Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1428

Search results for: gold nanoparticles

1428 Nano Gold and Silver for Control of Mosquitoes Manipulating Nanogeometries

Authors: Soam Prakash, Namita Soni

Abstract:

The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Currently, nanoparticle research is an area of intense scientific interest. Silver (Ag) and Gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) have been the focus of fungi and plant based syntheses. Silver and gold nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver and gold. These particles are of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Silver and gold have been use in the wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, electronic field, treatment of burns, wounds, and several bacterial infections. There is a crucial need to produce new insecticides due to resistance and high-cost of organic insecticides which are more environmentally-friendly, safe, and target-specific. Synthesizing nanoparticles using plants and microorganisms can eliminate this problem by making the nanoparticles more biocompatible. Here we reviewed the mosquitocidal and antimicrobials activity of silver and gold nanoparticles using fungi, plants as well as bacteria.

Keywords: nano gold, nano silver, Malaria, Chikengunia, dengue control

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1427 Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Acid-Activated Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf

Abstract:

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nanoparticles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used montmorillonite pre-acidified under gentle conditions for AuNPs stabilization; using different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nanoparticles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nanoparticles stabilized in acid-activated montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nanaoparticles formation. The XRD N2 adsorption and MET results showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the pores of preacidified montmorillonite with an average size of 5.7nm. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au°-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 4.5min.

Keywords: gold, acid-activated montmorillonite, nanoparticles, 4-nitrophenol

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1426 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate

Abstract:

Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: cytotoxic, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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1425 Optimization of Gold Adsorption from Aqua-Regia Gold Leachate Using Baggase Nanoparticles

Authors: Oluwasanmi Teniola, Abraham Adeleke, Ademola Ibitoye, Moshood Shitu

Abstract:

To establish an economical and efficient process for the recovery of gold metal from refractory gold ore obtained from Esperando axis of Osun state Nigeria, the adsorption of gold (III) from aqua reqia leached solution of the ore using bagasse nanoparticles has been studied under various experimental variables using batch technique. The extraction percentage of gold (III) on the prepared bagasse nanoparticles was determined from its distribution coefficients as a function of solution pH, contact time, adsorbent, adsorbate concentrations, and temperature. The rate of adsorption of gold (III) on the prepared bagasse nanoparticles is dependent on pH, metal concentration, amount of adsorbate, stirring rate, and temperature. The adsorption data obtained fit into the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Three different temperatures were used to determine the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse nanoparticles. The heat of adsorption was measured to be a positive value ΔHo = +51.23kJ/mol, which serves as an indication that the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse nanoparticles is endothermic. Also, the negative value of ΔGo = -0.6205 kJ/mol at 318K shows the spontaneity of the process. As the temperature was increased, the value of ΔGo becomes more negative, indicating that an increase in temperature favors the adsorption process. With the application of optimal adsorption variables, the adsorption capacity of gold was 0.78 mg/g of the adsorbent, out of which 0.70 mg of gold was desorbed with 0.1 % thiourea solution.

Keywords: adsorption, bagasse, extraction, nanoparticles, recovery

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1424 Metal Nanoparticles Caused Death of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Cells

Authors: O. S. Adeyemi, C. G. Whiteley

Abstract:

The present study determined the toxic potential of metal nanoparticles in cell culture system. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized following established "green" protocols. The synthesized nanoparticles, in varying concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 µM were evaluated for toxicity in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. The nanoparticles promoted a generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced cell viability to less than 50% in the demonstration of cellular toxicity. The nanoparticles; gold and the silver-gold mixture had IC50 values of 56.65 and 18.44 µM respectively. The IC50 concentration for silver nanoparticles could not be determined. Furthermore, the probe of the cell death using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed the partial involvement of apoptosis as well as necrosis. Our results revealed cellular toxicity caused by the nanoparticles but the mechanism remains yet undefined.

Keywords: cell death, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, toxicity

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1423 Semiconductor Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Photodegradation of Rhodamine B

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari, Abdulaziz Bagabas, Muhamad Assulami

Abstract:

Rhodamine B (RB) is a toxic dye used extensively in textile industry, which must be remediated before its drainage to the environment. In the present study, supported gold nanoparticles on commercially available titania and zincite were successfully prepared and then their activity on the photodegradation of RB under UV-A light irradiation were evaluated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by ICP, BET, XRD, and TEM. Kinetic results showed that Au/TiO2 was an inferior photocatalyst to Au/ZnO. This observation could be attributed to the strong reflection of UV irradiation by gold nanoparticles over TiO2 support.

