Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: immunoglobulin G

45 Immunoglobulin G Glycosylation Profile in Influenza and COVID-19 Infected Patients

Authors: Marina Kljaković-Gašpić Batinjan, Tea Petrović, Frano Vučković, Irzal Hadžibegović, Barbara Radovani, Ivana Jurin, Lovorka Đerek, Eva Huljev, Alemka Markotić, Ivica Lukšić, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Gordan Lauc, Ivan Gudelj, Rok Čivljak

Abstract:

Immunoglobulin G has essential role in defense against infectious diseases, but its role cannot be fully recognized without understanding of changes in its N-glycans attached to the Fc domain. We analyzed and compared total IgG glycome in plasma samples of patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. We found similarities in IgG glycosylation changes in COVID-19 survivors and influenza patients that could be the consequence of adequate immune response to enveloped viruses, while observed changes in deceased COVID-19 patients may indicate its deviation.

Keywords: COVID-19, glycosylation, immunoglobulin G, influenza, pneumonia, viral infection

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44 Dicarbonyl Methylglyoxal Induces Structural Perturbations, Aggregation and Immunogenicity in IgG with Implications in Auto-Immune Response in Diabetes

Authors: Sidra Islam, Moin Uddin, Mir A. Rouf

Abstract:

A wide variety of pathological disorders owing to hyperglycemic conditions involves structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins. The implication of methylglyoxal (MG) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is studied in the present study. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches MG was found to perturb the structure of IgG, effect its microenvironment and leads to aggregate formation. Furthermore, MG-IgG was found to be highly immunogenic inducing high titre antibodies in female rabbits. Clinical studies revealed the presence of circulating anti-MG-IgG antibodies as analyzed by direct binding ELISA. The circulating auto antibodies were highly specific for MG-IgG as revealed by inhibition ELISA. Thus it can be concluded that MG is a powerful agent with a high damaging potential. To IgG. It is highly capable of generating immune response that contributes to the immunopathology associated with diabetes. Dicarbonyl adducts may emerge as potential biomarkers for T2DM.

Keywords: immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin G, methylglyoxal, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
43 IgA/λ Plasma Cell Myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis: A Case Report

Authors: Kai Pei Huang, Ting Chung Hung, Li Ching Wu

Abstract:

Amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions wherein amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organ or tissues and cause harm. Among the several forms of amyloidosis, the principal types of that in inpatient medical services are the AL amyloidosis (primary) and AA amyloidois (secondary). AL Amyloidois is due to deposition of protein derived from overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain in plasma cell myeloma. Furthermore, it is a systemic disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, including heavy proteinemia and edema, heptosplenomegaly, otherwise unexplained heart failure. We reported a 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria (UPCR:1679.8), leukocytosis (WBC:16.2 x 10^3/uL), results of serum urea nitrogen (39mg/dL), creatinine (0.76 mg/dL), IgG (748 mg/dL.), IgA (635 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), kappa light chain(18.8 mg/dL), lambda light chain (110.0 mg/dL) and kappa/lambda ratio (0.17). Renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in glomerular mesangial area, and Congo red stain highlights amyloid deposition in glomeruli. Additional lab studies included serum protein electrophoresis, which shows a major monoclonal peak in β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. We treated sample with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to clarify two IgA/λ are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Later examination confirmed it existed plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow, and the immunohistochemical staining showed monotypic for λ light chain and are positive for IgA. All findings mentioned above reveal it is a case of plasma cell myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain, plasma cell myeloma, serum protein electrophoresis

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42 Using Machine-Learning Methods for Allergen Amino Acid Sequence's Permutations

Authors: Kuei-Ling Sun, Emily Chia-Yu Su

Abstract:

Allergy is a hypersensitive overreaction of the immune system to environmental stimuli, and a major health problem. These overreactions include rashes, sneezing, fever, food allergies, anaphylaxis, asthmatic, shock, or other abnormal conditions. Allergies can be caused by food, insect stings, pollen, animal wool, and other allergens. Their development of allergies is due to both genetic and environmental factors. Allergies involve immunoglobulin E antibodies, a part of the body’s immune system. Immunoglobulin E antibodies will bind to an allergen and then transfer to a receptor on mast cells or basophils triggering the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Based on the increasingly serious problem of environmental change, changes in lifestyle, air pollution problem, and other factors, in this study, we both collect allergens and non-allergens from several databases and use several machine learning methods for classification, including logistic regression (LR), stepwise regression, decision tree (DT) and neural networks (NN) to do the model comparison and determine the permutations of allergen amino acid’s sequence.

Keywords: allergy, classification, decision tree, logistic regression, machine learning

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41 Expand Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis to Where It Is Needed the Most

Authors: Henry Wilde, Thiravat Hemachudha

Abstract:

Human rabies deaths are underreported worldwide at 55,000 annual cases; more than of dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Almost half are children. A recent study from the Philippines of nearly 2,000 rabies deaths revealed that none of had received incomplete or no post exposure prophylaxis. Coming from a canine rabies endemic country, this is not unique. There are two major barriers to reducing human rabies deaths: 1) the large number of unvaccinated dogs and 2) post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) that is not available, incomplete, not affordable, or not within reach for bite victims travel means. Only the first barrier, inadequate vaccination of dogs, is now being seriously addressed. It is also often not done effectively or sustainably. Rabies PEP has evolved as a complex, prolonged process, usually delegated to centers in larger cities. It is virtually unavailable in villages or small communities where most dog bites occur, victims are poor and usually unable to travel a long distance multiple times to receive PEP. Reseacrh that led to better understanding of the pathophysiology of rabies and immune responses to potent vaccines and immunoglobulin have allowed shortening and making PEP more evidence based. This knowledge needs to be adopted and applied so that PEP can be rendered safely and affordably where needed the most: by village health care workers who have long performed more complex services after appropriate training. Recent research makes this an important and long neglected goal that is now within our means to implement.

