Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 202

Search results for: love

202 The Effect of ‘Love Accounting’ on Gift Budgeting

Authors: Yanan Wang


It is proposed that when people give a gift they engage in 'love accounting', so that they will spend less on it if they include a written expression of love with it. This hypothesis was tested with college students (N = 308). It was found that participants who wrote a love message to accompany a Mother's Day gift budgeted less for the gift itself than control participants (Experiment 1), and this effect was replicated for a Christmas gift (Experiment 2). The amount of effort expended by the giver on preparing the love message did not account for the effect (Experiment 3). It is concluded that a gift and its accompanying love message are mentally computed as belonging to the same love account, implying that consumers’ excessive splurging on gifts might be controlled by writing a love message before gift shopping.

Keywords: expression of love, gift-giving, gift-budgeting, mental accounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
201 The Role of Relationship Duration in the Expressions of Love

Authors: Thea Silayro, Isabella Tan, Carlo Manuel, Denisse Abellon


Romantic love is highly universal and exists in most cultures. The current study explored its definition for people in different relationship durations and explored how this definition influences their expression of love and their conflict resolutions. Gender‟s influence on the definitions was explored, as well. Nine couples from different relationship durations (2-3 years, 7-10 years and more than 25 years) were interviewed. Transcripts of the interviews underwent thematic analysis. The results of the study suggest that 2-3 years in the relationship is the courting stage, 7-10 years in the relationship is the settling down stage and more than 25 years, the most stable stage. Men and women have similar ways of expressing love and resolving conflicts, but differ in such a way that men highlight actions and women highlight emotions when talking about love; changes in definitions arise internally in men and externally in females. Generally, romantic love is expressed through service. Communication is essential among all couples, and they become more secure with time.

Keywords: relationship duration, love, expressions of love, relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
200 When Pain Becomes Love For God: The Non-Object Self

Authors: Roni Naor-Hofri


This paper shows how self-inflicted pain enabled the expression of love for God among Christian monastic ascetics in medieval central Europe. As scholars have shown, being in a state of pain leads to a change in or destruction of language, an essential feature of the self. The author argues that this transformation allows the self to transcend its boundaries as an object, even if only temporarily and in part. The epistemic achievement of love for God, a non-object, would not otherwise have been possible. To substantiate her argument, the author shows that the self’s transformation into a non-object enables the imitation of God: not solely in the sense of imitatio Christi, of physical and visual representations of God incarnate in the flesh of His son Christ, but also in the sense of the self’s experience of being a non-object, just like God, the target of the self’s love.

Keywords: love for God , pain, philosophy, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
199 The Negative Use of the Concept of Agape Love in the New Testament

Authors: Marny S. Menkes Lemmel


Upon hearing or reading the term agape love in a Christian context, one typically thinks of God's love for people and the type of love people should have for God and others. While C.S. Lewis, a significant propagator of this view, and others with a similar opinion are correct in their knowledge of agape in the New Testament in most occurrences, nonetheless, examples of this term appear in the New Testament having quite a different sense. The New World Encyclopedia, regarding the verb form of agape, 'agapao,' comments that it is occasionally used also in a negative sense, but here and elsewhere, there is no elaboration on the significance of these negative instances. If intensity and sacrifice are the crucial constituents of God's agape love and that of his followers, who are commanded to love as God does, the negative instances of this term in the New Testament conceivably indicate that a person's love for improper recipients is likewise intense and sacrificial. This is significant because one who has chosen to direct such love neither to God nor his "neighbors," but to inanimate things or status, clearly shows his priorities, having decided to put all his energy and resources into them while demeaning those for whom God has required such love, including God himself. It is not merely a matter of a person dividing his agape love among several proper objects of that love, but of directing it toward improper targets. Not to heed God's commands regarding whom to love is to break God's entire law, and not to love whom one should, but to love what one should not, is not merely a matter of indifference, but is disloyalty and loathing. An example of such use of the term agape occurs in Luke 11:43 where the Pharisees do not and cannot love God at the same time as loving a place of honor in the synagogues and greetings in the public arena. The exclamation of their dire peril because of their love for the latter reveals that the previously mentioned love objects are not in God's gamut of proper recipients. Furthermore, it appears to be a logical conclusion that since the Pharisees love the latter, they likewise despise God and those whom God requires his people to love. Conversely, the objects of the Pharisees' love in this verse should be what followers of God ought to despise and avoid. In short, appearances of the use of the verb agapao in a negative context are blatant antitheses to what God expects and should alert the reader or listener to take notice. These negative uses are worthy of further discussion than a brief aside by scholars of their existence without additional comment.

Keywords: agape love, divine commands, focus, new testament context, sacrificial

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198 Autonomy and Other Variables Related to the Expression of Love among Saudi Couples

Authors: Reshaa Alruwaili


The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis presented by Self Determination theory which suggests that autonomy impacts positively the expression of love. Other hypotheses were also examined which suggest that other variables explain the expression of love, including: dyadic adjustment (dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion), couple satisfaction, age, gender, the length of marriage, number of children and attachment styles. The participants were Saudi couples, which provided the opportunity to consider the influence of Saudi culture on the expression of love. A questionnaire was employed to obtain measures of all the relevant variables, including a measure of expression of love that was built from 27 items, constituting verbal, physical and caring features, and a measure of autonomy based on three features: authorship, interest-taking and susceptibility. Data were collected from both members of 34 Saudi couples. Descriptive analysis of both expression of love and autonomy was conducted. Correlation and regression were used to assess the relationships between expression of love and autonomy and other variables. Results indicated that Saudi couples who most often express their love tend to be more than somewhat autonomous. Not much difference was found between husbands and wives in expressing love, although wives were slightly more autonomous than husbands. Expression of love was enhanced by the autonomy of the participants to a greater extent when dyadic satisfaction was controlled, since the latter was negatively correlated with autonomy and had no effect on the expression of love. Basic psychological needs, dyadic consensus and dismissive-avoidant attachment improve the expression of love, while it is decreased by the number of children.

