Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 191

Search results for: Christian Zimmer

41 Lessons from Farmers Performing Agroforestry for Reclamation of Gold Mine Spoils in Colombia

Authors: Bibiana Betancur-Corredor, Juan Carlos Loaiza, Manfred Denich, Christian Borgemeister


Alluvial gold mining generates a vast amount of deposits that cover the natural soil and negatively impacts riverbeds and valleys, causing loss of livelihood opportunities for farmers of these regions. In Colombia, more than 79,000 ha are affected by alluvial gold mining, therefore developing strategies to return this land to productivity is of crucial importance for the country. A novel restoration strategy has been created by a mining company, where the land is restored through the establishment of agroforestry systems, in which agricultural crops and livestock are combined to complement reforestation in the area. The purpose of this study is to capture the knowledge of farmers who perform agroforestry in areas with deposits created by alluvial gold mining activities. Semi structured interviews were conducted with farmers with regard to the following: indicators of soil fertility, management practices, soil heterogeneity, pest outbreaks and weeds. In order to compare the perceptions of soil fertility of farmers with physicochemical properties of soils, the farmers were asked to identify spots within their farms that have exhibited good and poor yields. Soil samples were collected in order to correlate farmer’s perceptions with soil physicochemical properties. The findings suggest that the main challenge that farmers face is the identification of fertile soil for crop establishment. They identify the fertile soil through visually analyzing soil color and compaction as well as the use of spontaneous growth of specific plants as indicator of soil fertility. For less fertile areas, nitrogen fixing plants are used as green manure to restore soil fertility for crop establishment. The findings of this study imply that if gold mining is followed by reclamation practices that involve the successful establishment of productive farmlands, agricultural productivity of these lands might improve, increasing food security of the affected communities.

Keywords: Knowledge, Mining, Agroforestry, Restoration

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40 Towards a Critical Disentanglement of the ‘Religion’ Nexus in the Global East

Authors: Daan F. Oostveen


‘Religion’ as a term is not native to the Global East. The concept ‘religion’ is both understood in its meaning of ‘religious traditions’, commonly referring to the ‘World Religions’ and in its adjective meaning ‘the religious’ or ‘religiosity’ as a separate domain of human culture, commonly contrasted to the secular. Though neither of these understandings are native to the historical worldviews of East Asia, their development in modern Western scholarship has had an enormous impact on the self-understanding of cultural diversity in the Global East as well. One example is the identification and therefore elevation to the status of World Religion of ‘Buddhism’ which connected formerly dispersed religious practices throughout the Global East and subsumed them under this powerful label. On the other hand, we see how popular religiosity, shamanism and hybrid cultural expressions have become excluded from genuine religion; this had an immense impact on the sense of legitimacy of these practices, which became sometimes labeled as superstition are rejected as magic. Our theoretical frameworks on religion in the Global East do not always consider the complex power dynamics between religious actors, both elites and lay expressions of religion in everyday life, governments and religious studies scholars. In order to get a clear image of how religiosity functions in the context of the Global East, we have to take into account these power dynamics. What is important in particular is the issue of religious identity or absence of religious identity. The self-understanding of religious actors in the Global East is often very different from what scholars of religion observe. Religious practice, from an etic perspective, is often unrelated to religious identification from an emic perspective. But we also witness the rise of Christian churches in the Global East, in which religious identity and belonging does play a pivotal role. Finally, religion in the Global East has since the beginning of the 20th Century been conceptualized as the ‘other’ or republicanism or Marxist-Maoist ideology. It is important not to deny the key role of colonial thinking in the process of religion formation in the Global East. In this paper, it is argued that religious realities constituted emerging as a result from our theory of religion, and that these religious realities in turn inform our theory. Therefore, the relationship between phenomenology of religion and theory of religion can never be disentangled. In fact, we have to acknowledge that our conceptualizations of religious diversity are always already influenced by our valuation of those cultural expressions that we have come to call ‘religious’.

Keywords: Religion, Secularity, global east, religious belonging

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39 Role of Autophagic Lysosome Reformation for Cell Viability in an in vitro Infection Model

Authors: Muhammad Awais Afzal, Lorena Tuchscherr De Hauschopp, Christian Hübner


Introduction: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent degradation pathway, which can be induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stressors in living systems to adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. In the context of inflammatory stress, autophagy contributes to the elimination of invading pathogens, the regulation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, and regulation of inflammasome activity as well as tissue damage repair. Lysosomes can be recycled from autolysosomes by the process of autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which depends on the presence of several proteins including Spatacsin. Thus ALR contributes to the replenishment of lysosomes that are available for fusion with autophagosomes in situations of increased autophagic turnover, e.g., during bacterial infections, inflammatory stress or sepsis. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether ALR plays a role for cell survival in an in-vitro bacterial infection model. Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from wild-type mice and Spatacsin (Spg11-/-) knockout mice. Wild-type MEFs and Spg11-/- MEFs were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (multiplication of infection (MOI) used was 10). After 8 and 16 hours of infection, cell viability was assessed on BD flow cytometer through propidium iodide intake. Bacterial intake by cells was also calculated by plating cell lysates on blood agar plates. Results: in-vitro infection of MEFs with Staphylococcus aureus showed a marked decrease of cell viability in ALR deficient Spatacsin knockout (Spg11-/-) MEFs after 16 hours of infection as compared to wild-type MEFs (n=3 independent experiments; p < 0.0001) although no difference was observed for bacterial intake by both genotypes. Conclusion: Suggesting that ALR is important for the defense of invading pathogens e.g. S. aureus, we observed a marked increase of cell death in an in-vitro infection model in cells with compromised ALR.

Keywords: autophagy, bacterial infections, Staphylococcus aureus, autophagic lysosome reformation

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38 Occupational Heat Stress Condition According to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Textile Processing Unit: A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

Authors: Dharmendra Jariwala, Robin Christian


Thermal exposure is a common problem in every manufacturing industry where heat is used in the manufacturing process. In developing countries like India, a lack of awareness regarding the proper work environmental condition is observed among workers. Improper planning of factory building, arrangement of machineries, ventilation system, etc. play a vital role in the rise of temperature within the manufacturing areas. Due to the uncontrolled thermal stress, workers may be subjected to various heat illnesses from mild disorder to heat stroke. Heat stress is responsible for the health risk and reduction in production. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and relative humidity are used to evaluate heat stress conditions. WBGT index is a weighted average of natural wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, which are measured with standard instrument QuestTemp 36 area stress monitor. In this study textile processing units have been selected in the industrial estate in the Surat city. Based on the manufacturing process six locations were identified within the plant at which process was undertaken at 120°C to 180°C. These locations were jet dying machine area, stenter machine area, printing machine, looping machine area, washing area which generate process heat. Office area was also selected for comparision purpose as a sixth location. Present Study was conducted in the winter season and summer season for day and night shift. The results shows that average WBGT index was found above Threshold Limiting Value (TLV) during summer season for day and night shift in all three industries except office area. During summer season highest WBGT index of 32.8°C was found during day shift and 31.5°C was found during night shift at printing machine area. Also during winter season highest WBGT index of 30°C and 29.5°C was found at printing machine area during day shift and night shift respectively.

