Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40674

Search results for: gender study

40674 Post-Structural Study of Gender in Shakespearean Othello from Butlerian Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Rehman Hissam

Abstract:

This study aims at analyzing gender in Othello by applying Judith Butler’s Post-Structural theory of gender and gender performance. The analysis of the play provides us context by which we can examine what kinds of effects the drama have on understanding of the researchers regarding gender identity. The study sets out to examine that, is there any evidence or ground in Shakespearean selected work which leads to challenge the patriarchal taken for granted prescribed roles of gender? This would be the focal point in study of Othello that actions and performances of characters determine their gender identity rather than their sexuality. It argues that gender of Shakespearean characters has no constant, fixed and structural impression. On the contrary, they undergo consistent variations in their behavior and performance which impart fluidity and volatility to them. The focal point of the present study is Butler’s prominent work; Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity and her post structural theory of Gender performativity as the theoretical underpinning of the text. It analyzes the selected play in Post-Structural gender perspective. The gender-centric plot of the play is riddled with fluidity of gender. The most fascinating aspect of the play is the transformations of genders on the basis of performances by different characters and through these transformations; gender identity is revealed and determined. The study reconstructs the accepted gender norms by challenging the traditional concept of gender that is based on sexual differences of characters.

Keywords: post structural, gender, performativity, socio-cultural gender norms, binaries, Othello, Butler, identity

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40673 The Role of Gender in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety

Authors: Fadil Elmenfi, Ahmed Gaibani

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of gender in influencing public speaking anxiety. Questionnaire survey was administered to the samples of the study. Technique of correlation and descriptive analysis will be further applied to the data collected to determine the relationship between gender and public speaking anxiety. This study could serve as a guide to identify the effects of gender differences on public speaking anxiety and provide necessary advice on how to design a way of coping with or overcoming public speaking anxiety.

Keywords: across culture, communication, English language competence, gender, postgraduate students, speaking anxiety

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40672 Gender Inequality in the Nigerian Labour Market as a Cause of Unemployment among Female Graduates

Authors: Temitope Faloye

Abstract:

The absence of equity and transparency in Nigeria's economic system has resulted in unemployment. Women’s unemployment rate remains higher because women's range of jobs is often narrower due to discriminatory attitudes of employers and gender segregation in the labor market. Gender inequality is one of the strong factors of unemployment, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where the female gender is marginalized in the labor force market. However, gender equality in terms of labor market access and employment condition has not yet been attained. Feminist theory is considered as an appropriate theory for this study. The study will use a mixed-method design, collecting qualitative and quantitative data to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the present situation of gender inequality in the Nigerian labor market.

Keywords: unemployment, gender inequality, gender equality, labor market, female graduate

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40671 The Impact of Gender Inequality on Corruption:Evidence from Politics and Labor Market

Authors: Mahmoud Salari

Abstract:

Corruption and gender inequality are the main topics of interest for both economists and policymakers. This study develops various static and dynamic estimation models to examine the impact of gender inequality in politics and the labor market on corruption using data of 170 countries from 1998 to 2014. This study uses two most reliable corruption indexes, including Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and Corruption Control (CC), to evaluate corruption levels across countries. The results indicate that gender inequality in politics has a strong impact on corruption level, and those countries that have larger/smaller gender inequality in their parliaments are faced with higher/lower corruption, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no enough evidence that supports the relationship between gender inequality in the labor market and corruption, and the results indicate that gender inequality in the labor market is not directly linked to the corruption level.

Keywords: corruption, female labor force participation, politics, gender inequality

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40670 A Study of Gender Awareness among College Students in Delhi

Authors: Shailly Kumar

Abstract:

Gender is a social construction resulting in defining roles and responsibilities to carried out according to masculine and feminine traits. The main aim of the study was to explore gender awareness among college going students of Delhi. The objectives of studies were to find out (i) the understanding of term gender and roles and responsibilities associated with male and female as masculine and feminine traits in our society. (ii)Gender images representing the attributes and characteristics attached to particular gender. (iii) Gender discrimination prevailing among girls and boys in our society. (iv)Gender stereotypes resulting in gendering with respect to religion, culture, family and media. The sample of study consisted of 100 undergraduate college girl students. The findings of study stated that the students had this understanding that sex is a natural phenomenon and gender is socially constructed. Gender defines the roles and responsibilities among two sexes. On a gender image students concluded that males are represented as a powerful members of society showing physical strength and violence, force and society gave the power to men oppress and subjugate women in society that's why women are treated inferior and given secondary position in society. On gender discrimination, girl students stated that they faced discrimination at all level such as family, media ,education, workplace etc .There is strong prevailing gender stereotypes among girls and boys with respect to religious practices, choice of career ,preference of child etc. This study concluded that students were aware of gendered practices in various domains of life. The study helped to interpret the notions and perceptions of students towards gendering of social spaces and in their lives.

Keywords: gender, gender awareness, gender role, masculinity and feminity

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40669 Gender Differences in the Descriptions of Shape

Authors: Shu-Feng Chang

Abstract:

During the past years, gender issues have been discussed in many fields. It causes such differences not only in physical field but also in mental field. Gender differences also appear in our daily life, especially in the communication of spoken language. This statement was proved in the descriptions of color. However, the research about describing shape was fewer. The purpose of the study was to determine the description of the shape was different or alike due to gender. If it was different, this difference was dissimilar or as the same as the conclusion of color. Data were collected on the shape descriptions by 15 female and 15male participants in describing five pictures. As a result, it was really different for the descriptions of shape due to gender factor. The findings of shape descriptions were almost as the same as color naming with gender factor.

Keywords: gender, naming, shape, sociolinguistics

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40668 A Sociological Exploration of How Chinese Highly Educated Women Respond to the Gender Stereotype in China

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In this study, Chinese highly educated women referred to those women who are currently doing their Ph.D. studies, and those who have already had Ph.D. degrees. In ancient Chinese society, women were subordinated to men. The only gender role of women was to be a wife and a mother. With the rapid development of China, women are encouraged to pursue higher education. As a result of this, the number of highly educated women is growing very quickly. However, people, especially men, believe that highly educated women are challenging the traditional image of Chinese women. It is thus believed that highly educated women are very different with the traditional women. They are demonstrating an image of independent and confident women with promising careers. Plus, with the reinforcement of mass media, highly educated women are regarded as non-traditional women. People stigmatize them as the 'third gender' on the basis of male and female. Now, the 'third gender' has become a gender stereotype of highly educated women. In this study, 20 participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions of self and how these highly educated women respond to the stereotype. The study finds that Chinese highly educated women are facing a variety of problems and difficulties in their daily life, and they believe that one of the leading causes is the contradiction between patriarchal values and the views of gender equality in contemporary China. This study gives rich qualitative data in the research of Chinese women and will help to extend the current Chinese gender studies.

Keywords: Chinese highly educated women, gender stereotype, self, the ‘third gender’

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40667 Study on Gender Mainstreaming: The Case Study of a Rural University in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Tsoaledi D. Thobejane, Barnabas C. Okere

Abstract:

Gender mainstreaming has been adopted as a strategy for promoting gender equality in institutions of higher learning Worldwide, not least in Africa. This study investigated Gender Mainstreaming at the University of Venda, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was based on the Feminist Theoretical Framework. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A case study research design was adopted. The study involved a population of 60 participants and a sample of 25 male and female workers selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data were presented in pie charts, tables, themes and in textual forms. Data were analysed through descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The major findings and conclusions of the study were that the University of Venda faces enormous challenges in mainstreaming gender in the university functions. There are perceptions that most strategic higher positions in the institution are dominated by men while women are marginalized. Although the University has policies on gender, staff members do not know about them while management does not implement its policies. University of Venda makes use of the Employment Equity Act of 1998, but it is not clear whether line managers are aware of its implementation and how. In addition, favouritism, nepotism, patronage, and patriarchy played a role in gender mainstreaming. The study recommended that there should be more gender awareness activities, such as workshops, conferences, and symposia for workers and staff members in order to sensitize them about gender towards understanding. The study also recommended that deserving female staff members should be promoted, and all employees should be encouraged to read and understand gender policies. In addition, management should implement the institutions and national gender policies without fear or favour.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, gender equality, institutions, representation