Keywords: rabies, post-exposure prophylaxis, availability, immunoglobulin

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
40 The Combination of Curcuma Extract and IgG Colostrum on Strongyloides Infection in CD1 Mice

Authors: Laurentius J. M. Rumokoy, Jimmy Posangi, Wisje Lusia Toar, Julio Lopez Aban

Abstract:

The threat of pathogen infection agents to the neonates is a major health problem to the new born life livestock. Neonate losses became an important case in the world as well as in Indonesia. This condition can be triggered by an infection with nematode in conjunction with a failure of immunoglobulin passive transfer. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the curcuma combined with IgG colostrum on the development of parasites in the gut of CD1 mice. Animal experiments were divided in four groups (G) based on the treatment: G1 (infection only); G2 (curcuma+infection), G3 (IgG + infection) and G4 (curcuma+IgG+infection). The parameters measured were EPG (eggs per gram) and female in the intestine. The results obtained showed that the treatment has no a significant influence on the number of eggs per gram of feces in the group infected compared to the control group without receiving IgG nor curcuma. However, the EGP response tended to decrease at day 6 in G3 and G4 with a minimum number at zero eggs. This performant showed that the immunoglobulin-G and curcuma substances could slightly decreased the number of eggs in animal infected with Strongyloides. The results obtained showed also that the treatment has no significant difference (P > 0.05) on female larva in the gut of MCD1 experimental. In other side, we found that the best performance to inhibit the female quantity in the gut was the treatment with IgG and infection of parasite in G3. In this treatment, the minimum number was five female only in the gut. The results described IgG response was better than the curcuma single use in reducing the female parasite in the gut. This positive response of IgG compared to other controls group was associated with the function of colostrum antibodies.

Keywords: parasites, livestock, curcuma, colostrums

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39 Immune Complex Components Act as Agents in Relapsing Fever Borrelia Mediated Rosette Formation

Authors: Mukunda Upreti, Jill Storry, Rafael Björk, Emilie Louvet, Johan Normark, Sven Bergström

Abstract:

Borrelia duttonii and most other relapsing fever species are Gram-negative bacteria which cause a blood borne infection characterized by the binding of bacterium to erythrocytes. The bacteria associate with two or more erythrocytes to form clusters of cells into rosettes. Rosetting is a major virulence factor and the mechanism is believed to facilitate persistence of bacteria in the circulatory system and the avoidance of host immune cells through masking or steric hindrance effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of rosette formation are still poorly understood. This study aims at determining the molecules involved in the rosette formation phenomenon. Fractionated serum, using different affinity purification methods, was investigated as a rosetting agent and IgG and at least one other serum components were needed for rosettes to form. An IgG titration curve demonstrated that IgG alone is not enough to restore rosette formation level to the level whole serum gives. IgG hydrolysis by IdeS ( Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes) and deglycosylation using N-Glycanase proved that the whole IgG molecule regardless of saccharide moieties is critical for Borrelia induced rosetting. Complement components C3 and C4 were also important serum molecules necessary to maintain optimum rosetting rates. The deactivation of complement network and serum depletion with C3 and C4 significantly reduced the rosette formation rate. The dependency of IgG and complement components also implied involvement of the complement receptor (CR1). Rosette formation test with Knops null RBC and sCR1 confirmed that CR1 is also part of Borrelia induced rosette formation.

Keywords: complement components C3 and C4, complement receptor 1, Immunoglobulin G, Knops null, Rosetting

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38 Hyper-Immunoglobulin E (Hyper-Ige) Syndrome In Skin Of Color: A Retrospective Single-Centre Observational Study

Authors: Rohit Kothari, Muneer Mohamed, Vivekanandh K., Sunmeet Sandhu, Preema Sinha, Anuj Bhatnagar

Abstract:

Introduction: Hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterised by triad of severe atopic dermatitis, recurrent pulmonary infections, and recurrent staphylococcal skin infections. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, typical clinical features, and not mere rise in serum-IgE levels, which may be seen in multiple conditions. Genetic studies are not always possible in a resource poor setting. This study highlights various presentations of Hyper-IgE syndrome in skin of color children. Case-series: Our study had six children of Hyper-IgE syndrome aged twomonths to tenyears. All had onset in first ten months of life except one with a late-onset at two years. All had recurrent eczematoid rash, which responded poorly to conventional treatment, secondary infection, multiple episodes of hospitalisation for pulmonary infection, and raised serum IgE levels. One case had occasional vesicles, bullae, and crusted plaques over both the extremities. Genetic study was possible in only one of them who was found to have pathogenic homozygous deletions of exon-15 to 18 in DOCK8 gene following which he underwent bone marrow transplant (BMT), however, succumbed to lower respiratory tract infection two months after BMT and rest of them received multiple courses of antibiotics, oral/ topical steroids, and cyclosporine intermittently with variable response. Discussion: Our study highlights various characteristics, presentation, and management of this rare syndrome in children. Knowledge of these manifestations in skin of color will facilitate early identification and contribute to optimal care of the patients as representative data on the same is limited in literature.