Keywords: Textile Industry, Thermal Stress, relative humidity, WBGT

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37 The Need of Sustainable Mining: Communities, Government and Legal Mining in Central Andes of Peru

Authors: Klaus Greve, Christian Borgemeister, Melissa R. Quispe-Zuniga, Daniel Callo-Concha


The Peruvian Andes have a high potential for mining, but many of the mining areas overlay with campesino community lands, being these key actors for agriculture and livestock production. Lead by economic incentives, some communities are renting their lands to mining companies for exploration or exploitation. However, a growing number of campesino communities, usually social and economically marginalized, have developed resistance, alluding consequences, such as water pollution, land-use change, insufficient economic compensation, etc. what eventually end up in Socio-Environmental Conflicts (SEC). It is hypothesized that disclosing the information on environmental pollution and enhance the involvement of communities in the decision-making process may contribute to prevent SEC. To assess whether such complains are grounded on the environmental impact of mining activities, we measured the heavy metals concentration in 24 indicative samples from rivers that run across mining exploitations and farming community lands. Samples were taken during the 2016 dry season and analyzed by inductively-coupled-plasma-atomic-emission-spectroscopy. The results were contrasted against the standards of monitoring government institutions (i.e., OEFA). Furthermore, we investigated the water/environmental complains related to mining in the neighboring 14 communities. We explored the relationship between communities and mining companies, via open-ended interviews with community authorities and non-participatory observations of community assemblies. We found that the concentrations of cadmium (0.023 mg/L), arsenic (0.562 mg/L) and copper (0.07 mg/L), surpass the national water quality standards for Andean rivers (0.00025 mg/L of cadmium, 0.15 mg/L of arsenic and 0.01 mg/L of copper). 57% of communities have posed environmental complains, but 21% of the total number of communities were receiving an annual economic benefit from mining projects. However, 87.5% of the communities who had posed complains have high concentration of heavy metals in their water streams. The evidence shows that mining activities tend to relate to the affectation and vulnerability of campesino community water streams, what justify the environmental complains and eventually the occurrence of a SEC.

Keywords: Water, mining companies, socio-environmental conflict, campesino community

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36 Affective Robots: Evaluation of Automatic Emotion Recognition Approaches on a Humanoid Robot towards Emotionally Intelligent Machines

Authors: Silvia Santano Guillén, Luigi Lo Iacono, Christian Meder


One of the main aims of current social robotic research is to improve the robots’ abilities to interact with humans. In order to achieve an interaction similar to that among humans, robots should be able to communicate in an intuitive and natural way and appropriately interpret human affects during social interactions. Similarly to how humans are able to recognize emotions in other humans, machines are capable of extracting information from the various ways humans convey emotions—including facial expression, speech, gesture or text—and using this information for improved human computer interaction. This can be described as Affective Computing, an interdisciplinary field that expands into otherwise unrelated fields like psychology and cognitive science and involves the research and development of systems that can recognize and interpret human affects. To leverage these emotional capabilities by embedding them in humanoid robots is the foundation of the concept Affective Robots, which has the objective of making robots capable of sensing the user’s current mood and personality traits and adapt their behavior in the most appropriate manner based on that. In this paper, the emotion recognition capabilities of the humanoid robot Pepper are experimentally explored, based on the facial expressions for the so-called basic emotions, as well as how it performs in contrast to other state-of-the-art approaches with both expression databases compiled in academic environments and real subjects showing posed expressions as well as spontaneous emotional reactions. The experiments’ results show that the detection accuracy amongst the evaluated approaches differs substantially. The introduced experiments offer a general structure and approach for conducting such experimental evaluations. The paper further suggests that the most meaningful results are obtained by conducting experiments with real subjects expressing the emotions as spontaneous reactions.

Keywords: Emotion recognition, Affective Computing, Social Robots, Humanoid Robot, human-robot-interaction (HRI)

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35 Manager-Sensitive Theological Curricula: Rethinking Pastoral Care for Christians in High Positions Based on a Namibian Case Study

Authors: Florence Matsveru


The 21st-century church in Africa is faced with a myriad of challenges, which need attention. One of those challenges is pastoral ministry to congregants in high positions. This paper is based on a Ph.D. study entitled, ‘Wellbeing and work performance of Christians in managerial positions: A Namibian case study’ conducted between 2015 and 2018. The study was conducted with 32 purposively selected Christians working in managerial positions in Ohangwena Region, Namibia. The study employed a mixed-methods approach, i.e., both qualitative (to get participants’ feelings and perceptions) and quantitative (to get proportions of the experiences and perceptions). The research process involved a questionnaire survey and interviews. The study revealed that Christians in managerial positions have both common and unique experiences in three spheres: the workplace, the family and the church. The experiences lead to physical, emotional, psychological, social and spiritual needs. The findings also showed that some of the expectations placed upon Christians in managerial positions in the church may be unrealistic, while at the same time this group of congregants want to use their work experiences for the benefit of the church. A worrying finding was that pastors are generally not well-trained for ministry to congregants in high positions. Since these were perceptions of the participants (some of whom were also pastors), the researcher went further to do a short internet survey of the curricula of a number of theological colleges in Southern Africa. This survey did not show any ‘manager-sensitive’ modules in the surveyed colleges. Theological education for pastors, especially in African theological institutions, seems to ignore the unique needs of congregants in high positions. This paper argues that the needs of Christians in high positions should be considered in pastoral care and that theological education is key in equipping pastors with the necessary knowledge and skills. This paper is, therefore, a call to theological institutions to include ministry to people in high positions in their curricula. Pastors who are already beyond theological school may find it helpful to attend or hold workshops that focus on congregants in high positions so that this kind of 'sheep' will find good pasture in the church. A paper of this nature helps to strengthen pastoral ministry and to enhance the relevance of theological education.

Keywords: African, Christian managers, theological curricula, pastoral care

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34 An Effective Preventive Program of HIV/AIDS among Hill Tribe Youth, Thailand

Authors: Tawatchai Apidechkul


This operational research was conducted and divided into two phases: the first phase aimed to determine the risk behaviors used a cross-sectional study design, following by the community participatory research design to develop the HIV/AIDS preventive model among the Akha youths. The instruments were composed of completed questionnaires and assessment forms that were tested for validity and reliability before use. Study setting was Jor Pa Ka and Saen Suk Akha villages, Mae Chan District, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Study sample were the Akha youths lived in the villages. Means and chi-square test were used for the statistical testing. Results: Akha youths in the population mobilization villages live in agricultural families with low income and circumstance of narcotic drugs. The average age was 16 (50.00%), 51.52% Christian, 48.80% completed secondary school, 43.94% had annual family income of 30,000-40,000 baht. Among males, 54.54% drank, 39.39% smoked, 7.57% used amphetamine, first sexual intercourse reported at 14 years old, 50.00% had 2-5 partners, 62.50% had unprotected sex (no-condom). Reasons of unprotected sex included not being able to find condom, unawareness of need to use condoms, and dislike. 28.79% never been received STI related information, 6.06% had STI. Among females, 15.15% drank, 28.79% had sexual intercourse and had first sexual intercourse less than 15 year old. 40.00% unprotected sex (no-condom), 10.61% never been received STI related information, and 4.54% had STI. The HIV/AIDS preventive model contained two components. Peer groups among the youths were built around interests in sports. Improving knowledge would empower their capability and lead to choices that would result in HIV/AIDS prevention. The empowering model consisted of 4 courses: a. human reproductive system and its hygiene, b. risk-avoid skills, family planning, and counseling techniques, c. HIV/AIDS and other STIs, d. drugs and related laws and regulations. The results of the activities found that youths had a greater of knowledge and attitude levels for HIV/AIDS prevention with statistical significance (χ2-τεστ= 12.87, p-value= 0.032 and χ2-τεστ= 9.31, p-value<0.001 respectively). A continuous and initiative youths capability development program is the appropriate process to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in youths, particularly in the population who have the specific of language and culture.