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40666 Peculiar Implications of Self Perceived Identity as Policy Tool for Transgender Recognition in Pakistan

Authors: Hamza Iftikhar

Abstract:

The research study focuses on the transgender community's gender recognition challenges. It is one of the issues for the transgender community, interacting directly with the difficulties of gender identity and the lives of these people who are facing gender disapproval from society. This study investigates the major flaws of the transgender act. The study's goal is to look into the strange implications of self-perceived identity as a policy tool for transgender recognition. This policy tool jeopardises the rights of Pakistan's indigenous gender-variant people as well as the country's legal and social framework. Qualitative research using semi structured interviews will be carried out. This study proposes developing a scheme for mainstreaming gender-variant people on the basis of the Pakistani Constitution, Supreme Court guidelines, and internationally recognised principles of law. This would necessitate a thorough review of current law using a new approach and reference point.

Keywords: transgender act, self perceived identity, gender variant, policy tool

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40665 A House for Men: A Study of the Dong Minority Residential Architecture in the Southern Dialect Areas from a Gender Perspective

Authors: Fung Sze Wai Veera, Peter W. Ferretto

Abstract:

Gender functions as a principle in organizing society based on the cultural meanings given to males and females. It is an essential component in constructing the spatial reality, one that is in most cases in favor of men’s needs and disregards that of women’s. Similar to other minorities in China, men of the Dong community hold the primary position in policymaking, moral standards, social values, and, furthermore, the building of the physical environment. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the residential architecture of Dong through the lens of gender. Specifically, it examines how the patriarchal practice of Dong is manifested in terms of the spatial organization, the architectural feature, and the construction process of Dong houses in the southern dialect areas. While the residential architecture of Dong has been extensively researched, the role of gender culture in designing and constructing it deserves more research attention. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to challenge the notion of gender-inclusive design in the rural China context while opening up a cross-disciplinary discussion concerning Chinese minority architecture and gender studies.

Keywords: Dong minority residential architecture, gender study, built environment, male-dominated society, gender-inclusive design

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40664 Impact of Financial Inclusion on Gender Inequality: An Empirical Examination

Authors: Sumanta Kumar Saha, Jie Qin

Abstract:

This study analyzes the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality in 126 countries belonging to different income groups during the 2005–2019 period. Due to its positive influence on poverty alleviation, economic growth, women empowerment, and income inequality reduction, financial inclusion may help reduce gender equality. This study constructs a novel composite financial inclusion index and applies both fixed-effect panel estimation and instrumental variable approach to examine the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality. The results indicate that financial inclusion can reduce gender inequality in developing and low- and lower-middle-income countries, but not in higher-income countries. The impact is not always immediate. Past financial inclusion initiatives have a significant influence on future gender inequality. Financial inclusion is also significant if the poverty level is high and women's access to financial services is low compared to men. When the poverty level is low, or women have equal access to financial services, financial inclusion does not significantly affect gender inequality. The study finds that compulsory education and improvement in institutional quality promote gender equality in developing countries apart from financial inclusion. The study proposes that lower-income countries use financial inclusion initiatives to improve gender equality. Other countries need to focus on other aspects such as promoting educational support and institutional quality improvements to achieve gender equality.

Keywords: financial inclusion, gender inequality, institutional quality, women empowerment

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40663 Gender Moderates the Association Between Symbolization Trait (But Not Internalization Trait) and Smoking Behaviour

Authors: Kuay Hue San, Muaz Haqim Shaharum, Nasir Yusoff

Abstract:

Gender plays a big role in psychosocial development. This study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the relationship between moral identity (internalization and symbolization) and risk-smoking behavior. An online cross-sectional study was carried out on 388 (61% female) youths who fulfilled the study’s inclusion and exclusion criteria. While viewing images of smoking behavior, participants rated their emotional state, which ranged from unpleasant to pleasant. Participants were also asked to fill out the eight-item Moral Identity Scale and provide their socio-demographic information. Gender significantly moderated the relationship between symbolization and smoking behavior. However, the moderation effect was not shown by internalization Finding highlights the implication of gender on moral identity and smoking behavior and the importance of considering this in the public health intervention and program.