Keywords: supported AuNPs, semiconductor photocatalyst, photodegradation, rhodamine B

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1422 Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.

Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, core-shell arrangement, mycosynthesis, sequential reduction

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1421 Two-Protein Modified Gold Nanoparticles for Serological Diagnosis of Borreliosis

Authors: Mohammed Alasel, Michael Keusgen

Abstract:

Gold is a noble metal; in its nano-scale level (e.g. spherical nanoparticles), the conduction electrons are triggered to collectively oscillate with a resonant frequency when certain wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation interact with its surface; this phenomenon is known as surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR is responsible for giving the gold nanoparticles its intense red color depending mainly on its size, shape and distance between nanoparticles. A decreased distance between gold nanoparticles results in aggregation of them causing a change in color from red to blue. This aggregation enables gold nanoparticles to serve as a sensitive biosensoric indicator. In the proposed work, gold nanoparticles were modified with two proteins: i) Borrelia antigen, variable lipoprotein surface-exposed protein (VlsE), and ii) protein A. VlsE antigen induces a strong antibody response against Lyme disease and can be detected from early to late phase during the disease in humans infected with Borrelia. In addition, it shows low cross-reaction with the other non-pathogenic Borrelia strains. The high specificity of VlsE antigen to anti-Borrelia antibodies, combined simultaneously with the high specificity of protein A to the Fc region of all IgG human antibodies, was utilized to develop a rapid test for serological point of care diagnosis of borreliosis in human serum. Only in the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies in the serum probe, an aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be observed, which is visible by a concentration-dependent colour shift from red (low IgG) to blue (high IgG). Experiments showed it is clearly possible to distinguish between positive and negative sera samples using a simple suspension of the two-protein modified gold nanoparticles in a very short time (30 minutes). The proposed work showed the potential of using such modified gold nanoparticles generally for serological diagnosis. Improved specificity and reduced assay time can be archived in applying increased salt concentrations combined with decreased pH values (pH 5).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, gold aggregation, serological diagnosis, protein A, lyme borreliosis

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1420 Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf

Abstract:

Synthesis of gold nano particles has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nano particles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite for gold nanoparticles stabilization; different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nano particles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nano particles Au-mont stabilized in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nano particles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed the formation of gold nano particles in the pores of montmorillonite with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2%Au-mont. The gold particles size increased with the increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Na-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 9 min for 1Au-mont and within 3 min for 2Au-mont.

Keywords: chemical reduction, gold, montmorillonite, nano particles, 4-nitrophenol

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1419 Green Synthesis and Characterisation of Gold Nanoparticles from the Stem Bark and Leaves of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Cytotoxicity on MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: Stephen Daniel Iduh, Evans Chidi Egwin, Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu

Abstract:

The process for the development of reliable and eco-friendly metallic Nanoparticles is an important step in the field of Nanotechnology for biomedical application. To achieve this, use of natural sources like biological systems becomes essential. In the present work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold Nanoparticles using aqueous leave and stembark extracts of K. senegalensis has been attempted. The gold Nanoparticles produced were characterized using High Resolution scanning electron microscopy, Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy, zeta-sizer Nano, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. The result showed a rapid development of Nano size and shaped particles within 5 minutes of reaction with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 520 and 525nm respectively. An average particle size of 20-90nm was confirmed. The amount of the extracts determines the core size of the AuNPs. The core size of the AuNPs decreases as the amount of extract increases and it causes the shift of Surface Plasmon Resonance band. The FTIR confirms the presence of biomolecules serving as reducing and capping agents on the synthesised gold nanoparticles. The MTT assay shows a significant effect of gold nanoparticles which is concentration dependent. This environment-friendly method of biological gold Nanoparticle synthesis has the potential and can be directly applied in cancer therapy.