Keywords: absolute eosinophil count, atopic dermatitis, eczematous rash, hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome, pulmonary infection, serum IgE, skin of color

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37 Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin on Growth, Survival and Some Haematological and Immunological Parameters of Caspian Brown Trout, Salmo trutta caspius Juveniles

Authors: Hossein Khara, Mahmoud Sayyadborani, Mohammad Sayyadborani

Abstract:

In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary levels of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and their combinations on growth, survival and some haematological and immunological parameters of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius juveniles. 15 experimental treatments and one control group with three replicates were considered for experiment. The experimental treatments were fish fed by experimental diets containing different levels of Vit C and E as follow: T1: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T2: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T3: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T4: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T5: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T6: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T7: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T8: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T9: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T10: Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T11: Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T12: Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T13: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1), T14: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) T15: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1). Also a non-vitamin supplemented was considered as control group. Growth parameters were measured monthly and serum parameters assayed at the end of the experiment. According to our results, Vit C and E improved survival and growth parameters including specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain percent (WG%) and biomass. The highest values of these parameters obtained in T8, T9 and T8 respectively. The lowest FCR obtained in T8. The haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) were higher in vitamin treated groups than control group with highest values in T8. In T13, WBC values were higher compared to other experimental groups. The immunological parameters including lysozyme activity, Immunoglobulin (IgM) and total immunoglobulin (TIg) were significantly higher in vitamin supplemented groups than in control group. In this regard the highest values of these parameters were found in T12. The lowest values of TIg and lysozyme activity were observed in control group and fish fed by only vitamin E i.e. T13, T14 and T15. In conclusion, our results show that Vit C and E in combination or only can improve growth, survival, haematological and immunological indices of Caspian brown trout.

Keywords: vitamins E, vitamins C, growth, survival, haematological parameters, immunological parameters

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36 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Hemato-Oncology Patients in Tertiary Hospital of East Cost Malaysia

Authors: Aisha Khodijah Kholib Jati, Suharni Mohamad, Azlan Husin, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). It is commonly asymptomatic in normal individual, but it can be fatal to immunocompromised patients as it can lead to severe complications such as encephalitis, chorioetinitis and myocarditis. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and its association with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 56 hemato-oncology patients were screened for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and IgG avidity of T. gondii by using ELISA Kit (BioRad, USA). For anti-T. gondii IgG antibody, titer ≥ 9 IU/ml was considered as recent infection, while for IgM, ratio ≥ 1.00 was considered as reactive for the anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Low avidity index is considered as recent infection within 20 weeks while high avidity considered as past infection. T. gondii exposure, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was assessed by a questionnaire and interview. Results: A total of 28 (50.0%) hemato-oncology patients were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Out of that total, 27 (48.21%) patients were IgG+/IgM- and one patient (1.79%) was IgG+/IgM+ with high avidity index. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, employment status, stem cell transplant, blood transfusion, close contact with cats, water supply, and consumption of undercooked meat were not significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity rate. Discussion: The seropositivity rate of IgG anti-T. gondii was high among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. With impaired immune system, these patients might have a severe consequence if the infection reactivated. Therefore, screening for anti-T. gondii may be considered in the future. Moreover, health programme towards healthy food and good hygiene practice need to be implemented.

Keywords: immunocompromised, seroprevalence, socio-demographic, toxoplasmosis

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35 Influence of Pediococcus Pentasaceus Isolate “Dadih” (Buffalo Milk Fermended in Bamboo) the Bowel Frequence, Secretory Immunoglobulin a Level and Height of Ileum Villi of the Mice EPEC Induced Diarrhea

Authors: Endang Purwati Rahayuningsih

Abstract:

The aim of this study is Enteropathogenic Eschericia coli O157 (EPEC) is one of the pathogen that can cause inflamation and damage intestinal mucosa, which is leading diarrhea. Inflamation in the intestinal mucosa proved by the presence of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) on the feces. Isolate dadih is Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) as a probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is very usefull to improve sIgA and intestinal mucosa. The objective, to determine the dose and duration administration of P. pentosaceus for bowel frequence, sIgA level and height of illeum villi in mice EPEC-induced diarrhea. Method, using Complete Randomized design studies in mice EPEC-induced diarrhea. Mice was classified into 2 factors. A factor (dose of probiotic) and B factor (duration of probiotic observation) consisted of 0 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours. A factor consisted of negative control, positive control (mice induced by EPEC) and 3 different dose experimental mice. The results were a very significant interaction between dose and duration administration of P. pentosaceus. Mean of the most frequent defecation of mice EPEC-induced was 55 graetly reduced into 12 ,after 24 hours administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010 cfu/g, Mean of sIgA level of mice induced EPEC was 1,60 μg/ml, very significant different (p<0,01). Mean of sIgA level after 24 administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g was 2,65 μg/ml. Mean of height of illeum villi after induced EPEC 53,04 μm with very significant different after 24 hours administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g (142,881μm). This study concluded that P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g after 24 hours is very beneficial to reduced bowel frequence, increase sIgA level and improve the height illeum villi of mice EPEC-induced diarrhea.