Keywords: AIV/AIDS, preventive program, effective, hill tribe

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33 Flood Hazards, Vulnerability and Adaptations in Upper Imo River Basin of South Eastern Nigera Introduction

Authors: Christian N. Chibo


Imo River Basin is located in South Eastern Nigeria comprising of 11 states of Imo, Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, Edo, Rivers, Cross river, AkwaIbom, Bayelsa, Delta, and Bayelsa states. The basin has a fluvial erosional system dominated by powerful rivers coming down from steep slopes in the area. This research investigated various hazards associated with flood, the vulnerable areas, elements at risk of flood and various adaptation strategies adopted by local inhabitants to cope with the hazards. The research aim is to identify, examine and assess flood hazards, vulnerability and adaptations in the Upper Imo River Basin. The study identified the role of elevation in cause of flood, elements at risk of flood as well as examine the effectiveness or otherwise of the adaptation strategies for coping with the hazards. Data for this research is grouped as primary and secondary. Their various methods of generation are field measurement, questionnaire, library websites etc. Other types of data were generated from topographical, geological, and Digital Elevation model (DEM) maps, while the hydro meteorological data was sourced from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Meteorological stations of Geography and Environmental Management Departments of Imo State University and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education. 800 copies of questionnaire were distributed using systematic sampling to 8 locations used for the pilot survey. About 96% of the questionnaire were retrieved and used for the study. 13 flood events were identified in the study area. Their causes, years and dates of events were documented in the text, and the damages they caused were evaluated. The study established that for each flood event, there is over 200mm of rain observed on the day of the flood and the day before the flood. The study also observed that the areas that situate at higher elevation (See DEM) are less prone to flood hazards while areas at low elevations are more prone to flood hazards. Elements identified to be at risk of flood are agricultural land, residential dwellings, retail trading and related services, public buildings and community services. The study thereby recommends non settlement at flood plains and flood prone areas and rearrangement of land use activities in the upper Imo River Basin among others

Keywords: Geomorphology, flood hazard, flood plain, Imo River Basin

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32 Sustainable Production of Algae through Nutrient Recovery in the Biofuel Conversion Process

Authors: Bagnoud-Velásquez Mariluz, Damergi Eya, Grandjean Dominique, Frédéric Vogel, Ludwig Christian


The sustainability of algae to biofuel processes is seriously affected by the energy intensive production of fertilizers. Large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus are required for a large-scale production resulting in many cases in a negative impact of the limited mineral resources. In order to meet the algal bioenergy opportunity it appears crucial the promotion of processes applying a nutrient recovery and/or making use of renewable sources including waste. Hydrothermal (HT) conversion is a promising and suitable technology for microalgae to generate biofuels. Besides the fact that water is used as a “green” reactant and solvent and that no biomass drying is required, the technology offers a great potential for nutrient recycling. This study evaluated the possibility to treat the water HT effluent by the growth of microalgae while producing renewable algal biomass. As already demonstrated in previous works by the authors, the HT aqueous product besides having N, P and other important nutrients, presents a small fraction of organic compounds rarely studied. Therefore, extracted heteroaromatic compounds in the HT effluent were the target of the present research; they were profiled using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The results indicate the presence of cyclic amides, piperazinediones, amines and their derivatives. The most prominent nitrogenous organic compounds (NOC’s) in the extracts were carefully examined by their effect on microalgae, namely 2-pyrrolidinone and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA). These two substances were prepared at three different concentrations (10, 50 and 150 ppm). This toxicity bioassay used three different microalgae strains: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus vacuolatus. The confirmed IC50 was for all cases ca. 75ppm. Experimental conditions were set up for the growth of microalgae in the aqueous phase by adjusting the nitrogen concentration (the key nutrient for algae) to fit that one established for a known commercial medium. The values of specific NOC’s were lowered at concentrations of 8.5 mg/L 2-pyrrolidinone; 1mg/L δ-valerolactam and 0.5 mg/L β-PEA. The growth with the diluted HT solution was kept constant with no inhibition evidence. An additional ongoing test is addressing the possibility to apply an integrated water cleanup step making use of the existent hydrothermal catalytic facility.

Keywords: Microalgae, hydrothermal process, nitrogenous organic compounds, nutrient recovery, renewable biomass

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31 Preparedness for Nurses to Adopt the Implementation of Inpatient Medication Order Entry (IPMOE) System at United Christian Hospital (UCH) in Hong Kong

Authors: Yiu K. C. Jacky, Tang S. K. Eric, W. Y. Tsang, C. Y. Li, C. K. Leung


Objectives : (1) To enhance the competence of nurses on using IPMOE for drug administration; (2) To ensure the transition on implementation of IPMOE in safer and smooth way hospital-wide. Methodology: (1) Well-structured Governance: To make provision for IPMOE implementation, multidisciplinary governance structure at Corporate and Local levels are well established. (2) Staff Engagement: A series of staff engagement events were conducted including Staff Forum, IPMOE Hospital Visit, Kick-off Ceremony and establishment of IPMOE Webpage for familiarizing the forthcoming implementation with frontline staff. (3) Well-organized training program: from Workshop to Workplace Two different IPMOE training programs were tailor-made which aimed at introducing the core features of administration module. Fifty-five identical training classes and six train-the-trainer workshops were organized at 2-3Q 2015. Lending Scheme on IPMOE hardware for hands-on practicing was launched and further extended the training from workshop to workplace. (4) Standard Guidelines and Workflow: the related workflow and guidelines are developed which facilitates users to acquire the competence towards IPMOE and fully familiarize with the standardized contingency plan. (5) Facilities and Equipment: The installations of IPMOE hardware were promptly arranged for rollout. Besides, IPMOE training venue was well-established for staff training. (6) Risk Management Strategy: UCH Medication Safety Forum is organized in December 2015 for sharing “Tricks & Tips” on IPMOE which further disseminate at webpage for arousal of medication safety. Hospital-wide annual audit on drug administration was planned to figure out the compliance and deliberate the rooms for improvement. Results: Through the comprehensive training plan, over 1,000 UCH nurses attended the training program with positive feedback. They agreed that their competence on using IPMOE was enhanced. By the end of November 2015, 28 wards (over 1,000 Inpatient-bed) involving departments of M&G, SUR, O&T and O&G have been successfully rolled out IPMOE in 5-month. A smooth and safe transition of implementation of IPMOE was achieved. Eventually, we all get prepared for embedding IPMOE into daily nursing and work altogether for medication safety at UCH.

Keywords: Nursing Informatics, Medication safety, drug administration, inpatient medication order entry system

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30 Maker Education as Means for Early Entrepreneurial Education: Evaluation Results from a European Pilot Action

Authors: Elisabeth Unterfrauner, Christian Voigt


Since the foundation of the first Fab Lab by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology about 17 years ago, the Maker movement has spread globally with the foundation of maker spaces and Fab Labs worldwide. In these workshops, citizens have access to digital fabrication technologies such as 3D printers and laser cutters to develop and test their own ideas and prototypes, which makes it an attractive place for start-up companies. Know-How is shared not only in the physical space but also online in diverse communities. According to the Horizon report, the Maker movement, however, will also have an impact on educational settings in the following years. The European project ‘DOIT - Entrepreneurial skills for young social innovators in an open digital world’ has incorporated key elements of making to develop an early entrepreneurial education program for children between the age of six and 16. The Maker pedagogy builds on constructive learning approaches, learning by doing principles, learning in collaborative and interdisciplinary teams and learning through trial and error where mistakes are acknowledged as learning opportunities. The DOIT program consists of seven consecutive elements. It starts with a motivation phase where students get motivated by envisioning the scope of their possibilities. The second step is about Co-design: Students are asked to collect and select potential ideas for innovations. In the Co-creation phase students gather in teams and develop first prototypes of their ideas. In the iteration phase, the prototype is continuously improved and in the next step, in the reflection phase, feedback on the prototypes is exchanged between the teams. In the last two steps, scaling and reaching out, the robustness of the prototype is tested with a bigger group of users outside of the educational setting and finally students will share their projects with a wider public. The DOIT program involves 1,000 children in two pilot phases at 11 pilot sites in ten different European countries. The comprehensive evaluation design is based on a mixed method approach with a theoretical backbone on Lackeus’ model of entrepreneurship education, which distinguishes between entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial knowledge. A pre-post-test with quantitative measures as well as qualitative data from interviews with facilitators, students and workshop protocols will reveal the effectiveness of the program. The evaluation results will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: maker movement, early entrepreneurial education, Fab Lab, maker education