Keywords: smoking behaviour, gender, emotion, moral identity

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40662 Gender Diversity Practices in Talent Management: An Exploratory Study in the Space Industry in Luxembourg

Authors: K. Usanova

Abstract:

This study contributes to the conceptual and empirical understanding of how gender diversity management (GDM) is integrated into talent management (TM). Following the grounded theory, we interviewed 40 HR managers and talents from the space industry in Luxembourg. We provide a nuanced picture of what attitude on the GDM in TM organizations have, what strategies and practices they conduct, and how they differ from each other. Based on these differences, we developed three types of GDM integration to TM and explained the talents’ view on this issue. To the author's best knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation of GDM in TM in the space industry that integrates both the TM executives' and TM receivers' views on gender equality in TM.

Keywords: gender diversity management, high-technology industry, human resource management, talent management

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40661 Gender Mainstreaming in Kazakhstan: A University Audit as the First Stage to Inform Policy

Authors: A. S. CohenMiller, Jenifer Lewis, Gwen McEvoy, Kristy Kelly

Abstract:

This international, interdisciplinary study presents the first stage of a gender mainstreaming project within one university as a microcosm of society in Kazakhstan to make concrete policy recommendations and set up the potential for new research to monitor change over time. Local, regional, and UN representatives have noted the critical need and interest in gender related issues in Kazakhstan. Gender mainstreaming has been noted as a strategy to understand and address gender equality and equity such as within the academy in exploring and examining organizational/management issues, university decision-making and leadership, assessing the overall academic climate, discrimination issues, hiring and promotion, and student recruitment and retention. This presentation provides preliminary findings from the university gender audit, highlighting key elements for moving forward in gender mainstreaming. The full study analyzes findings from the full gender audit including interview with key stakeholders, time-use surveys, participant-observations and interviews with female students, staff and faculty, and reviews of formal organizational policies and practices.

Keywords: academia, equity, Eurasia, gender audit, gender mainstreaming, Kazakhstan, policy, time-use survey

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40660 Guests’ Perceptions of Service Quality Performance in Saudi Hotels: Testing the Relation with Brand Loyalty, and Gender through SERVPERF

Authors: Mohamed Mohsen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the level of service quality performance from the perspectives of hotel guests. The aim is to examine hotel guests’ perceptions of service quality performance and its relation with their brand loyalty and gender. The study utilized the instrument of SERVPERF developed by Cronin and Taylor (1992) to measure service quality performance. The study was conducted in three upscale hotels in Saudi Arabia. The study found that service quality performance is significantly correlated to both brand loyalty and gender of hotel guests. The study also found that loyal and female hotel guests have perceptions of service quality performance than do non-loyal and male hotel guests. This research is the first empirical study in the Middle East that links service quality performance with brand loyalty and gender of hotel guests.

Keywords: service quality, SERVPERF, customer satisfaction, brand loyalty, gender

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40659 'Gender' and 'Gender Equalities': Conceptual Issues

Authors: Moustafa Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss and question some of the widely accepted concepts within the conceptual framework of gender from terminological, scientific, and Muslim cultural perspectives, and to introduce a new definition and a model of gender in the Arab and Muslim societies. This paper, therefore, uses a generic methodology and document analysis and comes in three sections and a conclusion. The first section discusses some of the terminological issues in the conceptual framework of gender. The second section highlights scientific issues, introduces a definition and a model of gender, whereas the third section offers Muslim cultural perspectives on some issues related to gender in the Muslim world. The paper, then, concludes with findings and recommendations reached so far.

Keywords: gender definition, gender equalities, sex-gender separability, fairness-based model of gender

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40658 The Erasure of Sex and Gender Minorities by Misusing Sex and Gender in Public Health

Authors: Tessalyn Morrison, Alexis Dinno, Taurica Salmon

Abstract:

Sex and gender conflation continue to perpetuate the invisibility of gender minorities and obscure information about the ways that biological sex and gender affect health. The misuse of sex and gender terms, and their respective binaries, can yield inaccurate results. But more importantly, it contributes to the erasure of sex and gender minority health experiences. This paper discusses ways in which public health researchers can use sex and gender terms correctly and center the health experiences of intersex, transgender, non binary, and a-gender individuals. It includes promoting sensitivity in approaching minority communities, improving survey questions, and collaborating with sex and gender minority communities to improve research quality and participant experiences. Improving our standards for the quality of sex and gender term usage and centering sex and gender minorities in public health research are imperative to address the health inequalities faced by sex and gender minorities.