Keywords: Pediococcus pentosaceus, sIgA, enteropathogenic Eschericia coli O157, diarrhea, illeum villi

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34 Comparison with Two Clinical Cases of Plasma Cell Neoplasm by Using the Method of Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Kai Pai Huang

Abstract:

Background: There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are found in our lab. Today, we want to compare with two cases using the method of capillary electrophoresis. Method: Serum is prepared and electrophoresis is performed at alkaline PH in a capillary using the Sebia® Capillary 2. Albumin and globulins are detected by the detector which is located in the cathode of the capillary and the signals are transformed to peaks. Serum was treated with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to monomer immunoglobulin to clarify two M-protein are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Result: Case 1: A 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria, leukocytosis, results of high serum IgA and lambda light chain. A renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in the glomerular mesangial area. Serum protein electrophoresis shows a major monoclonal peak in the β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. Case 2: A 55-year-old male presenting abdominal distension and low back pain for more than one month. Laboratory data showed T12 T8 compression fracture, results of high serum IgM and kappa light chain. Bone marrow aspiration showed the cells from the bone marrow are B cells with monotypic kappa chain expression. Bone marrow biopsy found this is lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom macroglobulin). Serum protein electrophoresis shows a monoclonal peak in the β region and the immunotyping studies for serum showed IgM/κ type. Conclusion: Plasma cell neoplasm can be diagnosed by many examinations. Among them, using capillary electrophoresis by a lab can separate several types of gammopathy and the quantification of a monoclonal peak can be used to evaluate the patients’ prognosis or treatment.

Keywords: plasma cell neoplasm, capillary electrophoresis, serum protein electrophoresis, immunotyping

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33 Transition in Protein Profile, Maillard Reaction Products and Lipid Oxidation of Flavored Ultra High Temperature Treated Milk

Authors: Muhammad Ajmal

Abstract:

- Thermal processing and subsequent storage of ultra-heat treated (UHT) milk leads to alteration in protein profile, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation. Concentration of carbohydrates in normal and flavored version of UHT milk is considerably different. Transition in protein profile, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation in UHT flavored milk was determined for 90 days at ambient conditions and analyzed at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. Protein profile, hydroxymethyl furfural, furosine, Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine, fatty acid profile, free fatty acids, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were determined. After 90 days of storage, fat, protein, total solids contents and pH were significantly less than the initial values determined at 0 day. As compared to protein profile normal UHT milk, more pronounced changes were recorded in different fractions of protein in UHT milk at 45 and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine content of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 3.5, 6.9 and 15.2 µg tyrosine/ml. After 45 days of storage, the decline in αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin were 3.35%, 10.5%, 7.89%, 18.8%, 53.6%, 20.1%, 26.9 and 37.5%. After 90 days of storage, the decline in αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin were 11.2%, 34.8%, 14.3%, 33.9%, 56.9%, 24.8%, 36.5% and 43.1%. Hydroxy methyl furfural content of UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 1.56, 4.18 and 7.61 (µmol/L). Furosine content of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage intervals were 278, 392 and 561 mg/100g protein. Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine content of UHT flavored milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 67, 135 and 343mg/kg protein. After 90 days of storage of flavored UHT milk, the loss of unsaturated fatty acids 45.7% from the initial values. At 0, 45 and 90 days of storage, free fatty acids of flavored UHT milk were 0.08%, 0.11% and 0.16% (p<0.05). Peroxide value of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 0.22, 0.65 and 2.88 (MeqO²/kg). Sensory analysis of flavored UHT milk after 90 days indicated that appearance, flavor and mouth feel score significantly decreased from the initial values recorded at 0 day. Findings of this investigation evidenced that in flavored UHT milk more pronounced changes take place in protein profile, Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation as compared to normal UHT milk.

Keywords: UHT flavored milk , hydroxymethyl furfural, lipid oxidation, sensory properties

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32 ICAM-2, A Protein of Antitumor Immune Response in Mekong Giant Catfish (Pangasianodon gigas)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

Abstract:

ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2) or CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102) is type I trans-membrane glycoproteins, composing 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains. ICAM-2 plays the particular role in immune response and cell surveillance. It is concerned in innate and specific immunity, cell survival signal, apoptosis, and anticancer. EST clone of ICAM-2, from P. gigas blood cell EST libraries, showed high identity to human ICAM-2 (92%) with conserve region of ICAM N-terminal domain and part of Ig superfamily. Gene and protein of ICAM-2 has been founded in mammals. This is the first report of ICAM-2 in fish.

Keywords: ICAM-2, CD102, Pangasianodon gigas, antitumor

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31 Subdural Hematoma: A Rare Complication of ITP

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Rana Shoaib Hamid

Abstract:

Subdural hematoma (SDH) is an extremely rare complication of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We present a case of a 34 years old female who presented to the Emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of headache, on and off gums bleeding and upper respiratory tract symptoms for the last two weeks. Examination was unremarkable except some purpura over limbs. Investigations revealed zero platelets and peripheral film suggestive of ITP. Computerized tomography (CT) brain revealed bilateral SDH in the frontal areas extending into Falx cerebri. Impression of ITP with SDH was made. Patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), methyl prednisolone and initial Platelets transfusion. Patient recovered uneventfully with platelets reaching normal levels within a few days and resolution of SDH without surgery.

Keywords: headache, immune thrombocytopenia, purpura, subdural hematoma

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30 Immunoglobulins and Importance in Ruminants

Authors: M. Akoz, O. B. Citil, I. Aydin

Abstract:

Colostrum secreted by the mammary glands after birth in the early days, a high proportion of fat, protein and ash containing a secretion containing low amounts of casein and lactose. Especially immunoglobulins contain high proportions. Maternal immunoglobulins own immune system to protect the newborn against neonatal disease until development are very important matter. However, colostrum is transferred to the offspring due to placental barrier in ruminants. Immunoglobulins are absorbed through the intestinal epithelium but absorption can vary under the influence of some factors. These factors are among the priority ones taking colostrum first time, amount, concentration, the metabolic status of the newborn. intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins occurs over the first 24 h high. Absorption from the gut after nine hours, 50% after 24 hours was only 11%. On the other hand pup's digestive system degrade the enzymes after 24 hours immunoglobulins. Bovine colostrum in the composition while basic immune IgG, IgA and IgM are also available. Total IgG in colostrum of ruminants, while in other species is a greater amount in blood serum.