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29 Managing Shallow Gas for Offshore Platforms via Fit-For-Purpose Solutions: Case Study for Offshore Malaysia

Authors: Noorizal Huang, Christian Girsang, Mohamad Razi Mansoor


Shallow gas seepage was first spotted at a central processing platform offshore Malaysia in 2010, acknowledged as Platform T in this paper. Frequent monitoring of the gas seepage was performed through remotely operated vehicle (ROV) baseline survey and a comprehensive geophysical survey was conducted to understand the characteristics of the gas seepage and to ensure that the integrity of the foundation at Platform T was not compromised. The origin of the gas back then was unknown. A soil investigation campaign was performed in 2016 to study the origin of the gas seepage. Two boreholes were drilled; a composite borehole to 150m below seabed for the purpose of soil sampling and in-situ testing and a pilot hole to 155m below the seabed, which was later converted to a fit-for-purpose relief well as an alternate migration path for the gas. During the soil investigation campaign, dissipation tests were performed at several layers which were potentially the source or migration path for the gas. Five (5) soil samples were segregated for headspace test, to identify the gas type which subsequently can be used to identify the origin of the gas. Dissipation tests performed at four depth intervals indicates pore water pressure less than 20 % of the effective vertical stress and appear to continue decreasing if the test had not been stopped. It was concluded that a low to a negligible amount of excess pore pressure exist in clayey silt layers. Results from headspace test show presence of methane corresponding to the clayey silt layers as reported in the boring logs. The gas most likely comes from biogenic sources, feeding on organic matter in situ over a large depth range. It is unlikely that there are large pockets of gas in the soil due to its homogeneous clayey nature and the lack of excess pore pressure in other permeable clayey silt layers encountered. Instead, it is more likely that when pore water at certain depth encounters a more permeable path, such as a borehole, it rises up through this path due to the temperature gradient in the soil. As the water rises the pressure decreases, which could cause gases dissolved in the water to come out of solution and form bubbles. As a result, the gas will have no impact on the integrity of the foundation at Platform T. The fit-for-purpose relief well design as well as adopting headspace testing can be used to address the shallow gas issue at Platform T in a cost effective and efficient manners.

Keywords: excess pore pressure, dissipation test, headspace test, relief well, shallow gas

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28 Cultural Heritage Resources for Tourism, Two Countries – Two Approaches: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Tourism Products in Turkey and Austria

Authors: Irfan Arikan, George Christian Steckenbauer


Turkey and Austria are examples for highly developed tourism destinations, where tourism providers use cultural heritage and regional natural resources to develop modern tourism products in order to be successful on increasingly competitive international tourism markets. The use and exploitation of these resources follow on the one hand international standards of tourism marketing (as ‘sustainability’). Therefore, we find highly comparable internationalized products in these destinations (like hotel products, museums, spas etc.). On the other hand, development standards and processes strongly depend on local, regional and national cultures, which influence the way how people work, cooperate, think and create. Thus, cultural factors also influence the attitude towards cultural heritage and natural resources and the way, how these resources are used for the creation of tourism products. This leads to differences in the development of tourism products on several levels: 1. In the selection of cultural heritage and natural resources for the product development process 2. In the processes, how tourism products are created 3. In the way, how providers and marketing organisations work with tourism products based on cultural heritage or natural resources. Aim of this paper is to discover differences in these dimensions by analysing and comparing examples of tourism products in Turkey and Austria, both countries with a highly developed, high professional tourism industry and rich experience of stakeholders in tourism industry in the field of product development and marketing. The cases are selected from the following fields: + Cultural tourism / heritage tourism + City tourism + Industrial heritage tourism + Nature and outdoor tourism + Health tourism The cases are analysed based on available secondary data (as several cases are scientifically described) and expert interviews with local and regional stakeholders of tourism industry and tourism experts. The available primary and secondary data will be analysed and displayed in a comparative structure that allows to derive answers to the above stated research question. The result of the project therefore will be a more precise picture about the influence of cultural differences on the use and exploitation of resources in the field of tourism that allows developing recommendations for tourism industry, which must be taken into consideration to assure cultural and natural resources are treated in a sustainable and responsible way. The authors will edit these culture-cross recommendations in form of a ‘check-list’ that can be used as a ‘guideline’ for tourism professionals in the field of product development and marketing and therefore connects theoretical research to the field of practical application and closes the gap between academic research and the field of tourism practice.

Keywords: Natural Resources, Turkey, Cultural Heritage, Austria

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27 Contributions of Natural and Human Activities to Urban Surface Runoff with Different Hydrological Scenarios (Orléans, France)

Authors: Mikael Motelica-Heino, Fabrice Muller, Audrey Guirimand-Dufour, Christian Défarge, Al-Juhaishi Mohammed


This study aims at improving the urban hydrological cycle of the Orléans agglomeration (France) and understanding the relationship between physical and chemical parameters of urban surface runoff and the hydrological conditions. In particular water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major dissolved cations and anions, and chemical and biological oxygen demands were monitored for three types of urban water discharges (wastewater treatment plant output (WWTP), storm overflow and stormwater outfall) under two hydrologic scenarii (dry and wet weather). The first results were obtained over a period of five months.Each investigated (Ormes and l’Egoutier) outfall represents an urban runoff source that receives water from runoff roads, gutters, the irrigation of gardens and other sources of flow over the Earth’s surface that drains in its catchments and carries it to the Loire River. In wet weather conditions there is rain water runoff and an additional input from the roof gutters that have entered the stormwater system during rainfall. For the comparison the results La Chilesse is a storm overflow that was selected in our study as a potential source of waste water which is located before the (WWTP).The comparison of the physical-chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), concentration of major cations and anions) together with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) helped to characterize sources of runoff waters in the different watersheds. It also helped to highlight the infiltration of wastewater in some stormwater systems that reject directly in the Loire River. The values of the conductivity measured in the outflow of Ormes were always higher than those measured in the other two outlets. The results showed a temporal variation for the Ormes outfall of conductivity from 1465 µS cm-1 in the dry weather flow to 650 µS cm-1 in the wet weather flow and also a spatial variation in the wet weather flow from 650 µS cm-1 in the Ormes outfall to 281 μS cm-1 in L’Egouttier outfall. The ultimate BOD (BOD28) showed a significant decrease in La Corne outfall from 210 mg L-1 in the wet weather flow to 75 mg L-1 in the dry weather flow because of the nutrient load that was transported by the runoff.

Keywords: Macronutrients, Urban Hydrology, COD, BOD, the Loire River, urban dry and wet weather discharges

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26 Developing Cultural Competence as Part of Nursing Studies: Language, Customs and Health Issues

Authors: Salam Hadid, Mohammad Khatib


Introduction: Developing nurses' cultural competence begins in their basic training and requires them to participate in an array of activities which raise their awareness and stimulate their interest, desire and curiosity about different cultures, by creating opportunities for intercultural meetings promoting the concept of 'culture' and its components, including recognition of cultural diversity and the legitimacy of the other. Importantly, professionals need to acquire specific cultural knowledge and thorough understanding of the values, norms, customs, beliefs and symbols of different cultures. Similarly, they need to be given opportunities to practice the verbal and non-verbal communication skills of other cultures according to their cultural codes. Such a system is being implemented as part of nursing studies at Zefat Academic College in two study frameworks; firstly, a course integrating nursing theory and practice in multicultural nursing; secondly, a course in learning the languages spoken in Israel focusing on medical and nursing terminology. Methods: Students participating in the 'Transcultural Nursing' course come from a variety of backgrounds: Jews, or Arabs, religious, or secular; Muslim, Christian, new immigrants, Ethiopians or from other cultural affiliations. They are required to present and discuss cultural practices that affect health. In addition, as part of the language course, students learn and teach their friends 5 spoken languages (Arabic, Russian, Amharian, Yidish, and Sign language) focusing on therapeutic interaction and communication using the vocabulary and concepts necessary for the therapeutic encounter. An evaluation of the process and the results was done using a structured questionnaire which includes series of questions relating to the contributions of the courses to their cultural knowledge, awareness and skills. 155 students completed the questionnaire. Results: A preliminary assessment of this educational system points an increase in cultural awareness and knowledge among the students as well as in their willingness to recognize the other's difference. A positive atmosphere of multiculturalism is reflected in students' mutual interest and respect was created. Students showed a deep understanding of cultural issues relating to health and care (consanguinity and genetics, food customs; cultural events, reincarnation, traditional treatments etc.). Most of the students were willing to recommend the courses to others and suggest some changes relating learning methods (more simulations, role playing and activities).

