Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4311

Search results for: shape optimization

4311 Topology and Shape Optimization of Macpherson Control Arm under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinpour, Javad Marzbanrad


In this research, the topology and shape optimization of a Macpherson control arm has been accomplished to achieve lighter weight. Present automotive market demands low cost and light weight component to meet the need of fuel efficient and cost effective vehicle. This in turn gives the rise to more effective use of materials for automotive parts which can reduce the mass of vehicle. Since automotive components are under dynamic loads which cause fatigue damage, considering fatigue criteria seems to be essential in designing automotive components. At first, in order to create severe loading condition for control arm, some rough roads are generated through power spectral density. Then, the most critical loading conditions are obtained through multibody dynamics analysis of a full vehicle model. Then, the topology optimization is performed based on fatigue life criterion using HyperMesh software, which resulted to 50 percent mass reduction. In the next step a CAD model is created using CATIA software and shape optimization is performed to achieve accurate dimensions with less mass.

Keywords: topology optimization, shape optimization, fatigue life, MacPherson control arm

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4310 Structural Optimization of Shell and Arched Structures

Authors: Mitchell Gohnert, Ryan Bradley


This paper reviews some fundamental concepts of structural optimization of shell structures, which is based on the type of materials used in construction and the shape of the structure. The first step of structural optimization is to break down all internal forces into fundamental principal stresses. The stress patterns direct our selection of structural shapes and the most appropriate type of construction material. In our selection of materials, it is essential to understand that all construction materials have flaws, or micro-cracks, which reduce the capacity of the material. Because of material defects, many construction materials perform significantly better when subjected to compressive forces. Structures are also more efficient if bending moments are eliminated; thus, it is essential to select natural structures, or structures where the natural flow of stress follows the axis of the shell. The shape of the structure, therefore, has a profound effect on stress levels. Stress may be reduced dramatically by simply changing the shape. Catenary, triangular and linear shapes are the fundamental structural forms to achieve optimal stress flow. If the natural flow of stress matches the shape of the structures, the most optimal shape is determined.

Keywords: arches, economy of stresses, material strength, optimization, shells

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4309 Optimal Design of Concrete Shells by Modified Particle Community Algorithm Using Spinless Curves

Authors: Reza Abbasi, Ahmad Hamidi Benam


Shell structures have many geometrical variables that modify some of these parameters to improve the mechanical behavior of the shell. On the other hand, the behavior of such structures depends on their geometry rather than on mass. Optimization techniques are useful in finding the geometrical shape of shell structures to improve mechanical behavior, especially to prevent or reduce bending anchors. The overall objective of this research is to optimize the shape of concrete shells using the thickness and height parameters along the reference curve and the overall shape of this curve. To implement the proposed scheme, the geometry of the structure was formulated using nonlinear curves. Shell optimization was performed under equivalent static loading conditions using the modified bird community algorithm. The results of this optimization show that without disrupting the initial design and with slight changes in the shell geometry, the structural behavior is significantly improved.

Keywords: concrete shells, shape optimization, spinless curves, modified particle community algorithm

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4308 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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4307 A Deep Learning Approach for Optimum Shape Design

Authors: Cahit Perkgöz


Artificial intelligence has brought new approaches to solving problems in almost every research field in recent years. One of these topics is shape design and optimization, which has the possibility of applications in many fields, such as nanotechnology and electronics. A properly constructed cost function can eliminate the need for labeled data required in deep learning and create desired shapes. In this work, the network parameters are optimized differentially, which differs from traditional approaches. The methods are tested for physics-related structures and successful results are obtained. This work is supported by Eskişehir Technical University scientific research project (Project No: 20ADP090)

Keywords: deep learning, shape design, optimization, artificial intelligence

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4306 A Study on Optimum Shape in According to Equivalent Stress Distributions at the Die and Plug in the Multi-Pass Drawing Process

Authors: Yeon-Jong Jeong, Mok-Tan Ahn, Seok-Hyeon Park, Seong-Hun Ha, Joon-Hong Park, Jong-Bae Park


Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factors influencing the productivity and formability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and formability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.