Keywords: epidemiology, gender, intersex, research methods, sex, transgender

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40657 Gender Diversity in Early Years Education: An Exploratory Study Applied to Preschool Curriculum System in Romania

Authors: Emilia-Gheorghina Negru

Abstract:

As an EU goal, gender diversity in early year’s education aims and promotes equality of chances and respect for gender peculiarities of the pupils which are involved in formal educational activities. Early year’s education, as the first step to the Curriculum, prints to teachers the need to identify the role of the gender dimension on this stage, depending on the age level of preschool children through effective, complex, innovative and analytical awareness of gender diversity teaching and management strategies. Through gender educational work we, as teachers, will examine the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the gender development of school-aged children. PATHS and a school-based preventive intervention model are necessary to be designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand equality and gender concepts. Our teachers must create an intervention model and provide PATHS lessons during the school year. Results of the intervention will be effective for both low- and high-risk children in improving their range of math’s skills for girls and vocabulary, fluency and emotional part for boys in discussing gender experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of equality in gender area, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of gender.

Keywords: gender, gender differences, gender equality, gender role, gender stereotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
40656 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society, gender role, Chinese culture

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40655 Influences on Occupational Identity through Trans and Gender Diverse Identity: A Qualitative Study about Work Experiences of Trans and Gender Diverse Individuals

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Work experiences and satisfaction as well as the feeling of belonging has been narrowly explored from the perspective of trans and gender diverse individuals. Hence, the study investigates the relationship of values, attitudes, and norms of occupational environments and the working identity of trans and gender diverse people of the Australian workforce. Based on 22 semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals regarding their work and career experiences, a first insight about their feeling of belonging through commonality in the workplace could be established. Communality between the values, attitudes and norms of a trans and gender diverse individuals working identities and profession, organization and working environment could increase the feeling of belonging. Further reflection and evaluation of trans and gender diverse identities in the workplace need to be considered to create an equitable and inclusive workplace of the future. Consequently, an essential development step for the future of work and its fundamental values of diversity, inclusion, and belonging will consist of the acknowledgement and inclusion of trans and gender diverse people as part of a broader social identity of the workplace.

Keywords: belonging, future of work, working identity, trans and gender diverse identity

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40654 Dialect and Gender Variations in the Place and Manner of Articulation of the Korean Fricatives

Authors: Kyung-Im Han

Abstract:

This study examines dialect and gender variations in the place and manner of articulation between the two Korean fricatives, /s/ and /s’/, as produced by speakers of the Daegu and Jeju dialects. The acoustic parameters of center of gravity and skewness for the place of articulation, and the rise time and the amplitude rise slope for the manner of articulation were measured. The study results revealed a gender effect, but no dialect effect, for the center of gravity and the skewness. No main effect for either the gender or dialect was found for the rise time and the amplitude rise slope. These findings indicated that, with regard to the place of articulation, Korean fricative sound differences are a gender distinction, not a dialectal one.

Keywords: dialect, gender, Korean fricative, manner of articulation, place of articulation, spectral moments

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40653 Effect of Gender Norms and Gender Equality on Depression and Quality of Life among Young and Old Married Couples

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen, Fatima Zahra Khan, Hamida Bano, Faiza Anjum, Sara Tahir, Kainat Umar, Uzma Azam

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gender norms and gender equality on depression and quality of life among young and old married couples. The sample consisted of 60 old and 100 young married couples. It was mainly conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. However, since it was convenient and snowball sampling, we were able to get the data from other cities of Pakistan as well. By using Beck Depression Scale (Aaron T. Beck), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske,1996), and Gender Norms Attitude Scale(Waszak et al., 2000). It was found that the old couples have a high quality of life than young couples, which further proved them to have positive attitude towards gender equality, negative attitude towards gender norms and low level of depression. Also, couples having positive attitude towards gender equality have high level of satisfaction with life than the ones having negative attitude towards gender norms, who have low level of depression. Also, having a negative attitude towards gender norms has adverse effects on the level of depression. To achieve a high quality of life, it would be helpful to evolve with the world, especially with respect to the concepts of gender norms and equality.