Keywords: Culture, Language, Cultural Competence, Nursing Education

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25 Targeting and Developing the Remaining Pay in an Ageing Field: The Ovhor Field Experience

Authors: Christian Ihwiwhu, Nnamdi Obioha, Udeme John, Edward Bobade, Oghenerunor Bekibele, Adedeji Awujoola, Ibi-Ada Itotoi


Understanding the complexity in the distribution of hydrocarbon in a simple structure with flow baffles and connectivity issues is critical in targeting and developing the remaining pay in a mature asset. Subtle facies changes (heterogeneity) can have a drastic impact on reservoir fluids movement, and this can be crucial to identifying sweet spots in mature fields. This study aims to evaluate selected reservoirs in Ovhor Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria, with the objective of optimising production from the field by targeting undeveloped oil reserves, bypassed pay, and gaining an improved understanding of the selected reservoirs to increase the company’s reservoir limits. The task at the Ovhor field is complicated by poor stratigraphic seismic resolution over the field. 3-D geological (sedimentology and stratigraphy) interpretation, use of results from quantitative interpretation, and proper understanding of production data have been used in recognizing flow baffles and undeveloped compartments in the field. The full field 3-D model has been constructed in such a way as to capture heterogeneities and the various compartments in the field to aid the proper simulation of fluid flow in the field for future production prediction, proper history matching and design of good trajectories to adequately target undeveloped oil in the field. Reservoir property models (porosity, permeability, and net-to-gross) have been constructed by biasing log interpreted properties to a defined environment of deposition model whose interpretation captures the heterogeneities expected in the studied reservoirs. At least, two scenarios have been modelled for most of the studied reservoirs to capture the range of uncertainties we are dealing with. The total original oil in-place volume for the four reservoirs studied is 157 MMstb. The cumulative oil and gas production from the selected reservoirs are 67.64 MMstb and 9.76 Bscf respectively, with current production rate of about 7035 bopd and 4.38 MMscf/d (as at 31/08/2019). Dynamic simulation and production forecast on the 4 reservoirs gave an undeveloped reserve of about 3.82 MMstb from two (2) identified oil restoration activities. These activities include side-tracking and re-perforation of existing wells. This integrated approach led to the identification of bypassed oil in some areas of the selected reservoirs and an improved understanding of the studied reservoirs. New wells have/are being drilled now to test the results of our studies, and the results are very confirmatory and satisfying.

Keywords: history matching, facies, flow baffle, bypassed pay, heterogeneities, reservoir limit

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24 Bringing German History to Tourists

Authors: Gudrun Görlitz, Christian Schölzel, Alexander Vollmar


Sites of Jewish Life in Berlin 1933-1945. Between Persecution and Self-assertion” was realized in a project funded by the European Regional Development Fund. A smartphone app, and a associated web site enable tourists and other participants of this educational offer to learn in a serious way more about the life of Jews in the German capital during the Nazi era. Texts, photos, video and audio recordings communicate the historical content. Interactive maps (both current and historical) make it possible to use predefined or self combined routes. One of the manifold challenges was to create a broad ranged guide, in which all detailed information are well linked with each other. This enables heterogeneous groups of potential users to find a wide range of specific information, corresponding with their particular wishes and interests. The multitude of potential ways to navigate through the diversified information causes (hopefully) the users to utilize app and web site for a second or third time and with a continued interest. Therefore 90 locations, a lot of them situated in Berlin’s city centre, have been chosen. For all of them text-, picture and/or audio/video material gives extensive information. Suggested combinations of several of these “site stories” are leading to the offer of detailed excursion routes. Events and biographies are also presented. A few of the implemented biographies are especially enriched with source material concerning the aspect of (forced) migration of these persons during the Nazi time. All this was done in a close and fruitful interdisciplinary cooperation of computer scientists and historians. The suggested conference paper aims to show the challenges shaping complex source material for practical use by different user-groups in a proper technical and didactic way. Based on the historical research in archives, museums, libraries and digital resources the quantitative dimension of the project can be sized as follows: The paper focuses on the following historiographical and technical aspects: - Shaping the text material didactically for the use in new media, especially a Smartphone-App running on differing platforms; - Geo-referencing of the sites on historical and current map material; - Overlay of old and new maps to present and find the sites; - Using Augmented Reality technologies to re-visualize destroyed buildings; - Visualization of black-/white-picture-material; - Presentation of historical footage and the resulting problems to need too much storage space; - Financial and juridical aspects in gaining copyrights to present archival material.

Keywords: History, German, tourists, smartphone app

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23 Adjustment of the Whole-Body Center of Mass during Trunk-Flexed Walking across Uneven Ground

Authors: Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Reinhard Blickhan, Astrid Zech


Despite considerable studies on the impact of imposed trunk posture on human walking, less is known about such locomotion while negotiating changes in ground level. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the VBCOM in response to a two-fold expected perturbation, namely alterations in body posture and in ground level. To this end, the kinematic data and ground reaction forces of twelve able participants were collected. We analyzed the vertical position of the body center of mass (VBCOM) from the ground determined by the body segmental analysis method relative to the laboratory coordinate system at touchdown and toe-off instants during walking across uneven ground — characterized by perturbation contact (a 10-cm visible drop) and pre- and post-perturbation contacts — in comparison to unperturbed level contact while maintaining three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). The VBCOM was normalized to the distance between the greater trochanter marker and the lateral malleoli marker at the instant of TD. Moreover, we calculated the backward rotation during step-down as the difference of the maximum of the trunk angle in the pre-perturbation contact and the minimal trunk angle in the perturbation contact. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed contact-specific effects of posture on the VBCOM at touchdown (F = 5.96, p = 0.00). As indicated by the analysis of simple main effects, during unperturbed level and pre-perturbation contacts, no between-posture differences for the VBCOM at touchdown were found. In the perturbation contact, trunk-flexed gaits showed a significant increase of VBCOM as compared to the pre-perturbation contact. In the post-perturbation contact, the VBCOM demonstrated a significant decrease in all gait postures relative to the preceding corresponding contacts with no between-posture differences. Main effects of posture revealed that the VBCOM at toe-off significantly decreased in trunk-flexed gaits relative to the regular erect gait. For the main effect of contact, the VBCOM at toe-off demonstrated changes across perturbation and post-perturbation contacts as compared to the unperturbed level contact. Furthermore, participants exhibited a backward trunk rotation during step-down possibly to control the angular momentum of their whole body. A more pronounced backward trunk rotation (2- to 3-fold compared with level contacts) in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated VBCOM during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. These results may shed light on the interaction between posture and locomotion in able gait, and specifically on the behavior of the body center of mass during perturbed locomotion.

