Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: oppression

91 “Those Are the Things that We Need to be Talking About”: The Impact of Learning About the History of Racial Oppression during Ghana Study Abroad

Authors: Katarzyna Olcoń, Rose M. Pulliam, Dorie J. Gilbert

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This article examines the impact of learning about the history of racial oppression on U.S. university students who participated in a Ghana study abroad which involved visiting the former slave dungeons. Relying on ethnographic observations, individual interviews, and written journals of 27 students (predominantly White and Latino/a and social work majors), we identified four themes: (1) the suffering and resilience of African and African descent people; (2) ‘it’s still happening today’; (3) ‘you don’t learn about that in school’; and (4) remembrance, equity, and healing.

Keywords: racial oppression, anti-racism pedagogy, student learning, social work education, study abroad

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90 Moving beyond the Social Model of Disability by Engaging in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice

Authors: Irene Carter, Roy Hanes, Judy MacDonald

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Considering that disability is universal and people with disabilities are part of all societies; that there is a connection between the disabled individual and the societal; and that it is society and social arrangements that disable people with impairments, contemporary disability discourse emphasizes the social model of disability to counter medical and rehabilitative models of disability. However, the social model does not go far enough in addressing the issues of oppression and inclusion. The authors indicate that the social model does not specifically or adequately denote the oppression of persons with disabilities, which is a central component of progressive social work practice with people with disabilities. The social model of disability does not go far enough in deconstructing disability and offering social workers, as well as people with disabilities a way of moving forward in terms of practice anchored in individual, familial and societal change. The social model of disability is expanded by incorporating principles of anti-oppression social work practice. Although the contextual analysis of the social model of disability is an important component there remains a need for social workers to provide service to individuals and their families, which will be illustrated through anti-oppressive practice (AOP). By applying an anti-oppressive model of practice to the above definitions, the authors not only deconstruct disability paradigms but illustrate how AOP offers a framework for social workers to engage with people with disabilities at the individual, familial and community levels of practice, promoting an emancipatory focus in working with people with disabilities. An anti- social- oppression social work model of disability connects the day-to-day hardships of people with disabilities to the direct consequence of oppression in the form of ableism. AOP theory finds many of its basic concepts within social-oppression theory and the social model of disability. It is often the case that practitioners, including social workers and psychologists, define people with disabilities’ as having or being a problem with the focus placed upon adjustment and coping. A case example will be used to illustrate how an AOP paradigm offers social work a more comprehensive and critical analysis and practice model for social work practice with and for people with disabilities than the traditional medical model, rehabilitative and social model approaches.

Keywords: anti-oppressive practice, disability, people with disabilities, social model of disability

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89 Violence and Aggression of Women in Native Canada: A Postcolonial Feminist Study of The Rez Sisters and Rose by Tomson Highway

Authors: Sonia Sharma

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In a multicultural country like Canada, Colonialism is still maintained in the form of Violence and Oppression. The Aboriginals are persistently facing Oppression and Marginalization in their own land owing to Colonial presence. Women in particular are getting most affected. They are facing double burden of patriarchy and their being Native. Tomson Highway, the Cree Canadian playwright has deftly exposed the theme of women violence and empowerment. In his plays (The Rez Sisters and Rose) taken from his Rez Septology, he has depicted Aboriginal women’s predicaments and sufferings. But simultaneously also talks about their empowerment and aggression refuting and fighting back to patriarchy and oppression. The Rez Sisters portrays women with shattering images and as a victim of both the male dominating society and the system. It represents the painful odyssey of the seven women facing several hardships. Rose represents women in entirely different light. They are shown more assertive and empowered raising their voice against the Violence and Discrimination meted out to them. The Aboriginal women in Canada are facing dual burden of Colonialism and Patriarchy which indeed is a Colonial construct. This paper is an attempt to explore the above facets Tomson Highway’s The Rez Sisters and Rose.

Keywords: violence, racism, discrimination, postcolonialism feminism

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88 Women from the Margins: An Exploration of the African Women Marginalization in the South African Context from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli

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As one of the sub-Saharan African countries, South Africa has a majority of women living at the receiving end of all ferocious atrocities, afflictions and social ills such as utter poverty, unemployment, morbidity, sexual exploitation and abuse, gender-based and domestic violence. The response to these social ills that permeate the South African context like wildfire requires postcolonial feminism as a lens which needs to directly address this particular context. In the empirical study that was conducted among the Zulu people about Zulu young women in the South African context, it was found that a postcolonial young woman has a lot of social challenges that militate against her. In her struggle to liberate herself, there are layers of oppression that she has to deal with before attaining emancipation of any kind. These layers of oppression emanate from postcolonial effects on cultural norms that come with patriarchal issues, racial issues as the woman of colour and socio-economic issues as the poverty-stricken marginalised woman. Such layers also render marginalized women voiceless on many occasions, and hence the kind of feminism that needs to be applied in this context has to give them a voice, worth and human dignity that they deserve. From the postcolonial feminist perspective, this paper examines the condition of women from the margins and seeks the ways in which the layers of oppression could be disengaged. In the process of the severed layers of oppression, these women can be uplifted to becoming the women of worth, restored to life-giving dignity from the inferiority complex of racial discrimination and liberation from all forms of patriarchy and its upshots that keep them bound by gender inequality. This requires, in particular, postcolonial feminism that would find profound ways of reaching into the deep-seated socialization and internalization of every kind of prejudice against women. It is the kind of feminism that questions the status core even among those who consider themselves feminists. With the ruination of all postcolonial layers of oppression, women in the margins could find real emancipation that they have always longed for through feminism that will take into consideration their context. This calls for the rethinking of feminism in different contexts because the conditions of the oppressed woman of the South cannot be the same as the conditions of the woman who considers herself oppressed in the North.