Keywords: autonomy, determination theory, expression of love, dyadic adjustment

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
197 Effect of Rotation on Love Wave Propagation in Piezoelectric Medium with Corrugation

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary


The present study analyses the propagation of Love wave in rotating piezoelectric layer lying over an elastic substrate with corrugated boundaries. The appropriate solutions in the considered medium satisfy the required boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion relation of Love wave for charge free as well as electrically shorted cases. The effects of rotation are shown by graphically on the non-dimensional speed of the Love wave. In addition to classical case, some existing results have been deduced as particular case of the present study. The present study may be useful in rotation sensor and SAW devices.

Keywords: corrugation, dispersion relation, love wave, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
196 Relationships between the Components of Love by Stenberg and Personality Disorder Traits

Authors: Barbara Gawda


The study attempts to show the relationship between the structure of love by Sternberg and personality disorder traits. People with personality disorders experience dysfunctional emotionality. They manifest difficulties in experiencing love and closeness. Their relationships are marked by ambivalence and conflicts, e.g., as in borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. Considering love as a crucial human feeling, the study was planned to describe the associations between intimacy, passion, commitment, and personality disorder traits in a community sample. A sample of 194 participants was investigated (men and women in similar age and education levels). The following techniques were used: the SCID-II to assess personality disorders’ traits and the Triangular Love Scale by Sternberg to assess the components of love. Results show there are significant negative correlations between intimacy, commitment and personality disorders traits. Many personality disorders are associated with decreasing of intimacy and commitment, whereas passion was not associated with personality disorders’ traits. Results confirm that emotional impairments in personality disorders elicit conflicts and problems in relationships based on love and closeness.

Keywords: intimacy, commitment, love, passion, personality disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
195 Impact of Brand Image, Brand Personality and Brand Love on Word of Mouth: Pakistani Fashion Brands

Authors: Amna Asif, Rabia Naseem


In the domain of consumer-brand relationship, love for a fashion brand is a dominant idea. Brand executives incline to build more endearing brands, for example, Levi’s “Quality never goes out of style”. Though, the significance of this notion is not often debated in the literature of marketing. Moreover, the effect of brand image and personality on brand love has not been examined in any quantitative study in Pakistan. The current research aims to fill this study gap by evolving a causal framework integrating word-of-mouth, brand love, image, and personality to examine the relationships among them. Data was gathered through questionnaires survey, and it was filled by 409 university students. AMOS 20 was used to draw a path analysis and test the hypotheses. Results discovered that brand personality and brand image leads to brand love that ultimately impacts word-of-mouth. Results give thorough suggestions on which future research can be constructed.

Keywords: brand love, brand personality, brand image, fashion brands, word-of-mouth

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
194 Friendship Love Orientation as Predictor of Attachment Style: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Maria Sana Amin, Anum Atiq, Haya Fatimah


Secure attachment in childhood creates a healthy love attitude in the adulthood. Child secure attachment develops a positive relation attitude in their adulthood, similarly, anxiety-avoidant attachment develops negative attitude toward relations. The aim of this paper is twofold: 1) We investigate the relationship between Friendship Attitude and Attachment Styles; and 2) explore the impact of gender on Love Attitudes and Attachment styles. Data was collected by convincing sampling among the students of University of Management and Technology age group 18- 25. The sample consists 60 young adults (Male=36, Female =54). The Love Attitudes Scales subscale Storage was used to measure attitudes towards friendship love and The Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire was used to measure Adult Attachment Style. The result of Independent T-Test analysis shows that there was no significant difference in anxiety for female and male conditions; t (58) =-.768, p=.446 and avoidance for female and male conditions; t (58) =1.63, p=.108. Moreover, also there was no significant difference in friendship love for female (M=27.37, SD=6.371) and male (M=26.08, SD=5.709) conditions; t (58) =-.820, p=.416. Pearson correlation analysis shows significantly negative correlation between love attitude-friendship and attachment style- avoidance, (r=-.433, p=.008) among male and love attitude-friendship and attachment style- avoidance (r=-.438, p=.032) among female. There are no gender differences in attachment styles i.e. anxiety, avoidance and their relationship with friendship love attitude. People have avoidant attachment find it hard to fall in love and develop intimacy, and they tend to search for independence.

Keywords: avoidance attachment style, anxiety attachment style, friendship love attitude, gender difference/similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
193 The Power of Earned Media: Exploring the Key Success of Love Destiny, Thai Smash Hit Television Drama

Authors: Wilaiwan Jongwilaikasaem, Phatteera Sarakornborrirak


While Thai television producers feel anxious about digital disruption, Love Destiny, Thai television period drama became smash hit in Thailand in 2018. Audience throughout the country not only watched the drama both offline and online but also spread the content of the drama on social media and followed cultural trends from the protagonist. Thus, the main purpose of this article is to examine the secret behind the success of Love Destiny. Data were collected from content analysis and in-depth interview. The result shows that the key success of the drama is from earned media phenomenon from the audience and marketers’ engagement. As Love Destiny has full-flavored content with traditional challenged plot, delicate production, and presentation of Thainess in a positive and tangible way; audience and marketers are enthusiastic about building up the popular trend of Love Destiny on social media and also coming back home to watch televisions when the drama was on the air.