Keywords: Walking, posture, perturbation, center of mass, uneven ground

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22 Principles for the Realistic Determination of the in-situ Concrete Compressive Strength under Consideration of Rearrangement Effects

Authors: Rabea Sefrin, Christian Glock, Juergen Schnell


The preservation of existing structures is of great economic interest because it contributes to higher sustainability and resource conservation. In the case of existing buildings, in addition to repair and maintenance, modernization or reconstruction works often take place in the course of adjustments or changes in use. Since the structural framework and the associated load level are usually changed in the course of the structural measures, the stability of the structure must be verified in accordance with the currently valid regulations. The concrete compressive strength of the existing structures concrete and the derived mechanical parameters are of central importance for the recalculation and verification. However, the compressive strength of the existing concrete is usually set comparatively low and thus underestimated. The reasons for this are too small numbers, and large scatter of material properties of the drill cores, which are used for the experimental determination of the design value of the compressive strength. Within a structural component, the load is usually transferred over the area with higher stiffness and consequently with higher compressive strength. Therefore, existing strength variations within a component only play a subordinate role due to rearrangement effects. This paper deals with the experimental and numerical determination of such rearrangement effects in order to calculate the concrete compressive strength of existing structures more realistic and economical. The influence of individual parameters such as the specimen geometry (prism or cylinder) or the coefficient of variation of the concrete compressive strength is analyzed in experimental small-part tests. The coefficients of variation commonly used in practice are adjusted by dividing the test specimens into several layers consisting of different concretes, which are monolithically connected to each other. From each combination, a sufficient number of the test specimen is produced and tested to enable evaluation on a statistical basis. Based on the experimental tests, FE simulations are carried out to validate the test results. In the frame of a subsequent parameter study, a large number of combinations is considered, which had not been investigated in the experimental tests yet. Thus, the influence of individual parameters on the size and characteristic of the rearrangement effect is determined and described more detailed. Based on the parameter study and the experimental results, a calculation model for a more realistic determination of the in situ concrete compressive strength is developed and presented. By considering rearrangement effects in concrete during recalculation, a higher number of existing structures can be maintained without structural measures. The preservation of existing structures is not only decisive from an economic, sustainable, and resource-saving point of view but also represents an added value for cultural and social aspects.

Keywords: existing structures, in-situ concrete compressive strength, rearrangement effects, recalculation

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21 Investigations on the Influence of Optimized Charge Air Cooling for a Diesel Passenger Car

Authors: Christian Doppler, Gernot Hirschl, Gerhard Zsiga


Starting from 2020, an EU-wide CO2-limitation of 95g/km is scheduled for the average of an OEMs passenger car fleet. Considering that, further measures of optimization on the diesel cycle will be necessary in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while keeping performance values adequate at the least. The present article deals with charge air cooling (CAC) on the basis of a diesel passenger car model in a 0D/1D-working process calculation environment. The considered engine is a 2.4 litre EURO VI diesel engine with variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (LP EGR). The object of study was the impact of charge air cooling on the engine working process at constant boundary conditions which could have been conducted with an available and validated engine model in AVL BOOST. Part load was realized with constant power and NOx-emissions, whereas full load was accomplished with a lambda control in order to obtain maximum engine performance. The informative results were used to implement a simulation model in Matlab/Simulink which is further integrated into a full vehicle simulation environment via coupling with ICOS (Independent Co-Simulation Platform). Next, the dynamic engine behavior was validated and modified with load steps taken from the engine test bed. Due to the modular setup in the Co-Simulation, different CAC-models have been simulated quickly with their different influences on the working process. In doing so, a new cooler variation isn’t needed to be reproduced and implemented into the primary simulation model environment, but is implemented quickly and easily as an independent component into the simulation entity. By means of the association of the engine model, longitudinal dynamics vehicle model and different CAC models (air/air & water/air variants) in both steady state and transient operational modes, statements are gained regarding fuel consumption, NOx-emissions and power behavior. The fact that there is no more need of a complex engine model is very advantageous for the overall simulation volume. Beside of the simulation with the mentioned demonstrator engine, there have also been conducted several experimental investigations on the engine test bench. Here the comparison of a standard CAC with an intake-manifold-integrated CAC was executed in particular. Simulative as well as experimental tests showed benefits for the water/air CAC variant (on test bed especially the intake manifold integrated variant). The benefits are illustrated by a reduced pressure loss and a gain in air efficiency and CAC efficiency, those who all lead to minimized emission and fuel consumption for stationary and transient operation.

Keywords: air/water-charge air cooler, co-simulation, diesel working process, EURO VI fuel consumption

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20 The Effects of Self-Reflections on Intercultural Communication Competency: A Case Study of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith

Authors: JaeYoon Park


The ability to communicate effectively across different cultures is a necessary skill in today’s increasingly globalized world. Intercultural communication competency (ICC) is a way of being that benefits all members of a society in their living, learning, and working environments as well as in the context of mediated communications. This study examines the effects of self-reflection processes on the improvement of intercultural communication skills focusing on college students at the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith. A total of sixty-nine students’ works were analyzed based on the data collected in the past three years (2016, 2017 and 2018). The students in the ‘Culture and Communication’ class, each spring, completed the Diversity Awareness Profile (DAP) survey as a pre- and post-test for the course. DAP is a self-assessment tool designed by Karen Stinson and widely used in college classes, companies, and organizations to evaluate an individual’s behaviors in various intercultural settings. It can assist individuals in becoming more aware of diversity issues and also provide a foundation for developing strategies for modifying any undesirable behavior they may discover in the assessment. In addition to the DAP surveys, the students also submitted self-reflection essays that discussed their own scores. The University of Arkansas-Fort Smith is a small regional university located in the Bible Belt of the United States. White, Christian, working-class students dominate its student population. The students, whose data were collected, were predominantly seniors in college majoring in either Media Communication or International Business. Approximately, 80% of the students increased their scores, and 42% of them moved forward to a new category. The findings also indicate that the students in the underrepresented groups (i.e., women, minority, and international students) show less change in their scores and behaviors than the rest of the students (i.e., white heterosexual male students). These findings, in most part, result from the fact that the underrepresented students were already aware of diversity and intercultural issues through their personal experiences before taking the class. The white heterosexual male students demonstrated the greatest improvements, judging from their DAP scores (pre- and post-tests) and self-reflection essays. Through the class assignments and discussions, which emphasized critical thinking and self-reflection, the latter group of students not only became more aware of the meaning of their own words and behaviors, but they were also able to develop greater proficiency in intercultural communication. This e-poster presentation will analyze the findings of this research data, and also discuss the pedagogical implications of such results.

Keywords: Cross-Cultural Communication, Self-Reflection, diversity awareness survey, underrepresented students

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19 An Analysis of Fundamentals and Factors of Positive Thinking and the Ways of Its Emergence in Islam and the New Testament

Authors: Zahra Mohagheghian, Fatema Agharebparast


The comparative study of religions is one of the ways which provides peace and makes the believers of religions closer together. Finding the common notions could be a foundation for the dialog among the monotheistic religions and a background to eliminate the misunderstandings and to reach common point of views. The cornerstone of all the common efforts of the believers of the religions is to reach an understanding for building a better world where true peace is established. So, the article seeks to verify the notion of positive thinking in the religious resources of Islam and Christianity. In order to understand the foundations of the religious teachings and to provide a better understanding among the believers, then, the article tries to discover the common fundamentals and the opposing points about the positive thinking in these two religions. We first try to explain the notion of positive thinking in Islam and Christianity and then offer recommended ways in both religions to create and to strengthen this way of thinking. As the different parts of the New Testament is not theologically homogeneous, this collection has been verified and explained in four different parts: Three Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke), John's thoughts, thoughts and ideas of Paul and finally the Christian sects . The findings of the survey show that the notion of positive thinking in the monotheistic religions of Islam and Christianity can be traced back by the keyword "hope". It is only the hope which could finally create the soul of positive attitude and thinking inside the humankind. This hope is accompanied by the prospect and causes the humankind to work hard to reach their goals. However, there are some opposing points in these two religions about the basic foundation of this true hope. From the Quran viewpoint, the main foundation of the hope is God and the human is obliged to follow his worldly goals in accordance with this foundation as well as faith to God and avoidance of committing sins. On the other hand, the basic foundation of hope in the Three Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) and the teachings of Paul is the promise of a coming Kingdom. Although there are some opposing views about the meaning of this as well as the ways to attain this hope, this hope is generally related to the purpose of human life and afterlife. The Christ, in the John's thoughts, is the source of hope and everybody, believing in God, must also have hope for Jesus Christ. Effects and functions of such hope are strengthening the spirit of love and kindness to others. Hence, in Christianity, the hope and positive thinking about the future, along with good deeds, reflects different viewpoints. On the other hand, in Quran, this is faith to God and fulfilling the Sharia orders which ignite and strengthen this hope and way of thinking. This is the base that continues nowadays with Vilāya and the love for Ahlulbeit in the Shiite views.