Keywords: exploration, feminism, postcolonial, margins, South African, women

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87 Teachers as Agents of Change in Diverse Classrooms: An Overview of the Literature

Authors: Anna Sanczyk

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Diverse students may experience different forms of discrimination. Some of the oppression students experience in schools are racism, sexism, classism, or homophobia that may affect their achievement, and teachers need to make sure they create inclusive, equitable classroom environments. The broader literature on social change in education shows that teachers who challenge oppression and want to promote equitable and transformative education face institutional, social, and political constraints. This paper discusses research on teachers’ work to create socially just and culturally inclusive classrooms and schools. The practical contribution of this literature review is that it provides a comprehensive compilation of the studies presenting teachers’ roles and efforts in affecting social change. The examination of the research on social change in education points to the urgency of teachers addressing the needs of marginalized students and resisting systemic oppression in schools. The implications of this literature review relate to the concerns that schools should provide greater advocacy for marginalized students in diverse learning contexts, and teacher education programs should prepare teachers to be active advocates for diverse students. The literature review has the potential to inform educators to enhance educational equity and improve the learning environment. This literature review illustrates teachers as agents of change in diverse classrooms and contributes to understanding various ways of taking action towards fostering more equitable and transformative education in today’s schools.

Keywords: agents of change, diversity, opression, social change

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86 A Constructive Analysis of the Formation of LGBTQ Families: Where Utopia and Reality Meet

Authors: Panagiotis Pentaris

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The issue of social and legal recognition of LGBTQ families is of high importance when exploring the possibility of a family. Of equal importance is the fact that both society and the individual contribute to the overall recognition of LGBTQ families. This paper is a conceptual discussion, by methodology, of both sides; it uses a method of constructive analysis to expound on this issue. This method’s aim is to broaden conceptual theory, and introduce a new relationship between concepts that were previously not associated by evidence. This exploration has found that LGBTQ realities from an international perspective may differ and both legal and social rights are critical toward self-consciousness and the formation of a family. This paper asserts that internalised and historic oppression of LGBTQ individuals, places them, not always and not in all places, in a disadvantageous position as far as engaging with the potential of forming a family goes. The paper concludes that lack of social recognition and internalised oppression are key barriers regarding LGBTQ families.

Keywords: family, gay, self-worth, LGBTQ, social rights

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85 Legalizing Prostitution: Providing Equality Amongst Men and Women in the Criminal Justice System through a Socialist Feminist Framework

Authors: Amanda Rebman

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This paper challenges the criminal justice system’s traditional stance regarding prostitution. Historically, the acceptance and morality of prostitution within the United States has fluctuated depending upon the social attitudes of the era. Today, prostitutes are allegedly viewed as victims; however, they are treated like criminals throughout the criminal justice system and society. Dominant patriarchal narratives within the United States has resulted in woman lacking autonomy over their bodies and diminished their ability to choose their own career. Even though prostitutes are deemed victims, many times, they are convicted of crimes, a practice that results in further victimization. Utilizing the socialist feminist theory to understand these juxtaposing positions on whether to legalize prostitution facilitates a greater understanding of how patriarchal capitalist arrangements ensure the oppression of women throughout the criminal justice system. The legalization of prostitution will alleviate some of this oppression and ensure a more equal treatment of women in the criminal justice system and society at large.

Keywords: equality, feminist theory, prostitution, sex work

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84 Representation of Woman in Vagina Monologue: A Study of Feminism

Authors: Epata Puji Astuti

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The Vagina Monologue is a play written by Eve Ensler, which is premiered at Off-Broadway, New York, in 1996. This play is quite different from the other play since it talks about the issue of t men's oppression toward women, and it is performed in monologue. The vagina becomes the main symbol of being discussed in the play. What did men do to women's vagina and how women view and treat her vagina reflects men's attitude toward women. Ensler had interviewed 200 women from various backgrounds to get their stories about the vagina. Ensler also has her own story about vagina. For the researcher, it is interesting to analyze how Ensler represented women in the symbol of vagina. What happened toward vagina reflected the reality about what happened toward women. How Ensler voices the issues of women, such as love, birth, rape, sex work, sexual harassment, etc. are interesting to be analyzed. This research tries to reveal how women are represented in the play. To understand about the representation of women, the researcher uses feminism theory. Textual analysis method is used to find out how women struggle for her own life and speak up for herself. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that Ensler depicted vagina is not as dirty thing, vagina is a noble thing and men should honor it as they honor women. It reflected that women show their power and resistance toward men's oppression.