Keywords: Thai drama, earned media, Love Destiny, television

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192 “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” Book as an Interdisciplinary Study Basis for Students’ Learning Process about Love and Politics at Old Communist Czechoslovakia

Authors: Clarissa Valença Travassos da Silva


In this article, it is intended to study the book “The unbearable Lightness of Being” by the Czech Republican writer Milan Kundera. The main objective is to be an interdisciplinary study basis for students in the world about love and politics at old communist Czechoslovakia. Love is presented by discussing the relationship between Tomas and Tereza and the discovery of true love. Furthermore, it is debated the Russian invasion in Czechoslovakia and the outcomes of it for the personages, all this related to the contradiction of lightness and heaviness in life. For the production of this didactic material, the researcher based her work on the original book, “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” by Kundera, Milan Kundera’s interviews, Friedrich Nietzche, Zygmunt Bauman and George Orwell, among Brazilian and international articles on the issue.

Keywords: lightness, heaviness, Russia, Czechoslovakia, love

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191 The Discussions of Love, Determinism, and Providence in Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and al-Kirmani

Authors: Maria De Cillis


This paper addresses the subject of love in two of the most prominent Islamic philosophers: Ibn Sīnā (known in the Latin World as Avicenna d. 1037) Avicenna and al-Kirmānī (DC 1021). By surveying the connection that the concept of love entertains with the notions of divine providence and determinism in the luminaries’ theoretical systems, the present paper highlights differences and similarities in their respective approaches to the subjects. Through a thorough analysis of primary and secondary literature, it will be shown that Avicenna’s thought, which is mainly informed by the Aristotelian and Farābīan metaphysical and cosmological stances, is also integrated with mystical underpinnings. Particularly, in Avicenna’s Risāla fī’l-ʿishq love becomes the expression of the divine providence which operates through the intellectual striving the souls undertake in their desire to return to their First Cause. Love is also portrayed as an instrument helping the divine decree to remain unadulterated by way of keeping existing beings within their species and genera as well as an instrument which is employed by God to know and be known. This paper also discusses that if on the one hand, al-Kirmānī speaks of love as the Aristotelian and Farābian motive-force spurring existents to achieve perfection and as a tool which facilitates the status quo of divine creation, on the other hand, he remains steadily positioned within Ismā‘īlī and Neoplatonic paradigms: the return of all loving-beings to their Source is interrupted at the level of the first Intellect, whilst God remains inaccessible and ineffable. By investigating his opus magnum, the Rāḥat al-ʿaql, we shall highlight how al-Kirmānī also emphasizes the notion of divine providence which allows humans to attain their ultimate completeness by following the teachings of the Imams, repositories of the knowledge necessary to serve the unreachable deity.

Keywords: Avicenna, determinism, love, al-Kirmani, Ismaili philosophy

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190 Long Term Love Relationships Analyzed as a Dynamic System with Random Variations

Authors: Nini Johana Marín Rodríguez, William Fernando Oquendo Patino


In this work, we model a coupled system where we explore the effects of steady and random behavior on a linear system like an extension of the classic Strogatz model. This is exemplified by modeling a couple love dynamics as a linear system of two coupled differential equations and studying its stability for four types of lovers chosen as CC='Cautious- Cautious', OO='Only other feelings', OP='Opposites' and RR='Romeo the Robot'. We explore the effects of, first, introducing saturation, and second, adding a random variation to one of the CC-type lover, which will shape his character by trying to model how its variability influences the dynamics between love and hate in couple in a long run relationship. This work could also be useful to model other kind of systems where interactions can be modeled as linear systems with external or internal random influence. We found the final results are not easy to predict and a strong dependence on initial conditions appear, which a signature of chaos.

Keywords: differential equations, dynamical systems, linear system, love dynamics

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189 From Transference Love to Self Alienation in the Therapeutic Relationship: A Case Study

Authors: Efi Koutantou


The foundation of successful therapy is the bond between the psychotherapist and the patient, Psychoanalysis would argue. The present study explores lived experiences of a psychotherapeutic relationship in different moments, initial and final with special reference to the transference love developed through the process. The fight between moments of ‘leaving a self’ behind and following ‘lines of flight’ in the process of creating a new subjectivity and ‘becoming-other’ will be explored. Moments between de-territorialisation – surpassing given constraints such as gender, family and religion, kinship bonds - freeing the space in favor of re-territorialisation – creation of oneself creation of oneself will also be analyzed. The generation of new possibilities of being, new ways of self-actualization for this patient will be discussed. The second part of this study will explore the extent to which this ‘transference love’ results for this specific patient to become ‘the discourse of the other’; it is a desideratum whether the patient finally becomes a subject of his/her own through his/her own self-exploration of new possibilities of existence or becomes alienated within the thought of the therapist. The way in which the patient uses or is (ab)used by the transference love in order to experience and undergo alienation from an ‘authority’ which may or may not sacrifice his/her own thought in favor of satisfying the therapist will be investigated. Finally, from an observer’s perspective and from the analysis of the results of this therapeutic relationship, the counter-transference will also be analyzed, in terms of an attempt of the analyst to relive and satisfy his/her own desires through the life of the analysand. The accession and fall of an idealized self will be analyzed, the turn of the transference love into ‘hate’ will conclude this case study through a lived experience in the therapeutic procedure; a relationship which can be called to be a mixture of a real relationship and remnants from a past object relationship.