Keywords: depression, gender equality, gender norms, married couples, quality of life

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40652 Relationship between Static Balance and Body Characteristics in the Elderly

Authors: J. W. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, Y. J. Ho, H. M. Jeon, G. M. Eom

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anthropometry with static balance in the elderly and their possible gender difference. Forty six subjects (23 men and 23 women) participated in this study. COP (Center of Pressure) was measured on a force-platform during quiet feet-together standing. As outcome measures, mean distance were derived from the COP. Weight was significantly correlated with postural variable only in the elderly men. This result suggests that the gender should be considered when normalizing postural variables.

Keywords: body characteristics, postural balance, elderly, gender difference

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40651 A Detailed Study of Sexism in Mizo Language

Authors: H. C. Laltleipuii, Lalruatdiki Siakeng

Abstract:

Mizo is a language spoken by the natives of Mizoram in North-East India. The Mizo society is a patriarchal society and hence is encumbered with trails of sexism in its language. Sexist language expresses discrimination on the basis of gender. While women are primarily affected, it is not however limited to just the female gender. This paper focuses on the sexist language that reflects the discrimination of women in the male-dominated, male-centered society of the Mizo. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize with details, sexism that can be found in three aspects of language: in the naming of animate and inanimate objects or words in general, in the idioms and phrases and proverbs. This study will also take into account the gender neutral terms that are in use in the language.

Keywords: gender, Mizo, patriarchy, sexism

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40650 Socio-Cultural and Religious Contributions to Gender Wage Gap: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: R. Alothaim, T. Mishra

Abstract:

Different researchers have reviewed the gender wage gap since early days between women and men to point out their difference to help bring about equality in production among them. Many fingers have been pointed out towards culture and religion as one of the major factors contributing to the gender wage gap throughout the years passed. Recent research has been done to give out equalization to this gap between men and women. The gender wage gap has raised serious concerns among nations and societies. Additionally, data, methodology and time periods have been affected by the gender wage gap, thus needing special decision making to help in the meta-study in the provision of quantitative review. Quality indicators have played a crucial role towards the education through stressing on enough consideration to help give a solution of equality and worth in the research study. The different research reviewed have given enough evidence and impact to point out that the major causes of this gender wage gap has resulted due to culture. On the other pedestal, religion may play a role to the issues of gender wage gap but with more emphasis on culture playing the bigger part. Furthermore, social status of individual has contributed to the wage gap difference between men and women. Labor market has played a vital role in empowering women, leading to the lower rate of the raw wage difference in the recent years.

Keywords: culture, gender wage gap, social, religion

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40649 Teacher's Gender and Primary School Pupils Achievement in Social Studies and Its Educational Implications on Pupils

Authors: Elizabeth Oyenike Abegunrin

Abstract:

This study is borne out of the dire need to improve the academic achievement of pupils in social studies. The paper attempted to reconcile the lacuna in teacher’s gender and primary school pupils’ achievement. With specific reference to Social Studies classroom, the aim of this study was to detail how pupils’ achievement is a function of the teacher’s gender as well as to establish the link (if any) between teacher’s gender and pupils’ educational achievement. The significance of this was to create gender-template standard for teachers, school owners, administrators and policy makers to follow in the course of engendering pupils’ achievement in Social Studies. By adopting a quasi-experimental research design, a sample of two hundred pupils was selected across five primary schools in Education District I, Lagos State and assigned to experimental and control groups. A 40-item Gender and Social Studies Achievement Test (GSSAT) was used to obtain data from the pupils. Having analyzed the data collected using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), a reliability of 0.78 was obtained. Result revealed that teacher’s gender (male/female) had no significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Social Studies and that there was significant interaction effect of teacher’s commitment devoid of gender on the general education output of pupils in Social Studies. Taken together, the results revealed that there is a high degree correlation between teacher’s commitment and pupils academic achievement in social studies, and not gender-based. The study recommended that social studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional strategies and use more innovative instructional methods and techniques that will give the pupils equal opportunities to excel in social studies, rather than their gender differences.