Keywords: feminism, vagina, women, violence

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83 Interrogating Western Political Perspectives of Social Justice in Canadian Social Work

Authors: Samantha Clarke

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The term social justice is central to social work; however, the meaning behind this term is not as simple as defining the term itself. This is because the meaning of social justice is relative since its origin and development is based on evolving political perspectives. Political perspectives provide numerous lenses to view social justice in social work; however, the realities of changing society have meant that social justice has assumed different values, definitions, and understandings over time and in different geopolitical and cultural contexts. There are many competing and convincing theories of social justice that are relevant to social work practice. Exploring the term is not an idle preoccupation because the meaning of the term is not as crucial as the meaning of the worldview, as it is the worldview that positions social justice as crucial in the emancipation of people marginalized from oppression. The many political assumptions that underlie the term social justice are explored and connected to the contemporary discussions about social justice in social work. These connections are then interrogated in the Canadian Social Works Code of Ethics, and in micro, mezzo, and macro approaches. To be remiss in interrogating the underlying political assumptions of the worldview of social justice is to entrench oppression and to preserve oppressive structures in contemporary Canadian social work. The concept of social justice is unable to withstand closer scrutiny about its emancipatory qualities in Canadian social work when we interrogate the many political assumptions that frame its understanding. In order to authenticate social justice as an emancipatory central organizing principle, Canadian social workers must engage in deeper discussions about the political implications of social justice in their everyday practices based on diverse worldviews and geopolitical contexts. Social workers are well positioned to develop an understanding of social justice that is emancipatory based on their everyday practices because as social and political actors they are positioned to work for and with individuals and toward the greater good of those who are marginalized from oppression.

Keywords: Canadian social work, political analysis, social justice, social work practice

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82 'Infection in the Sentence': The Castration of a Black Woman's Dream of Authorship as Manifested in Buchi Emecheta's Second Class Citizen

Authors: Aseel Hatif Jassam, Hadeel Hatif Jassam

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The paper discusses the phallocentric discourse that is challenged by women in general and of women of color in particular in spite of the simultaneity of oppression due to race, class, and gender in the diaspora. Therefore, the paper gives a brief account of women's experience in the light of postcolonial feminist theory. The paper also cast light on the theories of Luce Irigaray and Helen Cixous, two Feminist theorists who support and advise women to have their own discourse to challenge the infectious patriarchal sentence advocated by Sigmund Freud and Harold Bloom's model of literary history. Black women authors like BuchiEmecheta as well as her alter ego Adah, a Nigerian-born girl and the protagonist of her semi-autobiographical novel, Second Class Citizen, suffer from this phallocentric and oppressive sentence and displacement as they migrate from Nigeria, a former British colony where they feel marginalized to North London with the hope of realizing their dreams. Yet, in the British diaspora, they get culturally shocked and continue to suffer from further marginalization due to class and race and are insulted and interiorized ironically by their patriarchal husbands who try to put an end to their dreams of authorship. With the phallocentric belief that women aren't capable of self-representation in the background of their mindsets, the violent Sylvester Onwordi and Francis Obi, the husbands of both Emecheta and Adah, respectively have practiced oppression on them by burning their own authoritative voice, represented by the novels they write while they are struggling with their economically atrocious living experience in the British diaspora.

Keywords: authorship, British diaspora, discourse, phallocentric, patriarchy

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81 Disrupting Patriarchy: Transforming Gender Oppression through Dialogue between Women and Men at a South African University

Authors: S. van Schalkwyk

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On international levels and across disciplines gender scholars have argued that patriarchal scripts of masculinity and femininity are harmful as they negatively impact constructions of selfhood and relations between women and men. Patriarchal ideologies serve as a scaffolding for dominance and subordination and fuel violence against women. Toxic masculinity—social discourses of men as violent, unemotional, and sexually dominant—are embedded in South African culture and are rooted in the high rates of gender violence occurring in the country. Finding strategies that can open up space for the interrogation of toxic masculinity is crucial in order to disrupt the destructive consequences of patriarchy in educational and social contexts. The University of the Free State (UFS) in South Africa in collaboration with the non-profit organization Gender Reconciliation International conducted a year-long series of workshops with male and female students. The aim of these workshops was to facilitate healing between men and women through collective dialogue processes. Drawing on a collective biography methodology outlined by feminist poststructuralists, this paper explores the impact of these workshops on gender relations. Findings show that the students experienced significant psychological connections with others during these dialogues, through which they began to interrogate their own gendered conditioning and harmful patriarchal assumptions and practices. This paper enhances insights into the possibilities for disrupting patriarchy in South African universities through feminist collective research efforts.

Keywords: collective biography methodology, South Africa, toxic masculinity, transforming gender oppression, violence against women

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80 A Critique of Contemporary Sexual Liberation: A Third Way Analysis