Keywords: alienation, authority, counter-transference, hate, transference love

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
188 Out of the Closet: Transgressive Representations of Queer Intimacy in Filipino Mainstream Media

Authors: Darel Magramo


This study argues that media representations of queer intimacies can be transgressive. Representations of queerness in local and international media can be a reflection of the culture where the media product belongs to and these representations can be peculiar and intolerable to different communities. Since these representations of queerness in any media product are rare and unacceptable it can be seen as transgressive in a way that it goes beyond the norms of a particular community and violates the common perceptions about gender and sexuality. Examining media representations of the queer community in a predominantly Catholic country means breaking the religious belief, principles, and stereotypes about homosexuality and same-sex relationship. Using a mainstream media and gender theory this study examined whether and how one particular Filipino mainstream media representation of queer intimacies can enact such transgression. Over the past years Original Pinoy Music (Original Filipino Music) or OPM has produced chart-topping and controversial hit songs which includes: This guy is in love with you pare (pare refers to a guy or men) released in 2002: Nagmahal ako ng bakla (I fell in love with a gay) released in 2009: and lastly Pare mahal mo raw ako (Man, you love me?) released in 2014. By examining these songs, this study outlines tropes on how OPM songs present transgression in queer intimacy including the image of love for money only to gaiety and satisfaction which presents how an openly gay man makes a cisgender man falls in love for him by satisfying him through his humorous antics, this is one way of showing transgression in queer relationship in Philippine context by going beyond the common stereotype of a cisgender man falling in love to a gay man for his wealth to falling in love genuinely because of gaiety and satisfaction in the relationship. This study also identifies how media created a new way of presenting gay and homosexual relationship - from the stereotypes of gays having illnesses and mental health problems, mainstream media continues to present that queer relationship is not all about love and sexual desire but also it promotes acceptance and love towards people in the community. A queer relationship does not only revolve in the idea of having a same-sex relationship but the idea that queer relationship is also between friends and other people of the community by manifesting acceptance and love. Amidst the conservative culture of the Philippines, mainstream media continues to progress and develop ways on how to present gender and sexuality in different media products. These representations create a transgressive way of showing acceptance and understanding towards identities particularly homosexuality and queer relationships.

Keywords: gender studies, homosexuality, media representations, queer intimacy

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187 The Democracy of Love and Suffering in the Erotic Epigrams of Meleager

Authors: Carlos A. Martins de Jesus


The Greek anthology, first put together in the tenth century AD, gathers in two separate books a large number of epigrams devoted to love and its consequences, both of hetero (book V) and homosexual (book XII) nature. While some poets wrote epigrams of only one genre –that is the case of Strato (II cent. BC), the organizer of a wide-spread garland of homosexual epigrams –, several others composed within both categories, often using the same topics of love and suffering. Using Plato’s theorization of two different kinds of Eros (Symp. 180d-182a), the popular (pandemos) and the celestial (ouranios), homoerotic epigrammatic love is more often associated with the first one, while heterosexual poetry tends to be connected to a higher form of love. This paper focuses on the epigrammatic production of a single first-century BC poet, Meleager, aiming to look for the similarities and differences on singing both kinds of love. From Meleager, the Greek Anthology –a garland whose origins have been traced back to the poet’s garland itself– preserves more than sixty heterosexual and 48 homosexual epigrams, an important and unprecedented amount of poems that are able to trace a complete profile of his way of singing love. Meleager’s poetry deals with personal experience and emotions, frequently with love and the unhappiness that usually comes from it. Most times he describes himself not as an active and engaged lover, but as one struck by the beauty of a woman or boy, i.e., in a stage prior to erotic consummation. His epigrams represent the unreal and fantastic (literally speaking) world of the lover, in which the imagery and wordplays are used to convey emotion in the epigrams of both genres. Elsewhere Meleager surprises the reader by offering a surrealist or dreamlike landscape where everyday adventures are transcribed into elaborate metaphors for erotic feeling. For instance, in 12.81, the lovers are shipwrecked, and as soon as they have disembarked, they are promptly kidnapped by a figure who is both Eros and a beautiful boy. Particularly –and worth-to-know why significant – in the homosexual poems collected in Book XII, mythology also plays an important role, namely in the figure and the scene of Ganimedes’ kidnap by Zeus for his royal court (12. 70, 94). While mostly refusing the Hellenistic model of dramatic love epigram, in which a small everyday scene is portrayed –and 5. 182 is a clear exception to this almost rule –, Meleager actually focuses on the tumultuous inside of his (poetic) lovers, in the realm of a subject that feels love and pain far beyond his/her erotic preferences. In relation to loving and suffering –mostly suffering, it has to be said –, Meleager’s love is therefore completely democratic. There is no real place in his epigrams for the traditional association mentioned before between homoeroticism and a carnal-erotic-pornographic love, while the heterosexual one being more evenly and pure, so to speak.

Keywords: epigram, erotic epigram, Greek Anthology, Meleager

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
186 Empirical Analysis of the Love Languages in the Context of Relationship Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction and Empathy in Romantic Heterosexual Couples

Authors: Olha Mostova, Maciej Stolarski, Gerald Matthews


The present paper explores and tests Gary Chapman’s claims that (1) people vary in the ways they prefer to receive and express affection and (2) romantic partners, who communicate their feelings correspondingly to their partner’s preferences, experience greater relationship quality. The author proposes five distinct preferences for and tendencies to express love, including acts of service, physical touch, words of affirmation, quality time, and gifts. In the present study, partners (N = 100 romantic, heterosexual couples) completed measures assessing their preferences and behavioral tendencies reflecting 1) how they a) tend to express and b) prefer to receive signs of affection in correspondence to the five proposed categories; 2) relationship satisfaction; 3) sexual satisfaction and 4) empathy, which was expected to be the factor that leads to a better understanding of and responding to the partner’s needs. The degree of the within-couple match was calculated separately for each individual based on the discrepancies between one’s felt (preferred) and their partner’s expressed love language. The joint discrepancy indicator was a sum of such discrepancies across the five love languages. Conducted analyses provided evidence for significant associations between matching on love languages and both relationship and sexual satisfaction. In particular, people who expressed their affection in the way their partners preferred to receive it experienced greater satisfaction with their relationships and were more sexually satisfied compared to those who met their partner’s needs to a lesser extent. Other results provide some support for mediating effects of certain domains of empathy in the said associations among male but not female participants.