Keywords: immunoglobulin, ruminants, colostrum, immune system

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29 Improved Approach to the Treatment of Resistant Breast Cancer

Authors: Lola T. Alimkhodjaeva, Lola T. Zakirova, Soniya S. Ziyavidenova

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is still one of the urgent oncology problems. The essential obstacle to the full anti-tumor therapy implementation is drug resistance development. Taking into account the fact that chemotherapy is main antitumor treatment in BC patients, the important task is to improve treatment results. Certain success in overcoming this situation has been associated with the use of methods of extracorporeal blood treatment (ECBT), plasmapheresis. Materials and Methods: We examined 129 women with resistant BC stages 3-4, aged between 56 to 62 years who had previously received 2 courses of CAF chemotherapy. All patients additionally underwent 2 courses of CAF chemotherapy but against the background ECBT with ultrasonic exposure. We studied the following parameters: 1. The highlights of peripheral blood before and after therapy. 2. The state of cellular immunity and identification of activation markers CD23 +, CD25 +, CD38 +, CD95 + on lymphocytes was performed using monoclonal antibodies. Evaluation of humoral immunity was determined by the level of main classes of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM in serum. 3. The degree of tumor regression was assessed by WHO recommended 4 gradations. (complete - 100%, partial - more than 50% of initial size, process stabilization–regression is less than 50% of initial size and tumor advance progressing). 4. Medical pathomorphism in the tumor was determined by Lavnikova. 5. The study of immediate and remote results, up to 3 years and more. Results and Discussion: After performing extracorporeal blood treatment anemia occurred in 38.9%, leukopenia in 36.8%, thrombocytopenia in 34.6%, hypolymphemia in 26.8%. Studies of immunoglobulin fractions in blood serum were able to establish a certain relationship between the classes of immunoglobulin A, G, M and their functions. The results showed that after treatment the values of main immunoglobulins in patients’ serum approximated to normal. Analysis of expression of activation markers CD25 + cells bearing receptors for IL-2 (IL-2Rα chain) and CD95 + lymphocytes that were mediated physiological apoptosis showed the tendency to increase, which apparently was due to activation of cellular immunity cytokines allocated by ultrasonic treatment. To carry out ECBT on the background of ultrasonic treatment improved the parameters of the immune system, which were expressed in stimulation of cellular immunity and correcting imbalances in humoral immunity. The key indicator of conducted treatment efficiency is the immediate result measured by the degree of tumor regression. After ECBT performance the complete regression was 10.3%, partial response - 55.5%, process stabilization - 34.5%, tumor advance progressing no observed. Morphological investigations of tumor determined therapeutic pathomorphism grade 2 in 15%, in 25% - grade 3 and therapeutic pathomorphism grade 4 in 60% of patients. One of the main criteria for the effect of conducted treatment is to study the remission terms in the postoperative period (up to 3 years or more). The remission terms up to 3 years with ECBT was 34.5%, 5-year survival was 54%. Carried out research suggests that a comprehensive study of immunological and clinical course of breast cancer allows the differentiated approach to the choice of methods for effective treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, immunoglobulins, extracorporeal blood treatment, chemotherapy

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28 DNA Vaccine Study against Vaccinia Virus Using In vivo Electroporation

Authors: Jai Myung Yang, Na Young Kim, Sung Ho Shin

Abstract:

The adverse reactions of current live smallpox vaccines and potential use of smallpox as a bioterror weapon have heightened the development of new effective vaccine for this infectious disease. In the present study, DNA vaccine vector was produced which was optimized for expression of the vaccinia virus L1 antigen in the mouse model. A plasmid IgM-tL1R, which contains codon-optimized L1R gene, was constructed and fused with an IgM signal sequence under the regulation of a SV40 enhancer. The expression and secretion of recombinant L1 protein was confirmed in vitro 293 T cell. Mice were administered the DNA vaccine by electroporation and challenged with vaccinia virus. We observed that immunization with IgM-tL1R induced potent neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge. Isotyping studies reveal that immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody predominated after the immunization, indicative of a T helper type 1 response. Our results suggest that an optimized DNA vaccine, IgM-tL1R, can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune response and provide protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge.

Keywords: DNA vaccine, electroporation, L1R, vaccinia virus

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27 Targeting Trypanosoma brucei Using Antibody Drug Conjugates against the Transferrin Receptor

Authors: Camilla Trevor, Matthew K. Higgins, Andrea Gonzalez-Munoz, Mark Carrington

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Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease affecting both humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The diseases are caused by infection with African trypanosomes, protozoa transmitted by tsetse flies. Treatment currently relies on the use of chemotherapeutics with ghastly side effects. Here, we describe the development of effective antibody-drug conjugates that target the T. brucei transferrin receptor. The receptor is essential for trypanosome growth in a mammalian host but there are approximately 12 variants of the transferrin receptor in the genome. Two of the most divergent variants were used to generate recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G using phage display and we identified cross-reactive antibodies that bind both variants using phage ELISA, fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays and surface plasmon resonance. Fluorescent antibodies were used to demonstrate uptake into trypanosomes in culture. Toxin-conjugated antibodies were effective at killing trypanosomes at sub-nanomolar concentrations. The approach of using antibody-drug conjugates has proven highly effective.