Authors: Sydelle Barreto

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Sexual liberation has been thought of as a movement, an idea, and an antithesis of material oppression. Within feminism it has consistently resisted definition - different feminist schools of thought had entirely different constructions of what liberated feminine sexuality could look like and how we might get there. This paper will critique the current definition of sexual liberation as being limited and carceral in its perspectives of sexual assault and extremely reductive in its imaginings of sexual liberation. The ultimate goal of this assessment is to potentially outline what true sexual liberation might look like in a way that is inclusive but not ignorant of the realities of the patriarchy. The first critique of sexual liberation included in the paper centers around the limits of consent, carceral feminism and sexual subjectivity. The argument will build off the traditionally sex-negative critiques of consent as being limited in scope by explaining how a lack of nuance is even more dangerous to victims of sexual violations. The discussion will also expand an interrogant of consent to an interrogation of wantedness and desire. If we understand that critiquing the conditions of consent is important, we must also critique the way patriarchy and compulsory sexuality have affected desire. Using the aforementioned concept of compulsory sexuality, the paper will argue that while sexual liberation has begun to include queer and transgender individuals, it is still overwhelmingly allonormative. Sex positivity and its opponents both fail to include asexuality. This ultimately leads to a conflation of sexual liberation with genuine material liberation. Just as we cannot divorce our constructions of sexual liberation from the realities of the patriarchy and rape culture, we should consider compulsory sexuality as its own system of social regulation. The conclusion will begin to construct an alternative vision of sexual liberation, leveraging concepts of sexual subjectivity, including a rejection of carceral feminism as a response to sexual violence, and finally, leading to the beginnings of a deconstruction of compulsory sexuality. The paper concludes with a vision of sexual liberation that does not confuse itself with material liberation or mere sexual oppression, but rather a key way stops on the road to constructing our most authentic sexual selves.

Keywords: feminism, sexual assault, sexual liberation, consent

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79 Protest Poetry in South Africa: A Study of Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s Sounds of a Cowhide Drum

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

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This paper examines protest as a literary mechanism against the unpopular political policy of the white minority regime in South Africa. It examines some of Mtshali’s poems as examples of protest poetry, showing how he deploys his artistic acumen in the popular struggle of the oppressed South Africans against the aberrations and obnoxious apartheid policy.

Keywords: protest poetry, poems, minority, oppression

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78 On Space Narrative and American Dream in Martin Eden

Authors: Yangyang Zhang

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Martin Eden tells about the tragedy of the protagonist Martin Eden’s suicide after his disillusion about American dream. The author Jack London presents various spatial routines of Martin Eden and reveals the involvement of space in realizing American dream: on the one hand, the Berkeley and Oakland cities contribute to Martin’s material success, making his American dream practical, and on the other hand, the two cities involve in the oppression of bourgeoisie ideology to Martin, promoting the domestic imperialization of bourgeoisie ideology represented by American dream. Molded by bourgeoisie ideology in the city, Martin constructed the oriental South Sea, revealing the oversea imperialization of bourgeoisie ideology behind American dream. By exploring the social, historical and political aspects of space, Martin Eden tries to demonstrate the mere material success and imperialism represented by American dream, revealing the fact of the involvement of American dreamin ideological oppression. When Jack London wrote Martin Eden, he had become a famous writer and realized his personal "American dream". He integrated his struggle experience into the protagonist Martin Eden, and also put his critique of the nature of "American dream" in the novel. The concept of the "American Dream" made the United States the land of dreams, and it also made many Americans believe that through personal struggle, they could climb the social ladder. Under the context of rapid growth in economy in the late 19 th century, American dream was reduced to the satisfaction on a material level. When material wealth was fulfilled, many people felt shattered for a variety of reasons, and such a phenomenon was reflected in the literature of disillusionment in 19th-century America.Martin Eden is such a work about disillusion, in which the geographical space becomes the witness of the realization and disillusionment of the protagonist Martin's "American dream". By analyzing the spatial narrative in Martin Eden, this paper reveals that the "American dream" only represents material success for individuals and the imperialization of capitalist ideology, and exposes the ideological nature of the "American Dream".

Keywords: Martin Eden, space, American dream, ideology of imperialism

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77 Boundary Crossings: Brahmanical Patriarchy, Power, and Sexual Violence in COVID-19 in Odisha, India

Authors: Saraswati Suna

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The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic and the subsequent lockdown have significantly impacted India's political, structural, and economic systems and a rising gap between the rich and the disadvantaged, upper and lower caste. For Dalit women, such forms of subjugation were followed by socioeconomic uncertainty due to the pandemic's economic shutdown and labour oppressions. Dalit women have been the victims of the most oppression among the nation's underprivileged groups. Dalit women undergo systemic oppression at the hands of the state, caste, class, gender, and religious hegemons historically. Dalit women hold a subordinate position within the gender to their male counterparts and caste to their upper-caste counterparts. This paper examines how Brahminical patriarchy and state power severely affected Dalit/Adivasi women during COVID-19 in Odisha, India. In order to understand caste-based sexual violence, a total of five cases have been analysed from newspapers. Findings revealed that Covid-19 appears to have a significant physical, psychological, and economic impact on Dalit women. The intention of sexual harassment and rape perpetrated by upper caste men is to maintain power and patriarchal culture in society. Dalit women are economically, socially, and culturally marginalised, which effectively exacerbates the sense of impunity by perpetrators of violence against Dalit women. This issue requires special attention to end atrocities against Dalit women. Dalit women become the target of rape, sexual assault, and murder. Sexual violence against Dalit women cannot be fully explained without linkage to caste, gender, and power. Dominant caste comes through caste privilege-socio-economic and politically; these factors contribute to sexual violence against Dalit women. The findings revealed that state police manipulate sexual violence, and in so doing, they create and deny access to both services to get justice. This article has argued that understanding Brahminical culture and the legal impacts of state police on Dalit women's identity requires a nuanced analysis.