Keywords: Quran, god, new testament, positive thinking

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18 Public Values in Service Innovation Management: Case Study in Elderly Care in Danish Municipality

Authors: Christian T. Lystbaek


Background: The importance of innovation management has traditionally been ascribed to private production companies, however, there is an increasing interest in public services innovation management. One of the major theoretical challenges arising from this situation is to understand public values justifying public services innovation management. However, there is not single and stable definition of public value in the literature. The research question guiding this paper is: What is the supposed added value operating in the public sphere? Methodology: The study takes an action research strategy. This is highly contextualized methodology, which is enacted within a particular set of social relations into which on expects to integrate the results. As such, this research strategy is particularly well suited for its potential to generate results that can be applied by managers. The aim of action research is to produce proposals with a creative dimension capable of compelling actors to act in a new and pertinent way in relation to the situations they encounter. The context of the study is a workshop on public services innovation within elderly care. The workshop brought together different actors, such as managers, personnel and two groups of users-citizens (elderly clients and their relatives). The process was designed as an extension of the co-construction methods inherent in action research. Scenario methods and focus groups were applied to generate dialogue. The main strength of these techniques is to gather and exploit as much data as possible by exposing the discourse of justification used by the actors to explain or justify their points of view when interacting with others on a given subject. The approach does not directly interrogate the actors on their values, but allows their values to emerge through debate and dialogue. Findings: The public values related to public services innovation management in elderly care were identified in two steps. In the first step, identification of values, values were identified in the discussions. Through continuous analysis of the data, a network of interrelated values was developed. In the second step, tracking group consensus, we then ascertained the degree to which the meaning attributed to the value was common to the participants, classifying the degree of consensus as high, intermediate or low. High consensus corresponds to strong convergence in meaning, intermediate to generally shared meanings between participants, and low to divergences regarding the meaning between participants. Only values with high or intermediate degree of consensus were retained in the analysis. Conclusion: The study shows that the fundamental criterion for justifying public services innovation management is the capacity for actors to enact public values in their work. In the workshop, we identified two categories of public values, intrinsic value and behavioural values, and a list of more specific values.

Keywords: Public value, Co-creation, action research, public services innovation management

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17 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal


Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: Social ties, morbidity, Prevalence, multi-morbidity

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16 Factors Affecting Air Surface Temperature Variations in the Philippines

Authors: John Christian Lequiron, Gerry Bagtasa, Olivia Cabrera, Leoncio Amadore, Tolentino Moya


Changes in air surface temperature play an important role in the Philippine’s economy, industry, health, and food production. While increasing global mean temperature in the recent several decades has prompted a number of climate change and variability studies in the Philippines, most studies still focus on rainfall and tropical cyclones. This study aims to investigate the trend and variability of observed air surface temperature and determine its major influencing factor/s in the Philippines. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test was applied to monthly mean temperature of 17 synoptic stations covering 56 years from 1960 to 2015 and a mean change of 0.58 °C or a positive trend of 0.0105 °C/year (p < 0.05) was found. In addition, wavelet decomposition was used to determine the frequency of temperature variability show a 12-month, 30-80-month and more than 120-month cycles. This indicates strong annual variations, interannual variations that coincide with ENSO events, and interdecadal variations that are attributed to PDO and CO2 concentrations. Air surface temperature was also correlated with smoothed sunspot number and galactic cosmic rays, the results show a low to no effect. The influence of ENSO teleconnection on temperature, wind pattern, cloud cover, and outgoing longwave radiation on different ENSO phases had significant effects on regional temperature variability. Particularly, an anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow east of the Philippines during the peak and decay phase of El Niño (La Niña) events leads to the advection of warm southeasterly (cold northeasterly) air mass over the country. Furthermore, an apparent increasing cloud cover trend is observed over the West Philippine Sea including portions of the Philippines, and this is believed to lessen the effect of the increasing air surface temperature. However, relative humidity was also found to be increasing especially on the central part of the country, which results in a high positive trend of heat index, exacerbating the effects on human discomfort. Finally, an assessment of gridded temperature datasets was done to look at the viability of using three high-resolution datasets in future climate analysis and model calibration and verification. Several error statistics (i.e. Pearson correlation, Bias, MAE, and RMSE) were used for this validation. Results show that gridded temperature datasets generally follows the observed surface temperature change and anomalies. In addition, it is more representative of regional temperature rather than a substitute to station-observed air temperature.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, ENSO, air surface temperature, galactic cosmic rays, smoothed sunspot number

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15 Troubling Depictions of Gambian Womanhood in Dayo Forster’s Reading the Ceiling

Authors: A. Wolfe


Dayo Forster’s impressively crafted Reading the Ceiling (2007) enjoys a relatively high profile among Western readers. It is one of only a handful of Gambian novels to be published by an international publisher, Simon and Schuster of London, and was subsequently shortlisted for the Commonwealth Writer’s Best First Book Prize in 2008. It is currently available to US readers in print and as an e-book and has 167 ratings on Goodreads. This paper addresses the possible influence of the book on Western readers’ perception of The Gambia, or Africa in general, through its depiction of the conditions of Gambian women’s lives. Through a close reading of passages and analysis of imagery, intertextuality, and characterization in the book, the paper demonstrates that Forster portrays the culture of The Gambia as oppressively patriarchal and the prospects for young girls who stay in the country as extremely limited. Reading the Ceiling starts on Ayodele’s 18th birthday, the day she has planned to have sex for the first time. Most of the rest of the book is divided into three parts, each following the chain of events that occur after sex with a potential partner. Although Ayodele goes abroad for her education in each of the three scenarios, she ultimately capitulates to the patriarchal politics and demands of marriage and childrearing in The Gambia, settling for relationships with men she does not love, cooking and cleaning for husbands and children, and silencing her own opinions and desires in exchange for the familiar traditions of patriarchal—and, in one case, polygamous—marriage. Each scenario ends with resignation to death, as, after her mother’s funeral, Ayodele admits to herself that she will be next. Forster uses dust and mud imagery throughout the novel to indicate the dinginess of Ayodele’s life as a young woman, and then wife and mother, in The Gambia as well as the inescapability of this life. This depiction of earthen material is also present in the novel’s recounting of an oral tale about a mermaid captured by fishermen, a story that mirrors Ayodele’s ensnarement by traditional marriage customs and gender norms. A review of the fate of other characters in the novel reveals that Ayodele is not the only woman who becomes trapped by the expectations for women in The Gambia, as those who stay in the country end up subservient to their husbands and/or victims of men’s habitual infidelity. It is important to note that Reading the Ceiling is focused on the experiences of a minority—The Gambia’s middle class, Christian urban dwellers with money for education. Regardless of its limited scope, the novel clearly depicts The Gambia as a place where women are simply unable to successfully contend against traditional patriarchal norms. Although this novel evokes vivid imagery of The Gambia through original and compelling descriptions of food preparation, clothing, and scenery, it perhaps does little to challenge stereotypical perceptions of the lives of African women among a Western readership.