Keywords: antibody-drug conjugates, phage display, transferrin receptor, trypanosomes

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26 A Rare Case of Atypical Guillian-Barre Syndrome Following Antecedent Dengue Infection

Authors: Amlan Datta

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Dengue is an arboviral, vector borne infection, quite prevalent in tropical countries such as India. Approximately, 1 to 25% of cases may give rise to neurological complication, such as, seizure, delirium, Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS), multiple cranial nerve palsies, intracranial thrombosis, stroke-like presentations, to name a few. Dengue fever, as an antecedent to GBS is uncommon, especially in adults.Here, we report a case about a middle aged lady who presented with an acute onset areflexic ascending type of polyradiculoneuropathy along with bilateral lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy, as well as abducens and motor component of trigeminal (V3) weakness. Her respiratory and neck muscles were spared. She had an established episode of dengue fever (NS1 and dengue IgM positive) 7 days prior to the weakness. Nerve conduction study revealed a demyelinating polyradiculopathy of both lower limbs and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytological dissociation. She was treated with 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), following which her limb weakness improved considerably. This case highlights GBS as a potential complication following dengue fever.

Keywords: areflexic, demyelinating, dengue, polyradiculoneuropathy

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25 Electroactive Ferrocenyl Dendrimers as Transducers for Fabrication of Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor

Authors: Sudeshna Chandra, Christian Gäbler, Christian Schliebe, Heinrich Lang

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Highly branched dendrimers provide structural homogeneity, controlled composition, comparable size to biomolecules, internal porosity and multiple functional groups for conjugating reactions. Electro-active dendrimers containing multiple redox units have generated great interest in their use as electrode modifiers for development of biosensors. The electron transfer between the redox-active dendrimers and the biomolecules play a key role in developing a biosensor. Ferrocenes have multiple and electrochemically equivalent redox units that can act as electron “pool” in a system. The ferrocenyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer is capable of transferring multiple numbers of electrons under the same applied potential. Therefore, they can be used for dual purposes: one in building a film over the electrode for immunosensors and the other for immobilizing biomolecules for sensing. Electrochemical immunosensor, thus developed, exhibit fast and sensitive analysis, inexpensive and involve no prior sample pre-treatment. Electrochemical amperometric immunosensors are even more promising because they can achieve a very low detection limit with high sensitivity. Detection of the cancer biomarkers at an early stage can provide crucial information for foundational research of life science, clinical diagnosis and prevention of disease. Elevated concentration of biomarkers in body fluid is an early indication of some type of cancerous disease and among all the biomarkers, IgG is the most common and extensively used clinical cancer biomarkers. We present an IgG (=immunoglobulin) electrochemical immunosensor using a newly synthesized redox-active ferrocenyl dendrimer of generation 2 (G2Fc) as glassy carbon electrode material for immobilizing the antibody. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrodes was assessed in both aqueous and non-aqueous media using varying scan rates to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The potential shift was found to be higher in an aqueous electrolyte due to presence of more H-bond which reduced the electrostatic attraction within the amido groups of the dendrimers. The cyclic voltammetric studies of the G2Fc-modified GCE in 0.1 M PBS solution of pH 7.2 showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks. The peak current decreased significantly with the immobilization of the anti-goat IgG. After the immunosensor is blocked with BSA, a further decrease in the peak current was observed due to the attachment of the protein BSA to the immunosensor. A significant decrease in the current signal of the BSA/anti-IgG/G2Fc/GCE was observed upon immobilizing IgG which may be due to the formation of immune-conjugates that blocks the tunneling of mass and electron transfer. The current signal was found to be directly related to the amount of IgG captured on the electrode surface. With increase in the concentration of IgG, there is a formation of an increasing amount of immune-conjugates that decreased the peak current. The incubation time and concentration of the antibody was optimized for better analytical performance of the immunosensor. The developed amperometric immunosensor is sensitive to IgG concentration as low as 2 ng/mL. Tailoring of redox-active dendrimers provides enhanced electroactivity to the system and enlarges the sensor surface for binding the antibodies. It may be assumed that both electron transfer and diffusion contribute to the signal transformation between the dendrimers and the antibody.

Keywords: ferrocenyl dendrimers, electrochemical immunosensors, immunoglobulin, amperometry

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24 Study of the Efficacy of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Alone or Combined with Praziquantel as Chemotherapy for Mice Schistosomiasis mansoni

Authors: Alyaa Ahmed Farid, Aida Ismail, Ibrahim Rabia, Azza Fahmy, Azza El Amir

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This study was designed for assessment of 3 types of Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) fluromethylketone (FMK), vinyl sulfone (VS) and sodium nitro prussid (SNP), to define which of them is the best? The experiments aimed to define the protective power of each inhibitor alone or combined with PZQ for curing S. mansoni infection in mice. In vitro, treated S. mansoni adult worms recorded a mortality rate after 1 hr of exposure to 500 ppm of FMK, VS and SNP as 75, 70 and 60%, while, treated cercaria recorded 75, 60 and 50%, respectively. FMK+PZQ treatment recorded the maximum reduction in worm burden (97.2% at 5 wk PI). VS treatment alone or combined with PZQ increases IgM, total IgG, IgG2 and IgG4 levels. In EM study of worm tegument, while only detachment of spines was observed in PZQ treated group, the completely implanted spines were reported in the degenerated tegument of adult worms in all groups treated with CPIs. Treatment with VS+PZQ increased Igs levels but, its effect was different on worm reduction. So, it is not enough to eliminate the infection and FMK+PZQ considered the antischistosomicidal drug of choice.