Keywords: COVID-19, dalit women, sexual violence, brahminical patriarchy, power

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76 The Stereotypical Images of Marginalized Women in the Poetry of Rita Dove

Authors: Wafaa Kamal Isaac

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This paper attempts to shed light upon the stereotypical images of marginalized black women as shown through the poetry of Rita Dove. Meanwhile, it explores how stereotypical images held by the society and public perceptions perpetuate the marginalization of black women. Dove is considered one of the most fundamental African-American poets who devoted her writings to explore the problem of identity that confronted marginalized women in America. Besides tackling the issue of black women’s stereotypical images, this paper focuses upon the psychological damage which the black women had suffered from due to their stripped identity. In ‘Thomas and Beulah’, Dove reflects the black woman’s longing for her homeland in order to make up for her lost identity. This poem represents atavistic feelings deal with certain recurrent images, both aural and visual, like the image of Beulah who represents the African-American woman who searches for an identity, as she is being denied and humiliated one in the newly founded society. In an attempt to protest against the stereotypical mule image that had been imposed upon black women in America, Dove in ‘On the Bus with Rosa Parks’ tries to ignite the beaten spirits to struggle for their own rights by revitalizing the rebellious nature and strong determination of the historical figure ‘Rosa Parks’ that sparked the Civil Rights Movement. In ‘Daystar’, Dove proves that black women are subjected to double-edged oppression; firstly, in terms of race as a black woman in an unjust white society that violates her rights due to her black origins and secondly, in terms of gender as a member of the female sex that is meant to exist only to serve man’s needs. Similarly, in the ‘Adolescence’ series, Dove focuses on the double marginalization which the black women had experienced. It concludes that the marginalization of black women has resulted from the domination of the masculine world and the oppression of the white world. Moreover, Dove’s ‘Beauty and the Beast’ investigates the African-American women’s problem of estrangement and identity crisis in America. It also sheds light upon the psychological consequences that resulted from the violation of marginalized women’s identity. Furthermore, this poem shows the black women’s self-debasement, helplessness, and double consciousness that emanate from the sense of uprootedness. Finally, this paper finds out that the negative, debased and inferior stereotypical image held by the society did not only contribute to the marginalization of black women but also silenced and muted their voices.

Keywords: stereotypical images, marginalized women, Rita Dove, identity

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75 Nineteenth Century Colonial Discourse and Marxist Theory

Authors: Nikolaos Mavropoulos

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Imperialism and colonialism had and still have a predominantly negative nuisance. In many ways the two terms are synonyms of racist behavior, exploitation, and oppression, imposed by the supposedly civilized West at Africa’s and Asia’s expense. Paradoxically enough, imperialism was not thoroughly negative for some Marxist scholars. For them, in reality, it served a historical necessity as the only mean to liberate the backward societies from their millennial stagnation and to introduce them to industrialization and progress. To Marx as immoral and cruel the imposition of imperial rule and the eradication of traditional structures may have been, the process is still a progressive step towards the formation of class consciousness, global revolution and socialism in a world scale. Overlooking the fact that imperialism could actually delay and put an end to capitalist development, some Marxists proponents considered it as a positive development for the colonized peoples.

Keywords: Colonialism, , Marxist theory, Modern history, , 19th century Imperialism,

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74 Islamic Extremist Groups' Usage of Populism in Social Media to Radicalize Muslim Migrants in Europe

Authors: Muhammad Irfan

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The rise of radicalization within Islam has spawned a new era of global terror. The battlefield Successes of ISIS and the Taliban are fuelled by an ideological war waged, largely and successfully, in the media arena. This research will examine how Islamic extremist groups are using media modalities and populist narratives to influence migrant Muslim populations in Europe towards extremism. In 2014, ISIS shocked the world in exporting horrifically graphic forms of violence on social media. Their Muslim support base was largely disgusted and reviled. In response, they reconfigured their narrative by introducing populist 'hooks', astutely portraying the Muslim populous as oppressed and exploited by unjust, corrupt autocratic regimes and Western power structures. Within this crucible of real and perceived oppression, hundreds of thousands of the most desperate, vulnerable and abused migrants left their homelands, risking their lives in the hope of finding peace, justice, and prosperity in Europe. Instead, many encountered social stigmatization, detention and/or discrimination for being illegal migrants, for lacking resources and for simply being Muslim. This research will examine how Islamic extremist groups are exploiting the disenfranchisement of these migrant populations and using populist messaging on social media to influence them towards violent extremism. ISIS, in particular, formulates specific encoded messages for newly-arriving Muslims in Europe, preying upon their vulnerability. Violence is posited, as a populist response, to the tyranny of European oppression. This research will analyze the factors and indicators which propel Muslim migrants along the spectrum from resilience to violence extremism. Expected outcomes are identification of factors which influence vulnerability towards violent extremism; an early-warning detection framework; predictive analysis models; and de-radicalization frameworks. This research will provide valuable tools (practical and policy level) for European governments, security stakeholders, communities, policy-makers, and educators; it is anticipated to contribute to a de-escalation of Islamic extremism globally.

Keywords: populism, radicalization, de-radicalization, social media, ISIS, Taliban, shariah, jihad, Islam, Europe, political communication, terrorism, migrants, refugees, extremism, global terror, predictive analysis, early warning detection, models, strategic communication, populist narratives, Islamic extremism

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73 The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part

Authors: Abdelkadir Elhaouari

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The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.