Keywords: multi-pass shape drawing, equivalent stress, FEM, finite element method, optimum shape

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4305 Multi-Pass Shape Drawing Process Design for Manufacturing of Automotive Reinforcing Agent with Closed Cross-Section Shape using Finite Element Method Analysis

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon-Hong Park


Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factor influencing the productivity and moldability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and moldability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. The purpose of this study, Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.

Keywords: automotive reinforcing agent, multi-pass shape drawing, automotive parts, FEM analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
4304 Shape Optimization of a Hole for Water Jetting in a Spudcan for a Jack-Up Rig

Authors: Han Ik Park, Jeong Hyeon Seong, Dong Seop Han, Su-Chul Shin, Young Chul Park


A Spudcan is mounted on the lower leg of the jack-up rig, a device for preventing a rollover of a structure and to support the structure in a stable sea floor. At the time of inserting the surface of the spud can to penetrate when the sand layer is stable and smoothly pulled to the clay layer, and at that time of recovery when uploading the spud can is equipped with a water injection device. In this study, it is significant to optimize the shape of pipelines holes for water injection device and it was set in two kinds of shape, the oval and round. Interpretation of the subject into the site of Gulf of Mexico offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessels (WTIV)was chosen as a target platform. Using the ANSYS Workbench commercial programs, optimal design was conducted. The results of this study can be applied to the hole-shaped design of various marine structures.

Keywords: kriging method, jack-up rig, shape optimization, spudcan

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4303 Optimal Design of 3-Way Reversing Valve Considering Cavitation Effect

Authors: Myeong-Gon Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Ho Han


The high-pressure valve uses one set of 2-way valves for the purpose of reversing fluid direction. If there is no accurate control device for the 2-way valves, lots of surging can be generated. The surging is a kind of pressure ripple that occurs in rapid changes of fluid motions under inaccurate valve control. To reduce the surging effect, a 3-way reversing valve can be applied which provides a rapid and precise change of water flow directions without any accurate valve control system. However, a cavitation occurs due to a complicated internal trim shape of the 3-way reversing valve. The cavitation causes not only noise and vibration but also decreasing the efficiency of valve-operation, in which the bubbles generated below the saturated vapor pressure are collapsed rapidly at higher pressure zone. The shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve to minimize the cavitation effect is necessary. In this study, the cavitation index according to the international standard ISA was introduced to estimate macroscopically the occurrence of the cavitation effect. Computational fluid dynamic analysis was carried out, and the cavitation effect was quantified by means of the percent of cavitation converted from calculated results of vapor volume fraction. In addition, the shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve was performed by taking into account of the percent of cavitation.

Keywords: 3-Way reversing valve, cavitation, shape optimization, vapor volume fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
4302 Optimization of Plastic Injection Molding Parameters by Altering Gate and Runner of Feeding System

Authors: Ali Ramezani


Balancing feeding system of plastic injection molding has overriding importance as it minimizes the process’s product defects such as weld line, shrinkage, sink marks and warpage. This article presents the difference between optimization of feeding system in identical multi-cavity molding and family molding using Moldflow Plastic Insight software. In this work, the effect of dimension, shape, position and type of gates and runners on the products quality was studied. The optimization was carried out by analyzing plastic injection molding process parameters, including melt temperature, mold temperature, cooling time, cooling temperature packing time and packing pressure. It was found that symmetrical feeding system is the most efficient shape for diminishing defects in identical multi-cavity molding. However, the same results were not concluded for family molding due to the differences between volume, mass, thickness and shape of cavities.

