Tool in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Treatment in Vietnam

Authors: Truong H. Le, Ngoc M. To, Quang N. Tran, Luu T. Cao, Chi V. Le

Abstract:

Introduction: In Vietnam, the current monitoring and treatment for ordinary diabetic patient mostly based on glucose monitoring with HbA1c test for every three months (recommended goal is HbA1c < 6.5%~7%). For diabetes in pregnant women or Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), glycemic control until the time of delivery is extremly important because it could reduce significantly medical implications for both the mother and the child. Besides, GDM requires continuos glucose monitoring at least every two weeks and therefore an alternative marker of glycemia for short-term control is considering a potential tool for the healthcare providers. There are published studies have indicated that the glycosylated serum protein is a better indicator than glycosylated hemoglobin in GDM monitoring. Based on the actual practice in Vietnam, this study was designed to evaluate the role of serum fructosamine as a monitoring tool in GDM treament and its correlations with fasting blood glucose (G0), 2-hour postprandial glucose (G2) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: A cohort study on pregnant women diagnosed with GDM by the 75-gram oralglucose tolerance test was conducted at Endocrinology Department, Cho Ray hospital, Vietnam from June 2014 to March 2015. Cho Ray hospital is the final destination for GDM patient in the southern of Vietnam, the study population has many sources from other pronvinces and therefore researchers belive that this demographic characteristic can help to provide the study result as a reflection for the whole area. In this study, diabetic patients received a continuos glucose monitoring method which consists of bi-weekly on-site visit every 2 weeks with glycosylated serum protein test, fasting blood glucose test and 2-hour postprandial glucose test; HbA1c test for every 3 months; and nutritious consultance for daily diet program. The subjects still received routine treatment at the hospital, with tight follow-up from their healthcare providers. Researchers recorded bi-weekly health conditions, serum fructosamine level and delivery outcome from the pregnant women, using Stata 13 programme for the analysis. Results: A total of 500 pregnant women was enrolled and follow-up in this study. Serum fructosamine level was found to have a light correlation with G0 ( r=0.3458, p < 0.001) and HbA1c ( r=0.3544, p < 0.001), and moderately correlated with G2 ( r=0.4379, p < 0.001). During study timeline, the delivery outcome of 287 women were recorded with the average age of 38.5 ± 1.5 weeks, 9% of them have macrosomia, 2.8% have premature birth before week 35th and 9.8% have premature birth before week 37th; 64.8% of cesarean section and none of them have perinatal or neonatal mortality. The study provides a reference interval of serum fructosamine for GDM patient was 112.9 ± 20.7 μmol/dL. Conclusion: The present results suggests that serum fructosamine is as effective as HbA1c as a reflection of blood glucose control in GDM patient, with a positive result in delivery outcome (0% perinatal or neonatal mortality). The reference value of serum fructosamine measurement provided a potential monitoring utility in GDM treatment for hospitals in Vietnam. Healthcare providers in Cho Ray hospital is considering to conduct more studies to test this reference as a target value in their GDM treatment and monitoring.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, monitoring tool, serum fructosamine, Vietnam

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823 Methods of Interpolating Temperature and Rainfall Distribution in Northern Vietnam

Authors: Thanh Van Hoang, Tien Yin Chou, Yao Min Fang, Yi Min Huang, Xuan Linh Nguyen

Abstract:

Reliable information on the spatial distribution of annual rainfall and temperature is essential in research projects relating to urban and regional planning. This research presents results of a classification of temperature and rainfall in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam based on measurements from seven meteorological stations (Ha Nam, Hung Yen, Lang, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Phu Lien, Thai Binh) in the river basin over a thirty-years period from 1982-2011. The average accumulated rainfall trends in the delta are analysed and form the basis of research essential to weather and climate forecasting. This study employs interpolation based on the Kriging Method for daily rainfall (min and max) and daily temperature (min and max) in order to improve the understanding of sources of variation and uncertainly in these important meteorological parameters. To the Kriging method, the results will show the different models and the different parameters based on the various precipitation series. The results provide a useful reference to assist decision makers in developing smart agriculture strategies for the Red River Delta in Vietnam.

Keywords: spatial interpolation method, ArcGIS, temperature variability, rainfall variability, Red River Delta, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
822 Some Statistical Properties of Residual Sea Level along the Coast of Vietnam

Authors: Doan Van Chinh, Bui Thi Kien Trinh

Abstract:

This paper outlines some statistical properties of residual sea level (RSL) at six representative tidal stations located along the coast of Vietnam. It was found that the positive RSL varied on average between 9.82 and 19.96cm and the negative RSL varied on average between -16.62 and -9.02cm. The maximum positive RSL varied on average between 102.8 and 265.5cm with the maximum negative RSL varied on average between -250.4 and -66.4cm. It is seen that the biggest positive RSL ere appeared in the summer months and the biggest negative RSL ere appeared in the winter months. The cumulative frequency of RSL less than 50 cm occurred between 95 and 99% of the times while the frequency of RSL higher than 100 cm accounted for between 0.01 and 0.2%. It also was found that the cumulative frequency of duration of RSL less than 24 hours occurred between 90 and 99% while the frequency of duration longer than 72 hours was in the order of 0.1 and 1%.

Keywords: coast of Vietnam, residual sea level, residual water, surge, cumulative frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
821 Actual Nursing Competency among Nurses in Hospital in Vietnam

Authors: Do Thi Ha, Khanitta Nuntaboot

Abstract:

Background: Competency of nurses is vital to safe nursing practice as well as essential component to drive quality of nursing services. There exists little up to date information concerning actual competency among Vietnamese nurses. Purposes: The purpose of this study is to identify the actual nursing competency among nurses in clinical settings in Vietnam. Methods: A qualitative study, ethnographic method, comprised of the participant-observation, in-depth interview, and focus group discussion with multidisciplinary groups of nurses employing in Cho Ray hospital, Vietnam, managers/administrators, nurse teachers, medical doctors, other health care providers, patients and family members which derived from purposeful sampling technique. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Five essential themes of nursing competencies among nurses were identified include (1) knowledge, (2) skills, (3) attitude and value-based nursing practice, (4) legal and ethical competencies, and (5) transcultural competencies. Basic and advanced knowledge were identified as further two dimensions of knowledge. There were five sub themes identified as further dimensions of skills include technical skills, communication skills, organizing and management skills, teamwork and interrelationship, and critical thinking skills. Conclusions: The findings from this study provide valuable information and understanding of the actual competency among nurses in clinical settings in Vietnam. It is expected that this understanding would assist in developing a guide to nursing education and training, nursing practice and relevant policy regulation used for promoting nursing competency among nurses.

Keywords: ethnographic method, nursing competency, qualitative design, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 219