Keywords: appeal, penalization, judgement, criminal

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72 An Analysis of Gender Discrimination and Horizontal Hostility among Working Women in Pakistan

Authors: Nadia Noor, Farida Faisal

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Horizontal hostility has been identified as a special type of workplace violence and refers to the aggressive behavior inflicted by women towards other women due to gender issues or towards minority group members due to minority issues. Many women, while they want eagerly to succeed and invest invigorated efforts to achieve success, harbor negative feelings for other women to succeed in their career. This phenomenon has been known as Horizontal Violence, Horizontal Hostility, Lateral Violence, Indirect Aggression, or The Tall Poppy Syndrome in Australian culture. Tall Poppy is referred to as a visibly successful individual who attracts envy or hostility due to distinctive characteristics. Therefore, horizontal hostility provides theoretical foundation to examine fierce competition among females than males for their limited access to top level management positions. In Pakistan, gender discrimination persists due to male dominance in the society and women do not enjoy basic equality rights in all aspects of life. They are oppressed at social and organizational level. As Government has been trying to enhance women participation through providing more employment opportunities, provision of peaceful workplace is mandatory that will enable aspiring females to achieve objectives of career success. This research study will help to understand antecedents, dimensions and outcomes of horizontal hostility that hinder career success of competitive females. The present paper is a review paper and various forms of horizontal hostility have been discussed in detail. Different psychological and organizational level drivers of horizontal hostility have been explored through literature. Psychological drivers include oppression, lack of empowerment, learned helplessness and low self-esteem. Organizational level drivers include sticky floor, glass ceiling, toxic work environment and leadership role. Horizontal hostility among working women results in psychological and physical outcomes including stress, low motivation, poor job performance and intention to leave. The study recommends provision of healthy and peaceful work environment that will enable competent women to achieve objectives of career success. In this regard, concrete actions and effective steps are required to promote gender equality at social and organizational level. The need is to ensure the enforcement of legal frameworks by government agencies in order to provide healthy working environment to women by reducing harassment and violence against them. Organizations must eradicate drivers of horizontal hostility and provide women peaceful work environment. In order to develop coping skills, training and mentoring must be provided to them.

Keywords: gender discrimination, glass ceiling, horizontal hostility, oppression

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71 The Pen Is Mightier than the Sword: Kurdish Language Policy in Turkey

Authors: Irene Yi

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This paper analyzes the development of Kurdish language endangerment in Turkey and Kurdish language education over time. It examines the historical context of the Turkish state, as well as reasons for the Turkish language hegemony. From a linguistic standpoint, the Kurdish language is in danger of extinction despite a large number of speakers, lest Kurdish language education is more widely promoted. The paper argues that Kurdish is no longer in a stable diglossic state; if the current trends continue, the language will lose its vitality. This paper recognizes the importance of education in preserving the language while discussing the changing political and institutional regard for Kurdish education. Lastly, the paper outlines solutions to the issue by looking at a variety of proposals, from creating a Kurdistan to merely changing the linguistic landscape in Turkey. After analysis of possible solutions in terms of realistic ability and effectiveness, the paper concludes that changing linguistic landscape and increasing Kurdish language education are the most ideal first steps in a long fight for Kurdish linguistic equality.

Keywords: endangered, Kurdish, oppression, policy

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70 Expressing Locality in Learning English: A Study of English Textbooks for Junior High School Year VII-IX in Indonesia Context

Authors: Agnes Siwi Purwaning Tyas, Dewi Cahya Ambarwati

Abstract:

This paper concerns the language learning that develops as a habit formation and a constructive process while exercising an oppressive power to construct the learners. As a locus of discussion, the investigation problematizes the transfer of English language to Indonesian students of junior high school through the use of English textbooks ‘Real Time: An Interactive English Course for Junior High School Students Year VII-IX’. English language has long performed as a global language and it is a demand upon the non-English native speakers to master the language if they desire to become internationally recognized individuals. Generally, English teachers teach the language in accordance with the nature of language learning in which they are trained and expected to teach the language within the culture of the target language. This provides a potential soft cultural penetration of a foreign ideology through language transmission. In the context of Indonesia, learning English as international language is considered dilemmatic. Most English textbooks in Indonesia incorporate cultural elements of the target language which in some extent may challenge the sensitivity towards local cultural values. On the other hand, local teachers demand more English textbooks for junior high school students which can facilitate cultural dissemination of both local and global values and promote learners’ cultural traits of both cultures to avoid misunderstanding and confusion. It also aims to support language learning as bidirectional process instead of instrument of oppression. However, sensitizing and localizing this foreign language is not sufficient to restrain its soft infiltration. In due course, domination persists making the English language as an authoritative language and positioning the locality as ‘the other’. Such critical premise has led to a discursive analysis referring to how the cultural elements of the target language are presented in the textbooks and whether the local characteristics of Indonesia are able to gradually reduce the degree of the foreign oppressive ideology. The three textbooks researched were written by non-Indonesian author edited by two Indonesia editors published by a local commercial publishing company, PT Erlangga. The analytical elaboration examines the cultural characteristics in the forms of names, terminologies, places, objects and imageries –not the linguistic aspect– of both cultural domains; English and Indonesia. Comparisons as well as categorizations were made to identify the cultural traits of each language and scrutinize the contextual analysis. In the analysis, 128 foreign elements and 27 local elements were found in textbook for grade VII, 132 foreign elements and 23 local elements were found in textbook for grade VIII, while 144 foreign elements and 35 local elements were found in grade IX textbook, demonstrating the unequal distribution of both cultures. Even though the ideal pedagogical approach of English learning moves to a different direction by the means of inserting local elements, the learners are continuously imposed to the culture of the target language and forced to internalize the concept of values under the influence of the target language which tend to marginalize their native culture.