Keywords: biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, characterization, calotropis procera, cytotoxicity

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1418 Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst for Recovery of Gold from the Mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) Ions

Authors: Eko S. Kunarti, Akhmad Syoufian, Indriana Kartini, Agnes

Abstract:

Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles have been synthesized and applied as a photocatalyst for the recovery of gold from the mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) ions. The synthesis was started by the preparation of magnetite (Fe₃O₄) using coprecipitation and sonication methods, followed by SiO₂ coating on magnetite using sol-gel reactions, and then TiO₂ coating using sol-gel process. Characterization was performed by using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy methods. Activity of Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles was evaluated as a photocatalyst for recovery of gold through photoreduction of Au(III) ions in Au(III) and Cu(II) ions mixture with a ratio of 1:1, in a closed reactor equipped with UV lamp. The photoreduction yield was represented as a percentage (%) of reduced Au(III) which was calculated by substraction of initial Au(III) concentration by the unreduced one. The unreduced Au(III) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that the Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesised with excellent magnetic and photocatalytic properties. The nanoparticles present optimum activity at a pH of 5 under UV irradiation for 120 minutes. At the optimum condition, the Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles could reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ 97.24%. In the mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) ions, the Au(III) ions are more easily reducible than Cu(II) ions with the reduction results of 96.9% and 45.80% for Au(III) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. In addition, the presence of Cu(II) ions has no significant effect on the amount of gold recovered and its reduction reaction rate.

Keywords: Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂, photocatalyst, recovery, gold, Au(III) and Cu(II) mixture

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1417 Free Radical Dosimetry for Ultrasound in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi Shanei

Abstract:

When a liquid is irradiated with high intensities (> 1 W) and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz) ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. Acoustic cavitation generates free radicals from the breakdown of water and other molecules. The existence of particles in liquid provide nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and lead to decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing 30 nm gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a range of condition in medical ultrasound fields.

Keywords: acoustic cavitation, gold nanoparticle, chemical dosimetry, terephthalic acid

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1416 The Antibacterial Efficacy of Gold Nanoparticles Derived from Gomphrena celosioides and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) Leaves on Selected Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: M. E. Abalaka, S. Y. Daniyan, S. O. Adeyemo, D. Damisa

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained increasing interest in recent times. This is greatly due to their special features, which include unusual optical and electronic properties, high stability and biological compatibility, controllable morphology and size dispersion, and easy surface functionalization. In typical synthesis, AuNPs were produced by reduction of gold salt AuCl4 in an appropriate solvent. A stabilizing agent was added to prevent the particles from aggregating. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of gold nanoparticles was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas pneumonia using the disk diffusion method in a Müeller–Hinton Agar. The Au-NPs were effective against all bacteria tested. That the Au-NPs were successfully synthesized in suspension and were used to study the antibacterial activity of the two medicinal plants against some bacterial pathogens suggests that Au-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and may be an effective tool in medical field. The study clearly showed that the Au-NPs exhibiting inhibition towards the tested pathogenic bacteria in vitro could have the same effects in vivo and thus may be useful in the medical field if well researched into.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Gomphrena celesioides, Prunus amygdalus, pathogens

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1415 Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms

Authors: L. Steponavičiūtė, L. Steponavičienė

Abstract:

Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.

Keywords: nanomaterials, ecotoxicology, nanoparticles, ecosystems

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1414 Bienzymatic Nanocomposites Biosensors Complexed with Gold Nanoparticles, Polyaniline, Recombinant MN Peroxidase from Corn, and Glucose Oxidase to Measure Glucose

Authors: Anahita Izadyar

Abstract:

Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we are fabricating a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial novel biosensor to measure glucose. We are applying Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP), glucose oxidase (GOx), polyaniline (PANI) as conductive polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Au electrode using electrochemical response to detect glucose. We applied the entrapment method of enzyme composition, which is generally used to immobilize conductive polymer and facilitate electron transfer from the enzyme oxidation-reduction center to the sample solution. In this work, the oxidation of glucose on the modified gold electrode was quantified with Linear Sweep Voltammetry(LSV). We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold nanoparticles electrode, polyaniline

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1413 Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticles: Sensing Properties and Cytotoxicity Studies in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Cristina Núñez, Rufina Bastida, Elena Labisbal, Alejandro Macías, María T. Pereira, José M. Vila

Abstract:

A highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor L was designed in order to functionalize gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The cytotoxicity of compound L and [email protected] on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells was explored and it was observed that L and [email protected] compounds induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cancer cells. The cellular uptake of the hybrid system [email protected] was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, fluorescent probes, nanoparticles, quinoline

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1412 SEM Detection of Folate Receptor in a Murine Breast Cancer Model Using Secondary Antibody-Conjugated, Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasser A. Ahmed, Juleen M Dickson, Evan S. Krystofiak, Julie A. Oliver

Abstract:

Cancer cells urgently need folate to support their rapid division. Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. FR are distributed over the entire surface of cancer cells, but are polarized to the apical surface of normal cells. Targeting of cancer cells using specific surface molecules such as folate receptors may be one of the strategies used to kill cancer cells without hurting the neighing normal cells. The aim of the current study was to try a method of SEM detecting FR in a murine breast cancer cell model (4T1 cells) using secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles. 4T1 cells were suspended in RPMI medium witth FR antibody and incubated with secondary antibody for fluorescence microscopy. The cells were cultured on 30mm Thermanox coverslips for 18 hours, labeled with FR antibody then incubated with secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles and processed to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The fluorescence microscopy study showed strong punctate FR expression on 4T1 cell membrane. With SEM, the labeling with gold or gold-coated magnetite conjugates showed a similar pattern. Specific labeling occurred in nanoparticle clusters, which are clearly visualized in backscattered electron images. The 4T1 tumor cell model may be useful for the development of FR-targeted tumor therapy using gold-coated magnetite nano-particles.

Keywords: cancer cell, nanoparticles, cell culture, SEM

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1411 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim

Abstract:

In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: plasmonic photodetector, plasmon-plasmon interaction, Gold nanoparticle, electrical properties

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1410 Simulation Model of Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Kholod Hajo

Abstract:

In this study COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) which provide advantages in low cost, simplicity, rapidity, stability and portability thus making LFBs popular in biomedical, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This study was focused on simulation model of biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) designed using software package (COMSOL Multiphysics), the magnitude of the laminar velocity field in the flow cell, concentration distribution in the analyte stream and surface coverage of adsorbed species and average fractional surface coverage of adsorbed analyte were discussed from the model and couples of suggestion was given in order to functionalize GNPs and to increase the accuracy of the biosensor design, all above were obtained acceptable results.

Keywords: model, gold nanoparticles, biosensor, COMSOL Multiphysics

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1409 Changes in Global DNA Methylation and DNA Damage in Two Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Marcin Kruszewski, Barbara Sochanowicz, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Maria Wojewódzka, Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

Abstract:

Metallic NPs are widely used in a number of applications in industry, science and medicine. Among metallic NPs foreseen to be widely used in medicine are gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their low toxicity, and silver NPs (AgNPs) due to their strong antimicrobial activity. In this study, we compared an effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on the formation of DNA damage and global DNA methylation and in A2780 and 4T1 cell lines, widely used models of human ovarian carcinoma and murine mammary carcinoma, respectively. The cells were treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. A global DNA methylation was investigated with ELISA, whereas the formation of DNA damage was investigated by a comet +/- FPG. AgNPs decreased global DNA methylation and increased the formation of DNA lesions in both cell lines. The effect was dependent on the type of NPs used, it's coating, and cell line used. In conclusion, the epigenetic and genotoxic effects of NPs strongly depends on NP nature and cellular context. Epigenetic changes observed upon the action of AgNPs may play a crucial role in NPs-induced changes in protein expression.

Keywords: DNA damage, gold nanoparticles, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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1408 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Teodora Mocan, Matea Cristian, Cornel Iancu

Abstract:

We present method of nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, using gold nanoparticles combined with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Ab (antibody solution) bound to GNPs (gold nanoparticles) was administered in vitro and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the microorganism. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy, and at the same time, normal cells were not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the infected tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into bacteria following perfusion. These results may represent a major step in antibiotherapy treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Klebsiella pneumoniae, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation, antibody

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1407 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer

Abstract:

Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2, and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: bilirubin oxidase, enzymatic fuel cell, glucose oxidase, nanoparticles

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1406 A Mathematical Investigation of the Turkevich Organizer Theory in the Citrate Method for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Emmanuel Agunloye, Asterios Gavriilidis, Luca Mazzei

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles are commonly synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with sodium citrate. This method, referred to as the citrate method, can produce spherical gold nanoparticles (NPs) in the size range 10-150 nm. Gold NPs of this size are useful in many applications. However, the NPs are usually polydisperse and irreproducible. A better understanding of the synthesis mechanisms is thus required. This work thoroughly investigated the only model that describes the synthesis. This model combines mass and population balance equations, describing the NPs synthesis through a sequence of chemical reactions. Chloroauric acid reacts with sodium citrate to form aurous chloride and dicarboxy acetone. The latter organizes aurous chloride in a nucleation step and concurrently degrades into acetone. The unconsumed precursor then grows the formed nuclei. However, depending on the pH, both the precursor and the reducing agent react differently thus affecting the synthesis. In this work, we investigated the model for different conditions of pH, temperature and initial reactant concentrations. To solve the model, we used Parsival, a commercial numerical code, whilst to test it, we considered various conditions studied experimentally by different researchers, for which results are available in the literature. The model poorly predicted the experimental data. We believe that this is because the model does not account for the acid-base properties of both chloroauric acid and sodium citrate.