Keywords: praziquantel, fluromethylketone, vinyl sulfone, worm burden, immunoglobulin pattern

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23 Investigation on Porcine Follicular Fluid Protein Pattern of Medium and Large Follicles

Authors: Hatairuk Tungkasen, Somrudee Phetchrid, Suwapat Jaidee, Supinya Yoomak, Chantana Kankamol, Mayuree Pumipaiboon, Mayuva Areekijseree

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Ovaries of reproductive female pigs were obtained from local slaughterhouses in Nakorn Pathom Province, Thailand. Follicular fluid of medium follicle (5-6 diameters) and large follicles (7-8 mm and 10 mm in diameter) were aspirated and collected by sterile technique and analyzed protein pattern. The follicular fluid protein bands were found by SDS-PAGE which has no protein band in difference compared to standard protein band. So we chose protein band molecular weight 50, 62-65, 75-80, 90, 120-160, and >220 kDa were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. The result was found immunoglobulin gamma chain, keratin, transferrin, heat shock protein, and plasminogen precursor, ceruloplasmin, and hemopexin, and protease, respectively. All proteins play important roles in promotion and regulation on growth and development of reproductive cells. The result of this study found many proteins which were useful and important for in vitro oocyte maturation and embryonic development of cell technology in animals. The further study will be use porcine follicular fluid protein of medium and large follicles as feeder cells in in vitro condition to promote oocyte and embryo maturation.

Keywords: follicular fluid protein, LC/MS/MS, porcine oocyte, SDS-PAGE

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22 Histamine Skin Reactivity Increased with Body Mass Index in Korean Children

Authors: Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang

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Objective: Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. Methods: A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7–8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. Results: The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, p < 0.001). This association was confirmed by multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sex, age, parental allergy history, parental smoking status, and allergic sensitization (coefficient B 0.071, 95% confidence interval 0.030–0.112). Conclusions: Skin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test.

Keywords: allergy, body mass index, histamine, skin prick test

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21 Role of Direct Immunofluorescence in Diagnosing Vesiculobullous Lesions

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, Sonal Sharma

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Vesiculobullous diseases are heterogeneous group of dermatological disorders with protean manifestations. The most important technique for the patients with vesiculobullous diseases is conventional histopathology and confirmatory tests like direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). DIF has been used for decades to investigate pathophysiology and in the diagnosis. It detects molecules such as immunoglobulins and complement components. It is done on the perilesional skin. Diagnosis of DIF test depends on features like primary site of the immune deposits, class of immunoglobulin, number of immune deposits and deposition at other sites. The aim of the study is to correlate DIF with clinical and histopathological findings and to analyze the utility of DIF in the diagnosis of these disorders. It is a retrospective descriptive study conducted for 2 years from 2015 to 2017 in Department of Pathology, GTB Hospital on perilesional punch biopsies of vesiculobullous lesions. Biopsies were sent in Michael’s medium. The specimens were washed, frozen and incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) tagged antihuman antibodies IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 & F and were viewed under fluorescent microscope. Out of 401 skin biopsies submitted for DIF, 285 were vesiculobullous diseases, in which the most common was Pemphigus vulgaris (34%) followed by Bullous pemphigoid (21.5%), Dermatitis herpetiformis (16%), Pemphigus foliaceus (11.9%), Linear IgA disease (11.9%), Epidermolysisbullosa (2.39%) and Pemphigus herpetiformis (1.7%). We will be presenting the DIF findings in the all these vesiculobullous diseases. DIF in conjugation with histopathology gives the best diagnostic yield in these lesions. It also helps in the diagnosis whenever there is a clinical and histopathological overlap.

Keywords: antibodies, direct immunofluorescence, pemphigus, vesiculobullous

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20 Glycan Analyzer: Software to Annotate Glycan Structures from Exoglycosidase Experiments

Authors: Ian Walsh, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Christopher H. Taron, Pauline M. Rudd

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Glycoproteins and their covalently bonded glycans play critical roles in the immune system, cell communication, disease and disease prognosis. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry is conventionally used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise glycan structures in a given sample. Exoglycosidases are enzymes that catalyze sequential removal of monosaccharides from the non-reducing end of glycans. They naturally have specificity for a particular type of sugar, its stereochemistry (α or β anomer) and its position of attachment to an adjacent sugar on the glycan. Thus, monitoring the peak movements (both in the UPLC and MS1) after application of exoglycosidases provides a unique and effective way to annotate sugars with high detail - i.e. differentiating positional and linkage isomers. Manual annotation of an exoglycosidase experiment is difficult and time consuming. As such, with increasing sample complexity and the number of exoglycosidases, the analysis could result in manually interpreting hundreds of peak movements. Recently, we have implemented pattern recognition software for automated interpretation of UPLC-MS1 exoglycosidase digestions. In this work, we explain the software, indicate how much time it will save and provide example usage showing the annotation of positional and linkage isomers in Immunoglobulin G, apolipoprotein J, and simple glycan standards.