Keywords: bidirectional process, English, local culture, oppression

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69 American Slavery and the Consciousness of Play

Authors: Janaka B. Lewis

Abstract:

“Narratives of Slavery and the Culture of Play” examines how play is discussed in early African American literature by both men and women to illustrate ways that they negotiated the hierarchy and oppression of enslavement. Reading narratives categorized as “slave narratives,” including those written by Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, and Olaudah Equiano, through the lens of play theory offers an illuminated analysis of the significance of play culture in these texts. It then reads late nineteenth-century play culture (or absence thereof) portrayed in literature as a lens for more contemporary African American oral and literary culture. These discussions of social constructions through literature bridge analyses of African American-authored texts and create a larger conversation about print media as a tool of activism and resistance. This essay also contributes to a larger body of analysis of nineteenth-century African American culture through literature.

Keywords: childhood, slavery, consciousness of play, 19th century African American culture

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68 Critical Pedagogy and Literacy Development

Authors: Rajendra Chetty

Abstract:

This paper analyses the experiences of teachers of literacy in underprivileged schools in the Western Cape, South Africa. The purpose is to provide teachers in poorly resourced schools within economically deprived areas an opportunity to voice their experiences of teaching literacy. The paper is based on an empirical study using interviews and classroom observation. A descriptive account of the observation data was followed by an interpretive analysis. The content analysis of the interview data led to the development of themes and patterns for the discussion. The study reveals key factors for literacy underachievement that include lack of critical and emancipatory pedagogies, resources, parental support, lack of teacher knowledge, absence of cognitive activities, and the social complexity of poverty. The paper recommends that a new model of literacy that is underpinned by critical pedagogy challenge inequality and provides strategic and sustained teacher support in disadvantaged schools is crucial in a society emerging from oppression and racism.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, disadvantaged schools, literacy, poverty

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67 Contemporary Arabic Novel Probing the Self and the Other: A Contrapuntal Study of Identity, Sexuality, and Fundamentalism

Authors: Jihan Mahmoud

Abstract:

This paper examines the role played by Arabic novelists in revolutionary change in the Arab world, discussing themes of identity, sexuality and fundamentalism as portrayed in a selection of modern and contemporary Arabic novels that are either written in English or translated from Arabic into English. It particularly focuses on the post-Naguib Mahfouz era. Taking my cue from the current political changes in the Arab world, starting with 9/11/ terrorist attacks in the USA and the UK, the ‘Arab Spring’ revolutions, the rise of political Islam and the emergence of Isis, the Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant, the study analyses the differences in the ways contemporary Arab novelists from different Arabic countries represent the interaction between identity, sexual politics and fundamentalist ideas in the Arab world, with a specific focus on the overlap between literature, religion and international politics in the region. It argues that the post-Mahfouz era marked a new phase in the development of the political Arabic novel not only as a force of resistance against political-religious oppression, but as a call for revolution as well. Thus, the Arabic novel reshapes values and prompts future action.

Keywords: Arabic novel, Islam, politics, sexuality

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66 Law and Literature: The Testimony in Pedro Casaldaliga's Poetic

Authors: Eliziane Navarro

Abstract:

It is intended, in this study, from some poems from the work of the poet and Bishop of São Félix do Araguaia-MT Brazil Dom Pedro Casaldáliga, to analyze his poetics from the perspective of the environmental law. In his work, Casaldáliga made a considerable manifest against the oppression experienced especially by Xavante people inside the constryside of the state of Mato Grosso when some government programs benefited a large number of landowners in instead of that minority as a power and control self-affirmation process. The attention which Casaldáliga dismissed to the cause of indigenous eviction of their land called Maraiwatsede resulted in numerous death threats against the poet who was not silenced in face of the landowners’ grievances. His voice contributed significantly to the process of land returning to the indigenous people. Because of the international pressure, the Italian company AGIP, owner of the land, tried to return it to the hands of the indigenous, unfortunately, in the middle of the process, the land was occupied by politicians and big landowners of the region. Another objective of this research is to check the connection of his testimonial literature with the actual legal context of the state in the 50s and also to analyze his poetry as a complaint that led the cause of the state's indigenous to the Eco 92 discussion in Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: law and literature, Brazil, indigenous, Pedro Casaldáliga

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65 Disablism in Saudi Mainstream Schools: Disabled Teachers’ Experiences and Perspectives

Authors: Ali Aldakhil

Abstract:

This paper explores the many faces of the barriers and exclusionary attitudes and practices that disabled teachers and students experience in a school where they teach or attend. Critical disability studies and inclusive education theory were used to conceptualise this inquiry and ground it in the literature. These theories were used because they magnify and expose the problems of disability/disablism as within-society instead of within-individual. Similarly, disability-first language was used in this study because it seeks to expose the social oppression and discrimination of disabled. Data were generated through conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with six disabled teachers who teach disabled children in a Saudi mainstream school. Thematic analysis of data concludes that the school is fettered by disabling barriers, attitudes, and practices, which reflect the dominant culture of disablism that disabled people encounter in the Saudi society on a daily basis. This leads to the conclusion that overall deconstruction and reformation of Saudi mainstream schools are needed, including non-disabled people’s attitudes, policy, spaces, and overall arrangements of teaching and learning.