Keywords: balancing feeding system, family molding, multi-cavity, Moldflow, plastic injection

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4301 3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications

Authors: R. Kanmaniraja, R. Freshipali, J. Abdullah, K. Niranjan, K. Balasubramani, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, Chevron, acoustic level, shape optimization of Chevron nozzles, jet noise suppression

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4300 A Non-Iterative Shape Reconstruction of an Interface from Boundary Measurement

Authors: Mourad Hrizi


In this paper, we study the inverse problem of reconstructing an interior interface D appearing in the elliptic partial differential equation: Δu+χ(D)u=0 from the knowledge of the boundary measurements. This problem arises from a semiconductor transistor model. We propose a new shape reconstruction procedure that is based on the Kohn-Vogelius formulation and the topological sensitivity method. The inverse problem is formulated as a topology optimization one. A topological sensitivity analysis is derived from a function. The unknown subdomain D is reconstructed using a level-set curve of the topological gradient. Finally, we give several examples to show the viability of our proposed method.

Keywords: inverse problem, topological optimization, topological gradient, Kohn-Vogelius formulation

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4299 Optimal Design of Shape for Increasing the Bonding Pressure Drawing of Hot Clad Pipes by Finite Element Method Analysis

Authors: Seok-Hyeon Park, Joon-Hong Park, Mok-Tan-Ahn, Seong-Hun Ha


Clad Pipe is made of a different kind of material, which is different from the internal and external materials, for the corrosive crude oil transportation tube. Most of the clad pipes are produced by hot rolling. However, problems arise due to high product prices and excessive process numbers. Therefore, in this study, the hot drawing process with excellent product cost, process number and productivity is applied. Due to the nature of the drawing process, the shape of the mold greatly influences the formability of the material and the bonding pressure of the two materials because it is a process of drawing the material to the die and reducing the cross-sectional area. Also, in case of hot drawing, if the mold shape is not suitable due to the increased fluidity of the material, it may cause problems such as tearing and stretching. Therefore, in this study, we try to find the shape of the mold which suppresses the occurrence of defects in the hot drawing process and maximizes the bonding pressure between the two materials through the mold shape optimization design by FEM analysis.

Keywords: clad pipe, hot drawing, bonding pressure, mold shape

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4298 Gender Differences in the Descriptions of Shape

Authors: Shu-Feng Chang


During the past years, gender issues have been discussed in many fields. It causes such differences not only in physical field but also in mental field. Gender differences also appear in our daily life, especially in the communication of spoken language. This statement was proved in the descriptions of color. However, the research about describing shape was fewer. The purpose of the study was to determine the description of the shape was different or alike due to gender. If it was different, this difference was dissimilar or as the same as the conclusion of color. Data were collected on the shape descriptions by 15 female and 15male participants in describing five pictures. As a result, it was really different for the descriptions of shape due to gender factor. The findings of shape descriptions were almost as the same as color naming with gender factor.

Keywords: gender, naming, shape, sociolinguistics

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4297 Aerodynamic Optimum Nose Shape Change of High-Speed Train by Design Variable Variation

Authors: Minho Kwak, Suhwan Yun, Choonsoo Park


Nose shape optimizations of high-speed train are performed for the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the commercial train, KTX-Sancheon, multi-objective optimizations are conducted for the improvement of the side wind stability and the micro-pressure wave following the optimization for the reduction of aerodynamic drag. 3D nose shapes are modelled by the Vehicle Modeling Function. Aerodynamic drag and side wind stability are calculated by three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and micro pressure wave is done by axi-symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The Maxi-min Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to extract sampling points to construct the approximation model. The kriging model is constructed for the approximation model and the NSGA-II algorithm was used as the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Nose length, nose tip height, and lower surface curvature are design variables. Because nose length is a dominant variable for aerodynamic characteristics of train nose, two optimization processes are progressed respectively with and without the design variable, nose length. Each pareto set was obtained and each optimized nose shape is selected respectively considering Honam high-speed rail line infrastructure in South Korea. Through the optimization process with the nose length, when compared to KTX Sancheon, aerodynamic drag was reduced by 9.0%, side wind stability was improved by 4.5%, micro-pressure wave was reduced by 5.4% whereas aerodynamic drag by 7.3%, side wind stability by 3.9%, micro-pressure wave by 3.9%, without the nose length. As a result of comparison between two optimized shapes, similar shapes are extracted other than the effect of nose length.

Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, design variable, multi-objective optimization, train nose shape

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4296 Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Methods for Optimal Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: E. Tandis, E. Assareh


Designing the optimal shape of MW wind turbine blades is provided in a number of cases through evolutionary algorithms associated with mathematical modeling (Blade Element Momentum Theory). Evolutionary algorithms, among the optimization methods, enjoy many advantages, particularly in stability. However, they usually need a large number of function evaluations. Since there are a large number of local extremes, the optimization method has to find the global extreme accurately. The present paper introduces a new population-based hybrid algorithm called Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm (GBBA). This algorithm is meant to design the optimal shape for MW wind turbine blades. The current method employs crossover and neighborhood searching operators taken from the respective Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Bees Algorithm (BA) to provide a method with good performance in accuracy and speed convergence. Different blade designs, twenty-one to be exact, were considered based on the chord length, twist angle and tip speed ratio using GA results. They were compared with BA and GBBA optimum design results targeting the power coefficient and solidity. The results suggest that the final shape, obtained by the proposed hybrid algorithm, performs better compared to either BA or GA. Furthermore, the accuracy and speed convergence increases when the GBBA is employed

Keywords: Blade Design, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Bees Algorithm, Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm, Large Wind Turbine

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4295 A Study of Parameters That Have an Influence on Fabric Prints in Judging the Attractiveness of a Female Body Shape

Authors: Man N. M. Cheung


In judging the attractiveness of female body shape, visual sense is one of the important means. The ratio and proportion of body shape influence the perception of female physical attractiveness. This study aims to examine visual perception of digital textile prints on a virtual 3D model in judging the attractiveness of the body shape. Also, investigate the influences when using different shape parameters and their relationships. Participants were asked to conduct a set of questionnaires with images to rank the attractiveness of the female body shape. Results showed that morphing the fabric prints with a certain ratio and combination of shape parameters - waist and hip, can enhance the attractiveness of the female body shape.

Keywords: digital printing, 3D body modeling, fashion print design, body shape attractiveness

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4294 Approximation of a Wanted Flow via Topological Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Abdelwahed


We propose an optimization algorithm for the geometric control of fluid flow. The used approach is based on the topological sensitivity analysis method. It consists in studying the variation of a cost function with respect to the insertion of a small obstacle in the domain. Some theoretical and numerical results are presented in 2D and 3D.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, topological gradient, shape optimization, stokes equations

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4293 Efficient Computer-Aided Design-Based Multilevel Optimization of the LS89

Authors: A. Chatel, I. S. Torreguitart, T. Verstraete


The paper deals with a single point optimization of the LS89 turbine using an adjoint optimization and defining the design variables within a CAD system. The advantage of including the CAD model in the design system is that higher level constraints can be imposed on the shape, allowing the optimized model or component to be manufactured. However, CAD-based approaches restrict the design space compared to node-based approaches where every node is free to move. In order to preserve a rich design space, we develop a methodology to refine the CAD model during the optimization and to create the best parameterization to use at each time. This study presents a methodology to progressively refine the design space, which combines parametric effectiveness with a differential evolutionary algorithm in order to create an optimal parameterization. In this manuscript, we show that by doing the parameterization at the CAD level, we can impose higher level constraints on the shape, such as the axial chord length, the trailing edge radius and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. Additionally, the adjoint sensitivities are filtered out and only smooth shapes are produced during the optimization process. The use of algorithmic differentiation for the CAD kernel and grid generator allows computing the grid sensitivities to machine accuracy and avoid the limited arithmetic precision and the truncation error of finite differences. Then, the parametric effectiveness is computed to rate the ability of a set of CAD design parameters to produce the design shape change dictated by the adjoint sensitivities. During the optimization process, the design space is progressively enlarged using the knot insertion algorithm which allows introducing new control points whilst preserving the initial shape. The position of the inserted knots is generally assumed. However, this assumption can hinder the creation of better parameterizations that would allow producing more localized shape changes where the adjoint sensitivities dictate. To address this, we propose using a differential evolutionary algorithm to maximize the parametric effectiveness by optimizing the location of the inserted knots. This allows the optimizer to gradually explore larger design spaces and to use an optimal CAD-based parameterization during the course of the optimization. The method is tested on the LS89 turbine cascade and large aerodynamic improvements in the entropy generation are achieved whilst keeping the exit flow angle fixed. The trailing edge and axial chord length, which are kept fixed as manufacturing constraints. The optimization results show that the multilevel optimizations were more efficient than the single level optimization, even though they used the same number of design variables at the end of the multilevel optimizations. Furthermore, the multilevel optimization where the parameterization is created using the optimal knot positions results in a more efficient strategy to reach a better optimum than the multilevel optimization where the position of the knots is arbitrarily assumed.