Keywords: affection, empathy, love languages, relationship satisfaction, romantic couples, sexual satisfaction

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185 Classification of Contexts for Mentioning Love in Interviews with Victims of the Holocaust

Authors: Marina Yurievna Aleksandrova


Research of the Holocaust retains value not only for history but also for sociology and psychology. One of the most important fields of study is how people were coping during and after this traumatic event. The aim of this paper is to identify the main contexts of the topic of love and to determine which contexts are more characteristic for different groups of victims of the Holocaust (gender, nationality, age). In this research, transcripts of interviews with Holocaust victims that were collected during 1946 for the "Voices of the Holocaust" project were used as data. Main contexts were analyzed with methods of network analysis and latent semantic analysis and classified by gender, age, and nationality with random forest. The results show that love is articulated and described significantly differently for male and female informants, nationality is shown results with lower values of quality metrics, as well as the age.

Keywords: Holocaust, latent semantic analysis, network analysis, text-mining, random forest

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184 The Active Social Live of #Lovewins: Understanding the Discourse of Homosexual Love and Rights in Thailand

Authors: Tinnaphop Sinsomboonthong


The hashtag, #LoveWins, has been widely used for celebrating the victory of the LGBTQ movement since June 2015 when the US Supreme Court enacted the rights of same-sex marriage. Nowadays, the hashtag is generally used among active social media users in many countries, including Thailand. Amidst the political conflict between advocates of the junta-backed legislation related to same-sex marriage laws, known as ‘Thailand’s Civil Partnership Draft Bills,’ and its detractors, the hashtag becomes crucial for Thailand’s 2019 national election season and shortly afterward as it was one of the most crucial parts of a political campaign to rebrand many political parties’ image, create an LGBT-friendly atmosphere and neutralize the bi-polarized politics of the law. The use of the hashtag is, therefore, not just an online entertainment but a politico-discursive tool, used by many actors for many purposes. Behind the confrontation between supporters and opposers of the law, the hashtag is used by both sides to highlight the Western-centric normativity of homosexual love, closely associated with Eurocentric modernity and heteronormativity. As an online ethnographical study, this paper aims to analyze how #LoveWins is used among Thai social media users in late 2018 to mid-2019 and how it is signified by Thai social media users during the Drafted-Bills period and the 2019 national election. A number of preliminary surveys of data on Twitter were conducted in December 2018 and, more intensely, in January 2019. Later, the data survey was officially conducted twice during February and April 2019, while the data collection was done during May-June 2019. Only public posts on Twitter that include the hashtag, #LoveWins, or any hashtags quoting ‘love’ and ‘wins’ are the main targets of this research. As a result of this, the use of the hashtag can be categorized into three levels, including banal decoration, homosexual love celebration, and colonial discourse on homosexual love. Particularly in the third type of the use of the hashtag, discourse analysis is applied to reveal that this hashtag is closely associated with the discourse of development and modernity as most of the descriptive posts demonstrate aspirations to become more ‘developed and modernized’ like many Western countries and Taiwan, the LGBT capital in Asia. Thus, calls for the ‘right to homosexual love’ and the ‘right to same-sex marriage’ in Thailand are shaped and formulated within the discursive linkage between modernity, development, and love. Also, the use of #LoveWins can be considered as a de-queering process of love as only particular types of gender identity, sexual orientation, and relationships that reflect Eurocentric modernity and heteronormativity are acceptable and advocated. Due to this, more inclusive queer loves should be supported rather than a mere essentialist-traditionalist homosexual love. Homonormativity must be deconstructed, and love must no longer be reserved for only one particular type of relationship that is standardized from/by the West. It must become more inclusive.

Keywords: #LoveWins, homosexual love, LGBT rights, same-sex marriage

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183 Non-Monogamy as Rebellion against Tradition in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake

Authors: Jingya Huang


This paper argues that Moushumi Mazoomdar has non-monogamous relationships with different men before and after her marriage as a form of rebellion against the traditional Indian culture deeply ingrained in her. Written by Jhumpa Lahiri, The Namesake (2004) features an Indian couple migrating to America who gives birth to two children, including the main character Gogol. Moushumi, like Gogol, is also a second-generation Indian American. Because of the influence of American culture, Moushumi prefers to marry for love, disdaining any thought of an arranged marriage. This paper is divided into two parts: before and after marriage which can also be seen in the light of polyamory and infidelity. First, according to Anapol (2010), polyamory is a newly created word from Greek and Latin which means “loving more than one person at a time when it comes to romantic or erotic love.” The discussion of polyamory mainly focuses on the most basic heterosexual relationship without mentioning of homosexual and bisexual love relationships. By adopting Anapol’s concept of polyamory, this paper examines the nature of the relationships between Moushumi and other men before her marriage. Afterwards, the concept of infidelity is discussed to analyze the interaction between Moushumi and Dimitri. How Moushumi rebels against tradition is shown through these two main discussions.