Keywords: disablism, disability studies, mainstream schools, Saudi Arabia

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64 Social and Political Economy of Paid and Unpaid Work: Work of Women Home Based Workers in National Capital Region (NCR), India

Authors: Sudeshna Sengupta

Abstract:

Women’s work lives weave a complex fabric of myriad work relations and complex structures. Lives, when seen from the lens of work, is a saga of conjugated oppression by intertwined structures that are vertically and horizontally interwoven in a very complex manner. Women interact with multiple institutions through their work. The interactions and interplay of institutions shape their organization of work. They intersperse productive work with reproductive work, unpaid economic activities with unpaid care work, and all kinds of activities with leisure and self-care. The proposed paper intends to understand how women working as home-based workers in the National Capital Region (NCR) of India are organizing their everyday work, and how the organization of work is influenced by the interplay of structures. Situating itself in a multidisciplinary theoretical framework, this paper brings out how the gendering of work is playing out in the political, economic and social domain and shaping the work-life within the family, and in the paid workspace. The paper will use a primary data source, which is qualitative in nature. It will comprise 15 qualitative interviews of women home-based workers from the National Capital Region. The research uses a life history approach. The sampling was purposive using snowballing as a method. The dataset is part of the primary data (qualitative) collected for the ongoing Ph.D. work in Gender Studies at Ambedkar University Delhi. The home-based workers interviewed were in “non-factory” wage relations based on piece rates with flexible working hours. Their workplaces were their own homes with no spatial divide between living spaces and workspaces. Home-based workers were recognized as a group in the domain of labor economics in the 1980s. When menial work was cheaper than machine work, the capital owners preferred to outsource work as home-based work to women. These production spaces are fragmented and the identity of gender is created within labor processes to favor material accumulation. Both the employers and employees acknowledged the material gain of the capital owner when work was subcontracted to women at home. Simultaneously the market reinforced women’s reproductive role by conforming to patriarchal ideology. The contractors played an important role in implementing localized control on workers and also in finding workers for fragmented, gendered production processes. Their presence helped the employers in bringing together multiple forms of oppression that ranged from creating a structure to flout laws by creating shadow employers. It created an intertwined social and economic structure as well as a workspace where the line between productive and reproductive work gets blurred. The state invisibilized itself either by keeping the sector out of the domain of laws or by not implementing its own laws regulating working conditions or social security. It allowed the local hierarchy to function and define localized working conditions. The productive reproductive continuum reveals a labor control that influenced both the productive and reproductive work of women.

Keywords: informal sector, paid work, women workers, labor processes

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63 The Indigenous Forced Migration in Mato Grosso in Pedro Casaldaliga's Poetic

Authors: Eliziane Navarro

Abstract:

It is intended, in this study, from some poems from the work of the poet and Bishop of Sao Felix do Araguaia-MT Brazil Dom Pedro Casaldaliga, to analyze his poetics from the perspective of the environmental law. In his work, Casaldaliga made a considerable manifest against the oppression experienced especially by Xavante people inside the countryside of the state of Mato Grosso when some government programs benefited a large number of landowners in instead of that minority as a power and control self-affirmation process. The attention which Casaldaliga dismissed to the cause of indigenous eviction of their land called Maraiwatsede resulted in numerous death threats against the poet who was not silenced in the face of the landowners’ grievances. His voice contributed significantly to the process of land returning to the indigenous people. Because of the international pressure, the Italian company AGIP, owner of the land, tried to return it to the hands of the indigenous, unfortunately, in the middle of the process, the land was occupied by politicians and big landowners of the region. Another objective of this research is to check the connection of his testimonial literature with the actual legal context of the state in the 50s and also to analyze his poetry as a complaint that led the cause of the state's indigenous to the Eco 92 discussion in Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: law and literature, indigenous migration, Mato Grosso, Pedro Casaldaliga

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62 Beauty Representation and Body Politic of Women Writers in Magdalene

Authors: Putri Alya Ramadhani

Abstract:

This research analysed how women writers represent their beauty in a platform called Magdalene. With the vision “Supporting diversity, empowering minds,” Magdalene is a new media that seeks to represent women's voices rarely heard in mainstream media. This research elaborates further on how women writers, through their writing, use their body politic to subvert patriarchal values. This research used a qualitative method with an explorative design by using text analysis based on the representation theory of Stuart Hall and in-dept-interview with Women Writers in Magdalene. The result illustrated that women writers represent their beauty in Magdalene to subvert body and beauty-representation in mainstream discourse. Furthermore, the authors have identified an identity negotiation as tension from inevitable oppression and power towards and from women’s bodies. In addition, Women Writers showed the power of their bodies through the redefinition of beauty practices and self. Hence, they subvert body dichotomy to redefine body values in society. In conclusion, this study shows various representations of beauty and body that are underrepresented in the mainstream media through the innovative new medium, Magdalena.

Keywords: women writers, beauty-representation, body politic, new media, identity negotiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 101