Keywords: adjoint, CAD, knots, multilevel, optimization, parametric effectiveness

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4292 Optimization of Passive Vibration Damping of Space Structures

Authors: Emad Askar, Eldesoky Elsoaly, Mohamed Kamel, Hisham Kamel


The objective of this article is to improve the passive vibration damping of solar array (SA) used in space structures, by the effective application of numerical optimization. A case study of a SA is used for demonstration. A finite element (FE) model was created and verified by experimental testing. Optimization was then conducted by implementing the FE model with the genetic algorithm, to find the optimal placement of aluminum circular patches, to suppress the first two bending mode shapes. The results were verified using experimental testing. Finally, a parametric study was conducted using the FE model where patch locations, material type, and shape were varied one at a time, and the results were compared with the optimal ones. The results clearly show that through the proper application of FE modeling and numerical optimization, passive vibration damping of space structures has been successfully achieved.

Keywords: damping optimization, genetic algorithm optimization, passive vibration damping, solar array vibration damping

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4291 Comparison of Different Data Acquisition Techniques for Shape Optimization Problems

Authors: Attila Vámosi, Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó


Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. Rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. The shape optimization problem of rubber parts led to the study of FEM based calculation processes. This type of problems was posed and investigated by several authors. In this paper the time demand of certain calculation methods are studied and the possibilities of time reduction is presented.

Keywords: rubber bumper, data acquisition, finite element analysis, support vector regression

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4290 Thermal Performance Investigation on Cross V-Shape Solar Air Collectors

Authors: Xi Luo, Xu Ji, Yunfeng Wang, Guoliang Li, Chongqiang Yan, Ming Li


Two different kinds of cross V-shape solar air collectors are designed and constructed. In the transverse cross V-shape collector, the V-shape bottom plate is along the air flow direction and the absorbing plate is perpendicular to the air flow direction. In the lengthway cross V-shape collector, the V-shape absorbing plate is along the air flow direction and the bottom plate is perpendicular to the air flow direction. Based on heat balance, the mathematical model is built to evaluate their performances. These thermal performances of the two cross V-shape solar air collectors and an extra traditional flat-plate solar air collector are characterized under various operating conditions by experiments. The experimental results agree well with the calculation values. The experimental results prove that the thermal efficiency of transverse cross V-shape collector precedes that of others. The air temperature at any point along the flow direction of the transverse cross V-shape collector is higher than that of the lengthway cross V-shape collector. For the transverse cross V-shape collector, the most effective length of flow channel is 0.9m. For the lengthway cross V-shape collector, a longer flow channel is necessary to achieve a good thermal performance.

Keywords: cross v-shape, performance, solar air collector, thermal efficiency

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4289 Computational Aerodynamic Shape Optimisation Using a Concept of Control Nodes and Modified Cuckoo Search

Authors: D. S. Naumann, B. J. Evans, O. Hassan


This paper outlines the development of an automated aerodynamic optimisation algorithm using a novel method of parameterising a computational mesh by employing user–defined control nodes. The shape boundary movement is coupled to the movement of the novel concept of the control nodes via a quasi-1D-linear deformation. Additionally, a second order smoothing step has been integrated to act on the boundary during the mesh movement based on the change in its second derivative. This allows for both linear and non-linear shape transformations dependent on the preference of the user. The domain mesh movement is then coupled to the shape boundary movement via a Delaunay graph mapping. A Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS) algorithm is used for optimisation within the prescribed design space defined by the allowed range of control node displacement. A finite volume compressible NavierStokes solver is used for aerodynamic modelling to predict aerodynamic design fitness. The resulting coupled algorithm is applied to a range of test cases in two dimensions including the design of a subsonic, transonic and supersonic intake and the optimisation approach is compared with more conventional optimisation strategies. Ultimately, the algorithm is tested on a three dimensional wing optimisation case.