Keywords: Indian American, non-monogamous relationship, rebellion, polyamory, infidelity

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182 Gender Roles in Modern Indian Marriages

Authors: Parul Bhandari


An image of a modern and progressive India garners the rhetoric of ‘choice’ marriages, gender egalitarian relationships, and search for ‘love’ in conjugal unions. Such an image especially resonates with the lives of young professionals, who, largely belonging to the middle class, consider themselves to be the global face India. While this rhetoric of ‘progress’ and ‘love’ is abounding in both Indian and non-Indian public discourses, it is imperative to scientifically analyse the veracity of these claims. This paper thus queries and problematises the notions of being modern and progressive, through the lens of gender roles as expected and desired in a process of matchmaking. The fieldwork conducted is based on qualitative methodology, involving in-depth interviews with 100 highly qualified professionals, (60 men and 40 women), between the age of 24-31, belonging to the Hindu religion and of varied castes and communities, who are residing in New Delhi, and are in the process of spouse-selection or have recently completed it. Further, an analysis of the structure and content of matrimonial websites, which have fast emerged as the new method of matchmaking, was also undertaken. The main finding of this paper is that gender asymmetries continue to determine a suitable match, whether in ‘arranged’ or ‘love’ marriages. This is demonstrated by analysing the expectations of gender roles and gender practices of both men and women, to construct an ideal of a ‘good match’. On the basis of the interviews and the content of matrimonial websites, the paper discusses the characteristics of a ‘suitable boy’ and a ‘suitable girl’, and the ways in which these are received (practiced or criticised) by the young men and women themselves. It is then concluded that though an ideal of ‘compatibility’ and love determines conjugal desires, traditional gender roles, that, for example, consider men as the primary breadwinner and women as responsible for the domestic sphere, continue to dictate urban Indian marriages.

Keywords: gender, India, marriage, middle class

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
181 Of Love and Isolation: Narratives of Siblings of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi


Aim: Siblings of children with cerebral palsy are often in the periphery of discussions; their views not always taken into account. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young siblings of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and artwork were gathered from 10 children who have siblings diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The data was analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes within the narratives. Results: The key themes to emerge were complex and nuanced. These included themes of love and feeling of protectiveness; jealousy and uncertainly; guilt and hope. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to take document the views of siblings who are often on the margins of the family and of family decisions and discussions. It also supports the need to offer safe spaces and opportunities for siblings of children with disabilities to express their feelings and to receive support where required.

Keywords: disability, grandmothers, mothers, narratives, women

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180 An Inexhaustible Will of Infinite, or the Creative Will in the Psychophysiological Artistic Practice: An Analysis through Nietzsche's Will to Power

Authors: Filipa Cruz, Grecia P. Matos


An Inexhaustible Will of Infinite is ongoing practice-based research focused on a psychophysiological conception of body and on the creative will that seeks to examine the possibility of art being simultaneously a pacifier and an intensifier in a physiological artistic production. This is a study where philosophy and art converge in a commentary on the affection of the concept of will to power in the art world through Nietzsche’s commentaries, through the analysis of case studies and a reflection arising from artistic practice. Through Nietzsche, it is sought to compare concepts that communicate with the artistic practice since creation is an intensification and engenders perspectives. It is also a practice highly embedded in the body, in the non-verbal, in the physiology of art and in the coexistence between the sensorial and the thought. It is questioned if the physiology of art could be thought of as a thinking-feeling with no primacy of the thought over the sensorial. Art as a manifestation of the will to power participates in a comprehension of the world. In this article, art is taken as a privileged way of communication – implicating corporeal-sensorial-conceptual – and of connection between humans. Problematized is the dream and the drunkenness as intensifications and expressions of life’s comprehension. Therefore, art is perceived as suggestion and invention, where the artistic intoxication breaks limits in the experience of life, and the artist, dominated by creative forces, claims, orders, obeys, proclaims love for life. The intention is also to consider how one can start from pain to create and how one can generate new and endless artistic forms through nightmares, daydreams, impulses, intoxication, enhancement, intensification in a plurality of subjects and matters. It is taken into consideration the fact that artistic creation is something that is intensified corporeally, expanded, continuously generated and acting on bodies. It is inextinguishable and a constant movement intertwining Apollonian and Dionysian instincts of destruction and creation of new forms. The concept of love also appears associated with conquering, that, in a process of intensification and drunkenness, impels the artist to generate and to transform matter. Just like a love relationship, love in Nietzsche requires time, patience, effort, courage, conquest, seduction, obedience, and command, potentiating the amplification of knowledge of the other / the world. Interlacing Nietzsche's philosophy, not with Modern Art, but with Contemporary Art, it is argued that intoxication, will to power (strongly connected with the creative will) and love still have a place in the artistic production as creative agents.

Keywords: artistic creation, body, intensification, psychophysiology, will to power

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179 Attributes of Gratitude in Promoting Purpose in Life of Thai Adolescents

Authors: Karnsunaphat Balthip, Bunrome Suwanphahu


Purpose in life is one attribute of the concept of spirituality which is used in health promotion to promote holistic wellbeing. Purpose is a significant foundation of motivation and achievement that guides adolescents down positive life paths. Adolescents who have life purpose are more likely to achieve greater success and wellbeing in their lives. The current study used qualitative research methodology to describe the experiences that enhanced the purpose in life of 27 Thai adolescents from different backgrounds, living in urban areas in southern Thailand. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and observation. Thematic analysis methods guided data analysis. The results showed that love and connectedness are important in enhancing purpose in life. They illustrate four attributes of love and connection reflecting the four attributes of gratitude that enhance purpose in life: (1) self-love, or gratitude to oneself, whereby participants endeavor to live life in a positive way by taking care of themselves based on moral and ethical values; (2) connectedness or gratitude to parents or significant others, whereby participants are committed to taking holistic care (physical, psychological, and spiritual) of their significant others; (3) connectedness or gratitude to peers, whereby participants support their peers to help them live their own lives in a positive way; and (4) connectedness or gratitude to the wider world (environment, society, nation and beyond), through a sense of altruism towards others. The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents to obtain a purpose in life.