Keywords: citrate method, gold nanoparticles, Parsival, population balance equations, Turkevich organizer theory

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1405 Surface Enhanced Raman Substrate Detection on the Structure of γ-Aminobutyric Acid(GABA) Connected with Modified Gold-Chitosan Nanoparticles by Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA)

Authors: Bingjie Wang, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang

Abstract:

A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). As for the gold-chitosan nanoshell, it is made by using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) for the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. When the system formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: chitosan-gold nanoshell, mercaptopropionic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced Raman scattering

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1404 Gold Nanoparticle: Synthesis, Characterization, Clinico-Pathological, Pathological and Bio-Distribution Studies in Rabbits

Authors: M. M. Bashandy, A. R. Ahmed, M. El-Gaffary, Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman

Abstract:

This study evaluated the acute toxicity and tissue distribution of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in male rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to single dose of AuNPs (300 µg/ kg). Toxic effects were assessed via general behavior, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters and histopathological examination of various rabbits’ organs. Tissue distribution of AuNPs was evaluated at a dose of 300 µg/ kg in male rabbit. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine gold concentrations in tissue samples collected at predetermined time intervals. After one week, AuNPs exerted no obvious acute toxicity in rabbits. However, inflammatory reactions in lung and liver cells were induced in rabbits treated at the300 µg/ kg dose level. The highest gold levels were found in the spleen, followed by liver, lungs and kidneys. These results indicated that AuNPs could be distributed extensively to various tissues in the body, but primarily in the spleen and liver.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, toxicity, pathology, hematology, liver function, kidney function

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1403 Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) Modifying Chitosan-Gold Nano Composite for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Analysis Using Raman Scattering

Authors: Bingjie Wang, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang

Abstract:

The goal of this experiment is to develop a sensor that can quickly check the concentration by using the nanoparticles made by chitosan and gold. Using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) is the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. As for the GABA, what is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability pass through the nervous system. A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). When the system is formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: mercaptopropionic acid, chitosan-gold nanoshell, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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1402 Posttranslational Modifications of Histone H3 in Tumor Tissue Isolated from Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Treated Mice

Authors: Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak, Barbara Sochanowicz, Magdalena Matysiak-Kucharek, Magdalena Czajka, Krzysztof Sawicki, Marcin Kruszewski

Abstract:

Due to the strong antimicrobial activity silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various medical and general applications, among others, in cosmetics, odour resistant textiles, etc. The aim of this study was to compare effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on histones posttranslational modifications. Histone molecule posttranscriptional modifications are responsible for chromatin compaction and repackaging. In this study, BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. Thereafter the histone H3 acetylation on Lys9 and H3 methylation on Lys4, Lys9, Lys29 was investigated. All NPs tested decreased H3 methylation, while no effect was observed for H3 acetylation. Modification of histone H3 methylation dependent on type of NPs used its coating, site of methylation and treatment used. Conclusion, epigenetic effects of nanomaterials depend on nanomaterial composition, its coating, and way of application. This work was supported by National Science Centre grant No. 2014/15/B/NZ7/01036 (MK, LKS, MMK, MC, KS), statutory funding for INTC (BS).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, histone, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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1401 Combined Proteomic and Metabolomic Analysis Approaches to Investigate the Modification in the Proteome and Metabolome of in vitro Models Treated with Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs)

Authors: H. Chassaigne, S. Gioria, J. Lobo Vicente, D. Carpi, P. Barboro, G. Tomasi, A. Kinsner-Ovaskainen, F. Rossi

Abstract:

Emerging approaches in the area of exposure to nanomaterials and assessment of human health effects combine the use of in vitro systems and analytical techniques to study the perturbation of the proteome and/or the metabolome. We investigated the modification in the cytoplasmic compartment of the Balb/3T3 cell line exposed to gold nanoparticles. On one hand, the proteomic approach is quite standardized even if it requires precautions when dealing with in vitro systems. On the other hand, metabolomic analysis is challenging due to the chemical diversity of cellular metabolites that complicate data elaboration and interpretation. Differentially expressed proteins were found to cover a range of functions including stress response, cell metabolism, cell growth and cytoskeleton organization. In addition, de-regulated metabolites were annotated using the HMDB database. The "omics" fields hold huge promises in the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems. The combination of proteomics and metabolomics data is possible however challenging.