Keywords: Women, marriage, African literature, stereotypes, commonwealth literature

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14 Large-Scale Production of High-Performance Fiber-Metal-Laminates by Prepreg-Press-Technology

Authors: Christian Lauter, Corin Reuter, Shuang Wu, Thomas Troester


Lightweight construction became more and more important over the last decades in several applications, e.g. in the automotive or aircraft sector. This is the result of economic and ecological constraints on the one hand and increasing safety and comfort requirements on the other hand. In the field of lightweight design, different approaches are used due to specific requirements towards the technical systems. The use of endless carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) offers the largest weight saving potential of sometimes more than 50% compared to conventional metal-constructions. However, there are very limited industrial applications because of the cost-intensive manufacturing of the fibers and production technologies. Other disadvantages of pure CFRP-structures affect the quality control or the damage resistance. One approach to meet these challenges is hybrid materials. This means CFRP and sheet metal are combined on a material level. Therefore, new opportunities for innovative process routes are realizable. Hybrid lightweight design results in lower costs due to an optimized material utilization and the possibility to integrate the structures in already existing production processes of automobile manufacturers. In recent and current research, the advantages of two-layered hybrid materials have been pointed out, i.e. the possibility to realize structures with tailored mechanical properties or to divide the curing cycle of the epoxy resin into two steps. Current research work at the Chair for Automotive Lightweight Design (LiA) at the Paderborn University focusses on production processes for fiber-metal-laminates. The aim of this work is the development and qualification of a large-scale production process for high-performance fiber-metal-laminates (FML) for industrial applications in the automotive or aircraft sector. Therefore, the prepreg-press-technology is used, in which pre-impregnated carbon fibers and sheet metals are formed and cured in a closed, heated mold. The investigations focus e.g. on the realization of short process chains and cycle times, on the reduction of time-consuming manual process steps, and the reduction of material costs. This paper gives an overview over the considerable steps of the production process in the beginning. Afterwards experimental results are discussed. This part concentrates on the influence of different process parameters on the mechanical properties, the laminate quality and the identification of process limits. Concluding the advantages of this technology compared to conventional FML-production-processes and other lightweight design approaches are carried out.

Keywords: Composite Material, fiber-metal-laminate, lightweight construction, prepreg-press-technology, large-series production

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
13 Notes on Matter: Ibn Arabi, Bernard Silvestris, and Other Ghosts

Authors: Brad Fox


Between something and nothing, a bit of both, neither/nor, a figment of the imagination, the womb of the universe - questions of what matter is, where it exists and what it means continue to surge up from the bottom of our concepts and theories. This paper looks at divergences and convergences, intimations and mistranslations, in a lineage of thought that begins with Plato’s Timaeus, travels through Arabic Spain and Syria, finally to end up in the language of science. Up to the 13th century, philosophers in Christian France based such inquiries on a questionable and fragmented translation of the Timaeus by Calcidius, with a commentary that conflated the Platonic concept of khora (‘space’ or ‘void’) with Aristotle’s hyle (‘primal matter’ as derived from ‘wood’ as a building material). Both terms were translated by Calcidius as silva. For 700 years, this was the only source for philosophers of matter in the Latin-speaking world. Bernard Silvestris, in his Cosmographia, exemplifies the concepts developed before new translations from Arabic began to pour into the Latin world from such centers as the court of Toledo. Unlike their counterparts across the Pyrenees, 13th century philosophers in Muslim Spain had access to a broad vocabulary for notions of primal matter. The prolific and visionary theologian, philosopher, and poet Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi could draw on the Ikhwan Al-Safa’s 10th Century renderings of Aristotle, which translated the Greek hyle as the everyday Arabic word maddah, still used for building materials today. He also often used the simple transliteration of hyle as hayula, probably taken from Ibn Sina. The prophet’s son-in-law Ali talked of dust in the air, invisible until it is struck by sunlight. Ibn Arabi adopted this dust - haba - as an expression for an original metaphysical substance, nonexistent but susceptible to manifesting forms. Ibn Arabi compares the dust to a phoenix, because we have heard about it and can conceive of it, but it has no existence unto itself and can be described only in similes. Elsewhere he refers to it as quwwa wa salahiyya - pure potentiality and readiness. The final portion of the paper will compare Bernard and Ibn Arabi’s notions of matter to the recent ontology developed by theoretical physicist and philosopher Karen Barad. Looking at Barad’s work with the work of Nils Bohr, it will argue that there is a rich resonance between Ibn Arabi’s paradoxical conceptions of matter and the quantum vacuum fluctuations verified by recent lab experiments. The inseparability of matter and meaning in Barad recall Ibn Arabi’s original response to Ibn Rushd’s question: Does revelation offer the same knowledge as rationality? ‘Yes and No,’ Ibn Arabi said, ‘and between the yes and no spirit is divided from matter and heads are separated from bodies.’ Ibn Arabi’s double affirmation continues to offer insight into our relationship to momentary experience at its most fundamental level.

Keywords: Karen Barad, Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, primal matter, Bernard Silvestris

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12 Photoemission Momentum Microscopy of Graphene on Ir (111)

Authors: Anna V. Zaporozhchenko, Dmytro Kutnyakhov, Katherina Medjanik, Christian Tusche, Hans-Joachim Elmers, Olena Fedchenko, Sergey Chernov, Martin Ellguth, Sergej A. Nepijko, Gerd Schoenhense


Graphene reveals a unique electronic structure that predetermines many intriguing properties such as massless charge carriers, optical transparency and high velocity of fermions at the Fermi level, opening a wide horizon of future applications. Hence, a detailed investigation of the electronic structure of graphene is crucial. The method of choice is angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy ARPES. Here we present experiments using time-of-flight (ToF) momentum microscopy, being an alternative way of ARPES using full-field imaging of the whole Brillouin zone (BZ) and simultaneous acquisition of up to several 100 energy slices. Unlike conventional ARPES, k-microscopy is not limited in simultaneous k-space access. We have recorded the whole first BZ of graphene on Ir(111) including all six Dirac cones. As excitation source we used synchrotron radiation from BESSY II (Berlin) at the U125-2 NIM, providing linearly polarized (both polarizations p- and s-) VUV radiation. The instrument uses a delay-line detector for single-particle detection up the 5 Mcps range and parallel energy detection via ToF recording. In this way, we gather a 3D data stack I(E,kx,ky) of the full valence electronic structure in approx. 20 mins. Band dispersion stacks were measured in the energy range of 14 eV up to 23 eV with steps of 1 eV. The linearly-dispersing graphene bands for all six K and K’ points were simultaneously recorded. We find clear features of hybridization with the substrate, in particular in the linear dichroism in the angular distribution (LDAD). Recording of the whole Brillouin zone of graphene/Ir(111) revealed new features. First, the intensity differences (i.e. the LDAD) are very sensitive to the interaction of graphene bands with substrate bands. Second, the dark corridors are investigated in detail for both, p- and s- polarized radiation. They appear as local distortions of photoelectron current distribution and are induced by quantum mechanical interference of graphene sublattices. The dark corridors are located in different areas of the 6 Dirac cones and show chirality behaviour with a mirror plane along vertical axis. Moreover, two out of six show an oval shape while the rest are more circular. It clearly indicates orientation dependence with respect to E vector of incident light. Third, a pattern of faint but very sharp lines is visible at energies around 22eV that strongly remind on Kikuchi lines in diffraction. In conclusion, the simultaneous study of all six Dirac cones is crucial for a complete understanding of dichroism phenomena and the dark corridor.

Keywords: Graphene, band structure, momentum microscopy, LDAD

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