Keywords: mesh movement, aerodynamic shape optimization, cuckoo search, shape parameterisation

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4288 Multi-Point Dieless Forming Product Defect Reduction Using Reliability-Based Robust Process Optimization

Authors: Misganaw Abebe Baye, Ji-Woo Park, Beom-Soo Kang


The product quality of multi-point dieless forming (MDF) is identified to be dependent on the process parameters. Moreover, a certain variation of friction and material properties may have a substantially worse influence on the final product quality. This study proposed on how to compensate the MDF product defects by minimizing the sensitivity of noise parameter variations. This can be attained by reliability-based robust optimization (RRO) technique to obtain the optimal process setting of the controllable parameters. Initially two MDF Finite Element (FE) simulations of AA3003-H14 saddle shape showed a substantial amount of dimpling, wrinkling, and shape error. FE analyses are consequently applied on ABAQUS commercial software to obtain the correlation between the control process setting and noise variation with regard to the product defects. The best prediction models are chosen from the family of metamodels to swap the computational expensive FE simulation. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to determine the optimal process settings of the control parameters. Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is executed to determine how the noise parameter variation affects the final product quality. Finally, the RRO FE simulation and the experimental result show that the amendment of the control parameters in the final forming process leads to a considerably better-quality product.

Keywords: dimpling, multi-point dieless forming, reliability-based robust optimization, shape error, variation, wrinkling

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4287 A Study on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-Based Design Optimization Techniques Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA)

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Mohamed A. Hashem


In engineering applications, a design has to be as fully perfect as possible in some defined case. The designer has to overcome many challenges in order to reach the optimal solution to a specific problem. This process is called optimization. Generally, there is always a function called “objective function” that is required to be maximized or minimized by choosing input parameters called “degrees of freedom” within an allowed domain called “search space” and computing the values of the objective function for these input values. It becomes more complex when we have more than one objective for our design. As an example for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOP): A structural design that aims to minimize weight and maximize strength. In such case, the Pareto Optimal Frontier (POF) is used, which is a curve plotting two objective functions for the best cases. At this point, a designer should make a decision to choose the point on the curve. Engineers use algorithms or iterative methods for optimization. In this paper, we will discuss the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) which are widely used with Multi-objective Optimization Problems due to their robustness, simplicity, suitability to be coupled and to be parallelized. Evolutionary algorithms are developed to guarantee the convergence to an optimal solution. An EA uses mechanisms inspired by Darwinian evolution principles. Technically, they belong to the family of trial and error problem solvers and can be considered global optimization methods with a stochastic optimization character. The optimization is initialized by picking random solutions from the search space and then the solution progresses towards the optimal point by using operators such as Selection, Combination, Cross-over and/or Mutation. These operators are applied to the old solutions “parents” so that new sets of design variables called “children” appear. The process is repeated until the optimal solution to the problem is reached. Reliable and robust computational fluid dynamics solvers are nowadays commonly utilized in the design and analyses of various engineering systems, such as aircraft, turbo-machinery, and auto-motives. Coupling of Computational Fluid Dynamics “CFD” and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms “MOEA” has become substantial in aerospace engineering applications, such as in aerodynamic shape optimization and advanced turbo-machinery design.