Keywords: data processing, gold nanoparticles, in vitro systems, metabolomics, proteomics

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1400 Covalently Conjugated Gold–Porphyrin Nanostructures

Authors: L. Spitaleri, C. M. A. Gangemi, R. Purrello, G. Nicotra, G. Trusso Sfrazzetto, G. Casella, M. Casarin, A. Gulino

Abstract:

Hybrid molecular–nanoparticle materials, obtained with a bottom-up approach, are suitable for the fabrication of functional nanostructures showing structural control and well-defined properties, i.e., optical, electronic or catalytic properties, in the perspective of applications in different fields of nanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) exhibit important chemical, electronic and optical properties due to their size, shape and electronic structures. In fact, Au NPs containing no more than 30-40 atoms are only luminescent because they can be considered as large molecules with discrete energy levels, while nano-sized Au NPs only show the surface plasmon resonance. Hence, it appears that gold nanoparticles can alternatively be luminescent or plasmonic, and this represents a severe constraint for their use as an optical material. The aim of this work was the fabrication of nanoscale assembly of Au NPs covalently anchored to each other by means of novel bi-functional porphyrin molecules that work as bridges between different gold nanoparticles. This functional architecture shows a strong surface plasmon due to the Au nanoparticles and a strong luminescence signal coming from porphyrin molecules, thus, behaving like an artificial organized plasmonic and fluorescent network. The self-assembly geometry of this porphyrin on the Au NPs was studied by investigation of the conformational properties of the porphyrin derivative at the DFT level. The morphology, electronic structure and optical properties of the conjugated Au NPs – porphyrin system were investigated by TEM, XPS, UV–vis and Luminescence. The present nanostructures can be used for plasmon-enhanced fluorescence, photocatalysis, nonlinear optics, etc., under atmospheric conditions since our system is not reactive to air nor water and does not need to be stored in a vacuum or inert gas.

Keywords: gold nanoparticle, porphyrin, surface plasmon resonance, luminescence, nanostructures

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1399 Preparation of Silver and Silver-Gold, Universal and Repeatable, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Platforms from SERSitive

Authors: Pawel Albrycht, Monika Ksiezopolska-Gocalska, Robert Holyst

Abstract:

Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique of growing importance not only in purely scientific research related to analytical chemistry. It finds more and more applications in broadly understood testing - medical, forensic, pharmaceutical, food - and everywhere works perfectly, on one condition that SERS substrates used for testing give adequate enhancement, repeatability, and homogeneity of SERS signal. This is a problem that has existed since the invention of this technique. Some laboratories use as SERS amplifiers colloids with silver or gold nanoparticles, others form rough silver or gold surfaces, but results are generally either weak or unrepeatable. Furthermore, these structures are very often highly specific - they amplify the signal only of a small group of compounds. It means that they work with some kinds of analytes but only with those which were used at a developer’s laboratory. When it comes to research on different compounds, completely new SERS 'substrates' are required. That underlay our decision to develop universal substrates for the SERS spectroscopy. Generally, each compound has different affinity for both silver and gold, which have the best SERS properties, and that's what depends on what signal we get in the SERS spectrum. Our task was to create the platform that gives a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the largest number of compounds with very high repeatability - even at the expense of the intensity of the enhancement factor (EF) (possibility to repeat research results is of the uttermost importance). As specified above SERS substrates are offered by SERSitive company. Applied method is based on cyclic potentiodynamic electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles on the conductive surface of ITO-coated glass at controlled temperature of the reaction solution. Silver nanoparticles are supplied in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO₃, 10 mM), gold nanoparticles are derived from tetrachloroauric acid (10 mM) while sodium sulfite (Na₂O₃, 5 mM) is used as a reductor. To limit and standardize the size of the SERS surface on which nanoparticles are deposited, photolithography is used. We secure the desired ITO-coated glass surface, and then etch the unprotected ITO layer which prevents nanoparticles from settling at these sites. On the prepared surface, we carry out the process described above, obtaining SERS surface with nanoparticles of sizes 50-400 nm. The SERSitive platforms present highly sensitivity (EF = 10⁵-10⁶), homogeneity and repeatability (70-80%).

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanoparticles, Raman spectroscopy, SERS, SERSitive, SERS platforms, SERS substrates

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