Keywords: gender, academic achievement, social studies, primary school

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40648 Inclusion of Transgender in Mainstream Secondary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions and Issues

Authors: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

Abstract:

After the first wave of the feminist movement, gender has become one of the most important issues to be researched in social science. Many gender theories have been invented and opened a new window to look at. These works showed how gender is a social construct, how gender has been used to oppress, how to rule. While it's the education system’s duty to guide students to understand the concept of gender, it sometimes shows gender-based discrimination. Transgenders exclusion from educational institutes of Bangladesh justifies this very statement. This study aims to figure out how people perceive transgenders’ identity, their inclusion in secondary schools, as well as the underlying barriers in the pathway of inclusion in the context of Bangladesh. A qualitative approach was taken to explore different perspectives towards transgender inclusion from several stakeholders such as students, parents, and teachers of secondary schools and transgenders as well. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview by convenient sampling. 15 students, 10 parents, and 5 teachers were selected from Bangla Medium school as well as from Madrasha. Collected data were analyzed thematically and were run by experts of gender, education, and psychology to identify the core barriers of inclusion. The study revealed that most of the students, teachers, and parents lacked the knowledge of non-binary gender identities, and they showed unwillingness towards the inclusion of transgender in schools because of the cultural context of Bangladesh. Moreover, this study suggests future initiatives to be taken to ensure the inclusion of transgenders in a secondary school in our country and analyzes it through the lens of feminist theories.

Keywords: education, gender, inclusion, transgender

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40647 An Analysis of Lexical and Grammatical Gender Bias in German Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Networks

Authors: Freya Thießen, Johannes Schrumpf

Abstract:

Gender bias in natural language processing neural networks based on the Transformer architecture has been the focus of recent research. So far, primarily language models trained on the English language has been investigated and found to possess biased representations with regard to gender. Linguistic analysis hints at the possibility that due to semantic and grammatical differences between the German and English languages, BERT networks trained on German-language material may possess different gender bias properties than English BERT networks. This study investigates the impact of lexical and grammatical forms of gender information on bias in German-BERT, a BERT network trained for natural language processing of the German language. Through an analysis of the principal components of German-BERT embeddings, we show that gender bias exists in German-BERT in the presence of grammatical gender information and lexical gender stereotypes.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethical machine learning, gender bias, German language-specific bias, natural language processing

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40646 Gender Responsiveness of Water, Sanitation Policies and Legal Frameworks at Makerere University

Authors: Harriet Kebirungi, Majaliwa Jackson-Gilbert Mwanjalolo, S. Livingstone Luboobi, Richard Joseph Kimwaga, Consolata Kabonesa

Abstract:

This paper assessed gender responsiveness of water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks at Makerere University, Uganda. The objectives of the study were to i) examine the gender responsiveness of water and sanitation related policies and frameworks implemented at Makerere University; and ii) assess the challenges faced by the University in customizing national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks into University policies. A cross-sectional gender-focused study design was adopted. A checklist was developed to analyze national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks and University based policies. In addition, primary data was obtained from Key informants at the Ministry of Water and Environment and Makerere University. A gender responsive five-step analytical framework was used to analyze the collected data. Key findings indicated that the policies did not adequately address issues of gender, water and sanitation and the policies were gender neutral consistently. The national policy formulation process was found to be gender blind and not backed by situation analysis of different stakeholders including higher education institutions like Universities. At Makerere University, due to lack of customized and gender responsive water and sanitation policy and implementation framework, there were gender differences and deficiencies in access to and utilization of water and sanitation facilities. The University should take advantage of existing expertise within them to customize existing national water policies and gender, and water and sanitation sub-sector strategy. This will help the University to design gender responsive, culturally acceptable and environmental friendly water and sanitation systems that provide adequate water and sanitation facilities that address the needs and interests of male and female students.

Keywords: gender, Makerere University, policies, water, sanitation

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40645 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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