Keywords: mathematical optimization, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms "MOEA", computational fluid dynamics "CFD", aerodynamic shape optimization

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4286 A Study on Improvement of the Torque Ripple and Demagnetization Characteristics of a PMSM

Authors: Yong Min You


The study on the torque ripple of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) has been rapidly progressed, which effects on the noise and vibration of the electric vehicle. There are several ways to reduce torque ripple, which are the increase in the number of slots and poles, the notch of the rotor and stator teeth, and the skew of the rotor and stator. However, the conventional methods have the disadvantage in terms of material cost and productivity. The demagnetization characteristic of PMSMs must be attained for electric vehicle application. Due to rare earth supply issue, the demand for Dy-free permanent magnet has been increasing, which can be applied to PMSMs for the electric vehicle. Dy-free permanent magnet has lower the coercivity; the demagnetization characteristic has become more significant. To improve the torque ripple as well as the demagnetization characteristics, which are significant parameters for electric vehicle application, an unequal air-gap model is proposed for a PMSM. A shape optimization is performed to optimize the design variables of an unequal air-gap model. Optimal design variables are the shape of an unequal air-gap and the angle between V-shape magnets. An optimization process is performed by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Kriging Method, and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finite element analysis (FEA) is also utilized to analyze the torque and demagnetization characteristics. The torque ripple and the demagnetization temperature of the initial model of 45kW PMSM with unequal air-gap are 10 % and 146.8 degrees, respectively, which are reaching a critical level for electric vehicle application. Therefore, the unequal air-gap model is proposed, and then an optimization process is conducted. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 7.7 %. In addition, the demagnetization temperature of the optimized model was also increased by 1.8 % while maintaining the efficiency. From these results, a shape optimized unequal air-gap PMSM has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and demagnetization temperature for the electric vehicle.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor, optimal design, finite element method, torque ripple

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4285 Optimization of High Flux Density Design for Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Dong-Woo Kang


This paper presents an optimal magnet shape of a spoke-shaped interior permanent magnet synchronous motor by using ferrite magnets. Generally, the permanent magnet motor used the ferrite magnets has lower output power and efficiency than a rare-earth magnet motor, because the ferrite magnet has lower magnetic energy than the rare-earth magnet. Nevertheless, the ferrite magnet motor is used to many industrial products owing to cost effectiveness. In this paper, the authors propose a high power density design of the ferrite permanent magnet synchronous motor. Furthermore, because the motor design has to be taken a manufacturing process into account, the design is simulated by using the finite element method for analyzing the demagnetization, the magnetizing, and the structure stiffness. Especially, the magnet shape and dimensions are decided for satisfying these properties. Finally, the authors design an optimal motor for applying our system. That final design is manufactured and evaluated from experimentations.

Keywords: demagnetization, design optimization, magnetic analysis, permanent magnet motors

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4284 Study of Energy Dissipation in Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison between Austenite and Martensite Phase of SMAs

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


Shape memory alloys with high capability of energy dissipation and large deformation bearing with return ability to their original shape without too much hysteresis strain have opened their place among the other damping systems as smart materials. Ninitol which is the most well-known and most used alloy material from the shape memory alloys family, has high resistance and fatigue and is coverage for large deformations. Shape memory effect and super-elasticity by shape alloys like Nitinol, are the reasons of the high power of these materials in energy depreciation. Thus, these materials are suitable for use in reciprocating dynamic loading conditions. The experiments results showed that Nitinol wires with small diameter have greater energy dissipation capability and by increase of diameter and thickness the damping capability and energy dissipation increase.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, shape memory effect, super elastic effect, nitinol, energy dissipation

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4283 A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Zih-Wun Jhang


The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-shape nanochannel, silicon substrate, specific down force energy (SDFE)

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4282 Curve Fitting by Cubic Bezier Curves Using Migrating Birds Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mitat Uysal


A new met heuristic optimization algorithm called as Migrating Birds Optimization is used for curve fitting by rational cubic Bezier Curves. This requires solving a complicated multivariate optimization problem. In this study, the solution of this optimization problem is achieved by Migrating Birds Optimization algorithm that is a powerful met heuristic nature-inspired algorithm well appropriate for optimization. The results of this study show that the proposed method performs very well and being able to fit the data points to cubic Bezier Curves with a high degree of accuracy.

Keywords: algorithms, Bezier curves, heuristic optimization, migrating birds optimization

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