Keywords: adolescent, gratitude, purpose in life, spirituality

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178 An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Style: A Case Study of a Chinese Translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat Pray Love

Authors: Elaine Y. L. Ng


Elizabeth Gilbert’s (2006) biography Eat, Pray, Love describes her travels to Italy, India, and Indonesia after a painful divorce. The author’s experiences with love, loss, search for happiness, and meaning have resonated with a huge readership. As regards the translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat, Pray, Love into Chinese, it was first translated by a Taiwanese translator He Pei-Hua and published in Taiwan in 2007 by Make Boluo Wenhua Chubanshe with the fairly catching title “Enjoy! Traveling Alone.” The same translation was translocated to China, republished in simplified Chinese characters by Shanxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe in 2008 and renamed in China, entitled “To Be a Girl for the Whole Life.” Later on, the same translation in simplified Chinese characters was reprinted by Hunan Wenyi Chubanshe in 2013. This study employs Munday’s (2002) systemic model for descriptive translation studies to investigate the translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat, Pray, Love into Chinese by the Taiwanese translator Hu Pei-Hua. It employs an interdisciplinary approach, combining systemic functional linguistics and corpus stylistics with sociohistorical research within a descriptive framework to study the translator’s discursive presence in the text. The research consists of three phases. The first phase is to locate the target text within its socio-cultural context. The target-text context concerning the para-texts, readers’ responses, and the publishers’ orientation will be explored. The second phase is to compare the source text and the target text for the categorization of translation shifts by using the methodological tools of systemic functional linguistics and corpus stylistics. The investigation concerns the rendering of mental clauses and speech and thought presentation. The final phase is an explanation of the causes of translation shifts. The linguistic findings are related to the extra-textual information collected in an effort to ascertain the motivations behind the translator’s choices. There exist sets of possible factors that may have contributed to shaping the textual features of the given translation within a specific socio-cultural context. The study finds that the translator generally reproduces the mental clauses and speech and thought presentation closely according to the original. Nevertheless, the language of the translation has been widely criticized to be unidiomatic and stiff, losing the elegance of the original. In addition, the several Chinese translations of the given text produced by one Taiwanese and two Chinese publishers are basically the same. They are repackaged slightly differently, mainly with the change of the book cover and its captions for each version. By relating the textual findings to the extra-textual data of the study, it is argued that the popularity of the Chinese translation of Gilbert’s (2006) Eat, Pray, Love may not be attributed to the quality of the translation. Instead, it may have to do with the way the work is promoted strategically by the social media manipulated by the four e-bookstores promoting and selling the book online in China.

Keywords: chinese translation of eat pray love, corpus stylistics, motivations for translation shifts, systemic approach to translation studies

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177 Swahili Codification of Emotions: A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis

Authors: Rosanna Tramutoli


Studies on several languages have demonstrated how different emotions are categorized in various linguistic constructions. It exists in several writings on the codification of emotions in Western African languages. A recent study on the semantic description of Swahili body terminology has demonstrated that body part terms, such as moyo (heart), uso (face) and jicho (eye) are involved in several metaphorical expressions describing emotions. However, so far hardly anything has been written on the linguistic description of emotions in Swahili. Thus, this study describes how emotional concepts, such as ‘love’ and ‘anger’ are codified in Swahili, in order to highlight common semantic and syntactic patterns, etymological sources and metaphorical expressions. The research seeks to answer a number of questions, such as which are the Swahili terms for ‘emotions’? Is there a distinction between ‘emotions’ and ‘feelings’? Which emotional lexical items have Bantu origin and which come from Arabic? Which metaphorical expressions/cognitive schemas are used to codify emotions? (e.g. kumpanda mtu kichwani, lit. ‘to climb on somebody’s head’, to make somebody feel angry, kushuka moyo, lit. ‘to be down the heart’, to feel discouraged, kumpa mtu moyo lit. ‘to give someone heart’, to encourage someone). Which body terms are involved as ‘containers/locus of emotions’? For instance, it has been shown that moyo (‘heart’) occurs as container of ‘love’ (e.g. kumtia mtu moyoni, lit. ‘to put somebody in the heart’, to love somebody very much) and ‘kindness’ (moyo wake ulijaa hisani, ‘his heart was filled with kindness’). The study also takes into account the syntactic patterns used to code emotions. For instance, when does the experiencer occur in subject position? (e.g. nina furaha, nimefurahi, ‘I am happy’) and when in object position (e.g. Huruma iliniingia moyoni, lit. ‘Pity entered me inside my heart’, ‘I felt pity’)? Data have been collected mostly through the analysis of Swahili digital corpora, containing different kinds of Swahili texts (e.g. novels, drama, political essays).

Keywords: emotions, cognitive linguistics, metaphors, Swahili

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176 Alienation in Somecontemporary Anglo Arab Novels

Authors: Atef Abdallah Abouelmaaty


The aim of this paper is to study the theme of alienation in some contemporary novels of the most prominent Arab writers who live in Britain and write in English. The paper will focus on three female novelists of Arab origins who won wide fame among reading public, and also won international prizes for their literary creation. The first is the Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif(born in 1950) whose novel The Map of Love(1999) was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize, and has been translated into twenty one languages and sold over a million copies. The second is the Jordanian Fadia Faqir (born in 1956) whose My Name is Salma(2007) was translated into thirteen languages, and was a runner up for the ALOA literary prize. The third is the Sudanese Leila Aboulela(born in 1964) who The Translator was nominated for the Orange Prize and was chosen as a a notable book of the year by the New York Times in 2006. The main reason of choosing the theme of alienation is that it is the qualifying feature of the above mentioned novels. This is because the theme is clearly projected and we can see different kinds of alienation: alienation of man from himself, alienation of man from other men, and alienation of man from society. The paper is concerned with studying this central theme together with its different forms. Moreover, the paper will try to identify the main causes of this alienation among which are frustrated love, the failure to adjust to change, and ethnic pride.