Keywords: bioinformatics, automated glycan assignment, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry

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19 Avidity and IgE versus IgG and IgM in Diagnosis of Maternal Toxoplasmosis

Authors: Ghada A. Gamea, Nabila A. Yaseen, Ahmed A. Othman, Ahmed S. Tawfik

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Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious complications in pregnant women, leading to abortion, stillbirth, and congenital anomalies in the fetus. Definitive diagnosis of T. gondii acute infection is therefore critical for the clinical management of a mother and her fetus. This study was conducted on 250 pregnant females in the first trimester who were inpatients or outpatients at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at Tanta University Hospital. Screening of the selected females was done for the detection of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM), and all subjects were submitted to history taking through a questionnaire including personal data, risk factors for Toxoplasma, complaint and history of the present illness. Thirty-eight samples, including 18 IgM +ve and 20 IgM-ve cases were further investigated by the avidity and IgE ELISA tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was (42.8%) based on the presence of IgG antibodies in their sera. Contact with cats and consumption of raw or undercooked meat are important risk factors that were associated with toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. By serology, it could be observed that in the IgM +ve group, only one case (5.6%) showed an acute pattern by using the avidity test, though 10 (55.6%) cases were found to be acute by the IgE assay. On the other hand, in the IgM –ve group, 3 (15%) showed low avidity, but none of them was positive by using the IgE assay. In conclusion, there is no single serological test that can be used to confirm whether T. gondii infection is recent or was acquired in the distant past. A panel of tests for detection of toxoplasmosis will certainly have higher discriminatory power than any test alone.

Keywords: diagnosis, serology, seroprevalence, toxoplasmosis

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18 Effect of Oral Immonoglobulin (IgY) Ingestion on Post Exercise Muscle Soreness and Muscle Damage Markers in Females

Authors: Bert H. Jacobson, Taylor Monaghan, John Sellers

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Intense resistance-type activity generally elicits delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in individuals unaccustomed to such action. DOMS is a combination of contractile tissue microtrauma, osmotic pressure changes, alteration calcium regulation, and inflammation. Elevated muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of striated muscle damage. Avian immunoglobulin (IgY) mediates inflammation and may thereby reduce post-exercise DOMS. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral IgY and placebo (Pl) on CK, serum relevels, and perceived pain following induced DOMS. Methods: Healthy college-aged females (N=16) were randomly divided into an experimental group (IgY) and a control group (PL). CK serum levels were recorded followed by 14 days of supplementation of either IgY or Pl at the following doses: days 1-2 =4.5 g, days 3-5 =9.0 g, and days 6-14 =13.5 g. Following the 14 d, lower limb DOMS was induced using two methods of resistance training. After 48 hours, subjects reported for a second blood draw. Results: One-way ANOVA resulted in the IgY group posting significantly less (p < 0.05) serum CK than the PL group. Furthermore, the IgY group experienced significantly less post-test perceived soreness than the Pl group. Conclusion: IgY supplementation lessens muscle CK levels and perceived muscle soreness following exercise, possibly due to an anti-inflammatory effect. It was suggested that IgY may serve as a buffer for DOMS thereby allowing the participant to continue vigorous exercise without discomfort.

Keywords: muscle, soreness, damage, serum

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17 Comparison of Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV Infected Patients

Authors: Berredjem Hajira, Benlaifa Meriem, Becheker Imene, Bardi Rafika, Djebar Med Reda

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Recent acquired or reactivation T.gondii infection is a serious complication in HIV patients. Classical serological diagnosis relies on the detection of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin ; however, serology may be unreliable in HIV immunodeficient patients who fail to produce significant titers of specific antibodies. PCR assays allow a rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection. In this study, we compared the value of the PCR for diagnosing active toxoplasmosis in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from HIV patients. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies IgG and IgM titers were determined by ELISA. In parallel, nested PCR targeting B1 gene and conventional PCR-ELISA targeting P30 gene were used to detect T. gondii DNA in 25 blood samples and 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients in whom toxoplasmic encephalitis was confirmed by clinical investigations. A total of 15 negative controls were used. Serology did not contribute to confirm toxoplasmic infection, as IgG and IgM titers decreased early. Only 8 out 25 blood samples and 5 out 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples PCRs yielded a positive result. 5 patients with confirmed toxoplasmosis had positive PCR results in either blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. However, conventional nested B1 PCR gave best results than the P30 gene one for the detection of T.gondii DNA in both samples. All samples from control patients were negative. This study demonstrates the unusefulness of the serological tests and the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in HIV patients.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, HIV, Toxoplasmosis, PCR

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16 Level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

Authors: Youjeong Hwang

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Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promotes B-cell development, immunoglobulin formation, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, then regulate the immune response and inflammation. As IGF-I and their receptor also exist in the periodontal tissue, they may affect the immune response caused by periodontal pathogens in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients. The function of IGF is regulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP-3 is known to most abundant in plasma. The aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in AgP patients and to find out their association. Methods: Nine patients with AgP (test group) and nine healthy subjects (control group) were included in this study. None of the subjects had a history of systemic disease, smoking or steroids medication. GCF samples were collected by microcapillary pipettes and plasma samples were obtained by venipuncture. Probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Samples were assayed for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels using ELISA. Results: Mean IGF-I level in GCF was higher in the test group than control. Mean IGF-I level in plasma and IGFBP-3 level in GCF and plasma in control group were higher than that of the test group. However, there was no statistical significance (p > 0.05). The mean level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in GCF was lower than those in plasma. Mean IGF-I level in plasma showed a negative correlation with PD and CAL (p < 0.05) in both groups. The levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in GCF seemed to be negatively correlated with BOP in the test group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The difference in the level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 between AgP and healthy subjects was not significant. Further studies that explain the mechanism of the protective role of IGF-I with more samples are needed.

Keywords: aggressive periodontitis, pathogenesis, insulin-like growth factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein

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