Keywords: alienation, Anglo-Arab, contemporary, novels

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175 Improving English by Reading Local Literature: The Case for Thai Primary Children

Authors: Wipada Prasansaph


The aim of this research is twofold: to develop a local literature (simplified English translation version) reading booklet for Thai primary school children (the fourth graders) and to encourage the love of reading in English by reading local literature. An excerpt from Thai literature namely Phra-apaimani, the reading requirement for Primary 4 was selected to be translated into English in simplified language with cartoon pictures to illustrate the key happenings of the story. After the first draft of the booklet development, the samples of the booklets were distributed to 3 educator experts to call for validity and comments on 1) the appropriateness of the English language, 2) the organization of the booklet, 3) the comprehension of the story, and 4) the relevance to the core curriculum of Basic Education of Thailand (B.E.2551). The IOC (Index of Item – Objective Congruence) was 0.9 indicated that the material is applicable (with some comments and suggestions). After the first amendment, the booklets were distributed to 30 fourth graders (in 3 schools – 10 in each school), 10 English teachers of Primary 4, and 10 educational supervisors for English subjects (in primary level) to call for comments on 1) the comprehension of the story 2) the organization of the booklet, and 3) the encouragement for the love of reading in English. The English reading booklet on Phra-apaimani for Thai primary children, the IOC questionnaire (with the open-ended questions) for the educator experts, and the rating scales for the students, the teachers, and the educational supervisors were used as the instruments of the research. The findings revealed that most students rated ‘positive’ level for the comprehension of the story, while the teachers and the educational supervisors rated ‘highly positive’. The 3 groups rated ‘highly positive’ for both the organization of the booklet and for the encouragement for the love of reading in English. It is recommended that there should be more production of English reading texts for children, especially the texts that children already have some background knowledge. Moreover, illustration is the most crucial part for the children’s reading texts.

Keywords: English language, reading skill, primary children, Thai literature

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174 Quality Care from the Perception of the Patient in Ambulatory Cancer Services: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Herlin Vallejo, Jhon Osorio


Quality is a concept that has gained importance in different scenarios over time, especially in the area of health. The nursing staff is one of the actors that contributes most to the care process and the satisfaction of the users in the evaluation of quality. However, until now, there are few tools to measure the quality of care in specialized performance scenarios. Patients receiving ambulatory cancer treatments can face various problems, which can increase their level of distress, so improving the quality of outpatient care for cancer patients should be a priority for oncology nursing. The experience of the patient in relation to the care in these services has been little investigated. The purpose of this study was to understand the perception that patients have about quality care in outpatient chemotherapy services. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was carried out in 9 patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with cancer, who were treated at the Institute of Cancerology, in outpatient chemotherapy rooms, with a minimum of three months of treatment with curative intention and which had given your informed consent. The total of participants was determined by the theoretical saturation, and the selection of these was for convenience. Unstructured interviews were conducted, recorded and transcribed. The analysis of the information was done under the technique of content analysis. Three categories emerged that reflect the perception that patients have regarding quality care: patient-centered care, care with love and effects of care. Patients highlighted situations that show that care is centered on them, incorporating elements of patient-centered care from the institutional, infrastructure, qualities of care and what for them, in contrast, means inappropriate care. Care with love as a perception of quality care means for patients that the nursing staff must have certain qualities, perceive caring with love as a family affair, limits on care with love and the nurse-patient relationship. Quality care has effects on both the patient and the nursing staff. One of the most relevant effects was the confidence that the patient develops towards the nurse, besides to transform the unreal images about cancer treatment with chemotherapy. On the other hand, care with quality generates a commitment to self-care and is a facilitator in the transit of oncological disease and chemotherapeutic treatment, but from the perception of a healing transit. It is concluded that care with quality from the perception of patients, is a construction that goes beyond the structural issues and is related to an institutional culture of quality that is reflected in the attitude of the nursing staff and in the acts of Care that have positive effects on the experience of chemotherapy and disease. With the results, it contributes to better understand how quality care is built from the perception of patients and to open a range of possibilities for the future development of an individualized instrument that allows evaluating the quality of care from the perception of patients with cancer.

Keywords: nursing care, oncology service hospital, quality management, qualitative studies

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173 The Stereotypes of Female Roles in TV Drama of Taiwan and Japan

Authors: Ya Ting Tang


Social learning theory has told us that the cognitions of gender roles come from learning. Thus, the images of gender roles which media describes will shape our cognitions. Taiwan and Japan are both in the East Asian cultural Sphere, and more or less influenced by the traditional Chinese culture. But our social structure and changes must be different. Others, the study also concerns that, with the rise of female consciousness in society, whether the female stereotype in drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved. This research first uses content analysis to analyze drama of Taiwan and Japan in 2003 and 2013 on how to shape female roles. Then use text analysis to conduct a qualitative analysis. Result of this study showed that drama on how to depict women indeed have changed, women are no longer just talk about love, but can serve as president or doctor, and show its mettle in the workplace. In Japanese drama, the female roles have diverse occupation than Taiwanese drama, and not just a background character set. But in most Taiwanese drama, female roles are given a career, but it always put emphasis on women emotionally. To include, although the stereotype in the drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved, female will still be derided due to their ages, love or marriage situations. Taiwanese drama must depict the occupation of female more diverse and let the female roles have more space to play, rather than focusing on romance which women of any occupation can have.

Keywords: female images, stereotype, TV drama, gender roles

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